notes on things I'm learning. currently: Korean

Lesson 107 (Pre-Advance Lesson 5)

This post is a short one, because there’s no new grammar points (all were covered the previous lesson). What we did was mostly a review of those points by doing the activities in the textbook.

We started with Quizlet, 2 rounds. I had checked after that lesson but there was no new deck. However, it was added by some point. (There was a 3 week break between Lesson 106 and Lesson 107, just that I procrastinated on that post until Lesson 107, and then a week after that.)

We finished up the handout (which I had thought was part of the homework for some reason), and then it was going through the textbook. We got up to just before Speaking 2.


Korean English Notes
프로젝트팀 project team
반친구 classmate
학기 semester, term 學期
휴식 break, rest 休息. 휴식하다 = to take a rest, break
계산원 cashier
홈스테이를 하다 to stay with a local family home stay


  • Chapter 18 Reading & Writing
    • I… just saw the topic and… it makes me want to give up entirely. “The most memoriable person you have met in Korea.”—when I have only been there twice and the last trip was > 10 years ago.
  • Textbook p. 210, writing sentences about yourself using 서술체 and send via KakaoTalk to the teacher for our classmates to guess.
    • I totally forgot about this, I have not seen anything in the chat so I guess maybe during the lesson, which only makes it 10x worse. And speaking of, I have not gotten back the homework I submitted last week before the lesson (which I had 3 weeks to do…). Maybe the teacher had too much work because everyone submitted at the last minute?


  • Students: 9 out of 11 (2 from my original class, the guy and the slightly older lady, were not around)
  • Breakout room activities: Three, random pairs

Lesson 106 (Pre-Advance Lesson 4)

Super long overdue post from last year. I decided I better get this in before my next lesson (108). Fortunately, the next lesson does not have much new content but was a lot of revision out of the textbook. Which was necessary given the 3 weeks break between lessons 106 and 107.

Started with the Self Check for Chapter 17 before starting on Chapter 18. Covered all 3 grammar points for the chapter. The third is the most important, in fact, the main grammatical concept that we will see again in this level (pre-advance, or if you follow the textbook, then it's the level 3 textbook).


1. V-(으)ㄴ 지

In the handout, it was written as V-(으)ㄴ 지 (기간)이/가 되다.

This is used to indicate how much time has passed after something is done.

받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄴ 지 받침 O + -은 지
배우다 → 배운 지 먹다 → 먹은 지


    • 가: 수영한 지 얼마나 됐어요? (How long has it been since you swam?)
    • 나: 얼마 안 됐어요. (Not long ago.)
  1. 고향에 간 지 오래 됐어요. (It has been a long time since I went to my hometown.)
  2. 한국에 산 지 2년이 됐어요. (It has been 2 years since I started to live in Korea.)


What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences?

  1. 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.
  2. 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.

You can translate the first as: “I have not gone on vacation for 2 years.”

The second can mean (as per the examples earlier): “It has been 2 years since I went on vacation.”

The second sentence in this case also refers to your last trip; it was 2 years ago. Effectively, this has the same meaning as the first sentence.

However, it is also possible for the second sentence to mean: “It has been 2 years since I started travelling (and I am still travelling).”

Hence, it is actually clearer if you want to convey the first meaning to use the negative form: 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.

The third example sentence (“한국에 산 지 2년이 됐어요.”) also has this ambiguity. It could mean that you lived in Korea since 2 years ago and are still living there, or you last lived there 2 years ago. If you mean the latter, probably it would be clearer to use the negative form.

2. N(이)나 (2)

We first saw N(이)나 with the meaning of “or”.

When ‘(이)나’ is used with numbers or quantities, it expresses that the number or amount is larger than what the speaker considers to be typical.

This is something that is subjective and depends on the speaker. Someone might add N(이)나 for a quantity that someone else finds normal and would not add N(이)나.

This is another one of those grammars that that have no special translation in English.

받침 X + -나 받침 O + -이나
네 마리 → 네 마리 열 번 → 열 번이나


  1. 제 친구는 고양이를 네 마리 키워요. (My friend raises 4 cats!)
  2. 동생이 30분이나 늦었어요. (My brother was late for 30 minutes!)
  3. 이 책은 열 번이나 봤어요. (He read this book 10 times!)

3. A-다, V-ㄴ다/는다, N(이)다

This form is the sentence ending form for written language: 서술체.

These forms are used in newspapers or journals to express objective statements. It is also used when writing dairies or reports to describe the situation and events objectively.

