October 20, 2021•744 words
We started with Quizlet review. It was a real review, where each of us took turns to translate into Korean the words from the chapter 14 Quizlet word set. I had revised that morning, but it was still hard. I am very far behind on Anki, so I have not seen the new cards outside of the Quizlet review that I did.
Then, we finished off the rest of the handout, which had the last three grammar points for the chapter.
For the textbook, we got as far as the Listening section. Reading and Writing is for homework.
2. A/V-았을/었을/했을 때
This is used to indicate a point in time when something took place or existed in the past.
It is important to note that this form is used for a past and completed action.
|ㅏ,ㅗ O + -았을 때||ㅏ,ㅗ X + -었을 때||하다 + -했을 때|
|보다 → 봤을 때||어리다 → 어렸을 때||시작하다 → 시작했을 때|
|앉다 → 앉았을 때||젊다 → 젊었을 때||반말하다 → 반말했을 때|
- 한국어 공부를 처음 시작했을 때 좀 어려웠어요.
- 밥을 다 먹었을 때 친구가 왔어요.
- 젊었을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.
때 (“when”) should be familiar from A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때.
In some cases, there isn’t any difference when using A/V-(으)ㄹ 때 instead of A/V-았을/었을/했을 때. The third sentence above would not have the meaning changed if you wrote 젊을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.
Both can be used to express something that occurred during a given time period.
However, in other cases, there is a difference:
- 집에 갈 때 비가 왔어요.
- This means that while I was on the way home, it started to rain.
- I would need an umbrella.
- 집에 갔을 때 비가 왔어요.
- It only started to rain after I was home.
- I do not need an umbrella.
A/V-았을/었을/했을 때 is used especially to refer to the point in time just after you have completed the action.
3. V-아도/어도/해도 되다
This is used to ask for permission (if it is a question) or to give permission to do something.
It is the same as “may ~” or ”can ~” (not whether someone has the ability to do something—that is V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다) in English.
|ㅏ,ㅗ O||ㅏ,ㅗ X||하다|
|보다 → 보도 되다||마시다→ 마셔도 되다||구경하다 → 구경해도 되다|
- 사직을 찍어도 돼요?
- 카도로 내도 돼요.
- 이거 먹어도 돼요? 네, 드세요.
Instead of using 돼요, it is also possible to use 괜찮아요: 가도 괜찮아요.
The negation of this form means that it is okay not to do something, and not that it is not okay to do something.
- 가도 돼요. (You may go.)
- 안 가도 돼요. (You don’t have to go.)
For how to say that something is not allowed, see the next grammar point.
4. V-(으)면 안 되다
This is used to express denying permission or approval for an action.
|받침 O||받침 X, ㄹ|
|먹다→ 먹으면 안 되다||가다 → 가면 안 되다|
- 극장에서 전화하면 안 돼요.
- 박물관에서 사진을 찍으시면 안 돼요.
- 아침 8시까지 학교에 안가면 안 돼요.
- = 아침 8시까지 학교에 꼭 가야 돼요.
As seen from the last sentence, the negation of this form (resulting in a double negative) has the same meaning as V-아야/어야/해야 되다.
We have also previously learnt V-(으)면 되다, which was used to express that something is permissible.
|부서||department||같은 부서에서 일다|
|봉사 활동을 하다||to do volunteer work|
|시험에서 떨어지다||to fail a test|
|원고||script||발표할 때 원고를 보면서 하면 안 돼요? 네, 다 외워서 해야 돼요.|
|남기다||to leave||약이 너무 쓴데 조금만 남기면 안 돼요?|
- Rest of Chapter 14 Worksheet
- Chapter 14 Reading & Writing
- Students: 5 out of 6 (the newest student was sick)
- Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated