Lesson 15 (Beginner 1A L7)

The 7th lesson of the term. This lesson was where I paid my fees for the next term (another 8 lessons). I got the reminder and invoice on the 6th lesson. The final lesson will be 2 weeks from now, because of Chinese New Year next week.

I did some calculations. If I intend to continue until I finish the intermediate syllabus, it will easily be another 2 and a half years at minimum. The estimate is 1 year for beginner, and 1.5 years for intermediate. I've just about finished only the first set of beginner classes.

There are 52 weeks in a year, and 8 lessons a term. Let's say there are 6 terms in a year. (Only 48 weeks, because of public holidays and Christmas break and other such things, like the teacher going back to Korea.) That's about $2000 a year for lessons. I get $500/year from my company to offset for courses. $1500/year.

The hourly cost is $20/hour. $30/lesson. It's okay. I guess I could get around that rate on italki too if I bothered.

German classes are more expensive, both online and if I went to Goethe Institut. Lessons are Goethe are much more expensive. This is why I don't go for classes there even though it is within walking distance from where I live.

But I also kind of like having a class.

I'm only thinking about money because one of my friends is probably not continuing the lessons because of money. I don't want to talk about it in this post, since this should be about the lesson. But I might make another separate post about it, depending on what happens.

There were only 5 of us in the class for this lesson, as 2 of the other students couldn't make it. I prefer it when the class is a bit smaller as I'm always... somewhat afraid of speaking in a big group.

We had another student join on the Christmas celebration lesson (she didn't attend this lesson), and that was also the week that one of the students stopped coming. I'm not sure what happened: if he quit, or transferred to another class.

Because of where I sat, and due to the odd number of students, for one of the speaking exercises I ended up doing it with the teacher. We finished it in record time. It was awkward. I should consider carefully before sitting in that seat again. (We changed classrooms this week, which is why I'd not been in this position before, though I know it sometimes happens, as I'd always sit somewhere further back.)


Recall this first rule from last week:

1. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ N์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”.

This is used for asking questions and making statements about the place where the speaker is located.

You would say something like "์—ฌ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ Times Square์ด์—์š”."* if you were talking to someone and walking down Times Square. Translated, it means "This is Times Square."

It doesn't have to be a place that is physically in sight, as you can use ๊ฑฐ๊ธฐ (there) to indicate a place that was previously mentioned that is out of sight.

There is also ์ €๊ธฐ for a place that's within sight of both the speaker and listener, but relatively far away from their current location.

*I am not sure if the correct way is to use ์ด์—์š” or ์˜ˆ์š”, but I originally opted for the latter because foreign words don't technically have Batchim. I'm unsure of the convention. However, the truth is, if you are speaking, once you speak fast enough, they both sound the same anyway.

Edit (7 Mar): The other way of looking at it (which I learnt from How To Study Korean) is to see if the word ends with a vowel or consonant. "Square" is /skwษ›ษ™(r)/ so... I guess either would work in this weird case, but if it's a consonant like /skwษ›ษ™/ then it should be ์ด์—์š”, so I've updated the sentence to use ์ด์—์š” instead of ์˜ˆ์š”.

These are the 2 new rules covered in this week's lesson.

2. N์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”/์—†์–ด์š”.

This is also for indicating location, but this is used to express where something or someone is (or is not) located.

This is actually very unnatural, since when you first encounter ์žˆ์–ด์š”/์—†์–ด์š”, you learnt that they meant that [someone] has/does not have something, as in the sentence N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”.

The natual tendency of the English speaker, then, is to associate "์žˆ์–ด์š”" with the verb "have". After all, ์ด/๊ฐ€ is a particle, and it's thus far been perfectly sensible for particles not to change a verb's meaning.

(Now to be fair, I don't actually think this is even a correct statement to make, but that's one possible way to view what's going on, as a kind of simplication. It's perhaps more correct to say that it's simply a verb which has multiple meanings, and for certain meanings, it will take certain particles. This is simply a result of the function of the noun in that sentence. After all, the particle indicates what the noun does in the sentence. It then becomes natural to associate certain meanings of the verb to particular particles.)

The teacher said that in the construction N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”, "์ด/๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”" is equivalent to the Chinese ๆœ‰ (have). But "์— ์žˆ์–ด์š” " from N์— ์žˆ์–ด์š” is equivalent to Chinese ๅœจ (at).

I think that's already somewhat clearer than in English, but I found it even clearer if you think about Japanese and the equivalent ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™(arimasu). Now, I didn't remember this for Japanese, apart from the fact that ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™ means "to have" in the most basic sentences that I'd learnt before.

Over dinner last night, I casually asked my dad (who is learning Japanese rather casually on Duolingo and Memrise) how you would indicate location in Japanese. He told me it was with the particle ใง and then the sentence ends with ใ‚ใ‚Šใพใ™. Interesting...

While typing that out, my computer suggested the Kanji as well, and it turns out that the verb ใ‚ใ‚‹ (aru, the infinitive form) can also be written as ๆœ‰ใ‚‹ or ๅœจใ‚‹, though apparently it's not that common as simply using ใ‚ใ‚‹. (Sorry that it's the French version of this page that mentions this, not the English one...)

So did the two words originally (as they were in Chinese) somehow combine to one that sounds the same and are henceforth written the same in both Korean and Japanese?

I digress.

Let's talk about using N์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”/์—†์–ด์š” to form sentences.

To say that something (N1) is found at a place (N2), you would use: N1์ด/๊ฐ€ N2์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. N2 is a place, but N1 can be a person, a place (e.g. a building), a thing...

To say the opposite, that is, that N1 is not found in N2, you would use: N1์ด/๊ฐ€ N2์— ์—†์–ด์š”.

Using ์ด/๊ฐ€ is based on whether N1 has batchim or not.


  1. ๋งˆ๋ฆฌ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋„์„œ๊ด€์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Mary is in the library.)
  2. ๋ฐฑํ™”์ ์ด ๋ช…๋™์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The department store is in Myeongdong.)
    • Myeongdong is a famous shopping district in Seoul which I did not know about - I have not been to Korea in over 10 years and I don't really keep up on the cultural aspects, unfortunately. I know I should pay more attention to culture when I study a language, but this seems to be my style more often than not. This is another digression, but:
      • I started learning French when I didn't even know on the first lesson that "bon voyage" was French!
      • When I learnt Japanese in high school, I only knew bits and pieces from my prior trips and that I liked the food. That's why I gave it up a year later... and it was a pity that I discovered manga 2 years after that. I really should learn Japanese again.
  3. ์ฑ…์ด ๋ฐฉ์— ์—†์–ด์š”. (The book is not in the bag.)
  4. ์ค„๋ฆฌ์•™์ด ๊ต์‹ค์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Julian is in the school.)
    • The emphasis here is on "in the school", and is more suited to answer the question ์ค„๋ฆฌ์•™๋Š” ์–ด๋””์—์„ธ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? ("Where is Julian?")
  5. ๊ต์‹ค์— ์ค„๋ฆฌ์•™์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Julian is in the school.)
    • The emphasis here is on Julian being in the school, and is more suited to answer the question "Who is in the school?"
  6. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๋‚จ์‚ฐ์ด์—์š”. ๋‚จ์‚ฐ์—๋Š” ์„œ์šธํƒ€์›Œ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (This is Namsan. N Seoul Tower is in Namsan.)
    • The first sentence implies that both the speaker and listener are in Namsan when it is being said.
    • The second sentence's particle ๋Š” is to indicate a topic (๋‚จ์‚ฐ) that has previously been mentioned.
    • Otherwise, it is not necessary.
    • This is a perfectly grammatical sentence: ๋‚จ์‚ฐ์— ์„œ์šธํƒ€์›Œ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (N Seoul Tower is in Namsan.)

3. N์— ๊ฐ€์š”/์™€์š”.

This is used to indicate when someone is going (or coming) to a place.

You use N์— ๊ฐ€์š” to say that someone is going to a place. N์— ์™€์š” is used to indicate that someone is coming to a place (where the speaker is at).

The dictionary forms of the verbs are ๊ฐ€๋‹ค (to go) and ์˜ค๋‹ค (to come) respectively.


  1. ๋งˆํ‹ด ์”จ๋Š” ๋ณ‘์›์— ๊ฐ€์š”. (Martin is going to the hospital.)
  2. ์˜ค๋Š˜ ํ•˜๊ต์— ์™€์š”? (Are you coming to school today?)
    • The person asking the question is in in the school.
    • A possible answer would be: ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, (ํ•˜๊ต์—) ์•ˆ ๊ฐ€์š”. (No, I'm not going [to school].)
    • Notice that the person who's responding uses the verb ๊ฐ€์š” ("go") instead, because he or she is not physically in the school.
    • In Korean, you must always use ๊ฐ€์š” ("go") when referring to a place that you are not physically at.
    • In English, this distinction is supposed to exist (I guess?) but sometimes informally, we would say "Are you coming?" or something along those lines, even when we aren't at the destination yet.


Ask these two questions with a partner, and take turns answering.

  1. ์–ด๋””์— ๊ฐ€์š”? (Where are you going?)
    • ์นดํŽ˜์— ๊ฐ€์š”. (I'm going to the cafรฉ.)
  2. ๊ฑฐ๊ธฐ ์—์„œ ๋ญ ํ•ด์š”? (What are you going to do there?)
    • ์นดํ”ผ๋ฅผ ๋งˆ์…”์š”. (I'm drinking coffee.)
    • ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”. (I'm meeting a friend.)


  • ์— is used to indicate a location, such as where something is, or where someone is going or coming from, as learnt in rules 2 & 3 (this lesson).
    • Example: ์œ ์ง„ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์ฑ…๋ฐฉ์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Yujin is at the bookshop.)
  • ์—์„œ is used with an action, to indicate that an action is taking place at a given location (rule 1, last lesson).
    • More specifically, that the subject of the sentence is performing the action at a given location.
    • Example: (์œ ์ง„ ์”จ๋Š”) ์ฑ…๋ฐฉ์—์„œ ์ฑ…์„ ์‚ฌ์š”. (Yujin is buying a book at the bookshop.)


Korean English
์•Œ๋‹ค to know
์ฐป์ง‘ teahouse


Mistakes I made in class during this lesson:

  1. I forgot that the verb ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๋‹ค ("to learn") needs a noun while doing one of the exercises (written) in-class.
    • Kind of silly, considering that it's pretty much the same in English (and German, and French...), no?
  2. I mistook the picture on the pharmacy (์•ฝ๊ตญ) for a rice bowl and thought the building was a restaurant (์‹๋‹น).

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