This is very important grammar point for SNU 3, the way A-(으)ㄴ, V-는, and N인 is very important for SNU 2. Meaning, it will appear in a lot of the grammar that will be covered in level 3, the way A-(으)ㄴ, V-는, and N인 have appeared in a variety of grammar points (which I am not going to link here).

받침 X 받침 O
A (Present) -다 (basic form) 크다 → 크 작다 → 작
A (Past) -았/었다 크다 → 컸다 작다 → 작았다
V (Present) -는/ㄴ다 가다 → 간다 먹다 → 먹은다
V (Past) -았/었다 가다 → 갔다 먹다 → 먹었다
V (Future) -(으)ㄹ 것이다 가다 → 갈 것이다 먹다 → 먹을 것이다
N (Present) (이)다 친구 → 친구 선생님 → 선생님이다
N (Past) 였다/이었다 친구 → 친구였다 선생님 → 선생님이었다


  1. 오늘은 친구들과 함께 시내에 갔다. (Today, I went with my friends to the city.)
  2. 휴일이라서 길이 많이 복잡하. (The road is congested because it's a holiday.)
  3. 나는 학생이다. (I am a student.)

Usage Notes

  1. 않다: When it follows a verb, it is conjugated as a verb (-지 않는다), but when it follows an adjective, it is conjugated as an adjective (-지 않다).
  2. -고 싶다, 필요하다, 같다, 좋다, and 싫다 are adjectives. 있다/없다 also are considered adjectives as they describe a state. 좋아하다, 싫어하다, 알다, 모르다 are verbs.
  3. The humble form of the first person pronoun is not used. 나/우리 are used in place of 저/저회 to express I/we.
  4. Questions in the narrative form are rare, but to write a question in the narrative form, you use A-은/ㄴ 가?, V-는가?, N인가?


Korean English Notes
감정 emotions
계절의 변화 changes of seasons
N이/가 그립다 to miss (adj.) 그립다 can be used for places (e.g. your hometown), things (e.g. food), and people. 보고 싶다 is more for missing, say, people (and that you want to see them). It would be strange to use 보고 싶다 for things.
후회가 되다 to feel regret
아쉽다 to feel sorry
기억에 남다 to remain in memory
정(이) 들다 to become emotionally attached
눈물을 흘리다 to shed tears 흘리다 can be used also for other things, e.g. 땀을 흘리다, 콧물을 흘리다
꽃이 피다 to have flowers bloom
바람이 불다 to have the wind blow
건조하다 to be dry
습도가 높다 to have high humidity
장마 rainy season
장마가 시작되다 to have the start of the rainy season 6월~7월 (June to July) in Kore
태풍이 오다 to have a typhoon come 태풍이 불다 can be used as well, since it is wind.
단풍이 들다 to have leaves change colour
나뭇잎이 떨어지다 to have leaves fall [나문닙]. 나뭇잎 = 나무 (tree) + 잎 (leaf)
쌀쌀하다 to be chilly
기온이 영화로 내려가다 to have temperature drop below zero
열하십도 -10 degrees
얼음이 얼다 to freeze
눈이 내리다 to have snow fall 오다 also works, as we saw before.
시간이 지나가다 time goes by
내내 all the time 이 사람 내내 + V. Not quite sure of the difference between this and 항상 (always)
사정이 있다 to have a reason
담그다 to soak 담가요
김치를 담그다 to make kimchi Need to soak the cabbage.
대하다 to treat As in, to treat like family, or as a sister. 동생처럼 대하다, 편하게 대해다
실력이 늘다 to improve oneself OO 실력이 늘다
배가 부르다 to have a full stomach
말없이 without saying anything 동생이 말없이 ... 하고 있어요.
넘다 to cross, exceed, go over 저는 결혼한 지 7년이 넘었어요. = I have been married for over 7 years.
까먹다 to forget 잊어버리다 is one of the meanings. 잘 까먹다 means to forget easily. 내용이 까먹었어요. 그 책을 읽은 지 3년이 넘었어요.
성공적 successful 성공적으로 = successfully
개최하다 to hold, host
경기장 stadium 국립 경기장 = national stadium. 운동장 is also previously used for “stadium”, but Naver dictionary says “sports field”, “playground”, or “track”
관객 audience
방콕 Bangkok
사정이 있다 to have a reason/situation 다음 주에 우리 반 친구들이 같이 여행을 가는데 저는 사정이 있어서 못 가게 됐어요.
마르다 to dry


  • Chapter 18 Worksheet
  • Handout p. 9 (but there is also a p. 10, the last page. I did both.)
    • I checked the message she sent on KakaoTalk, it doesn't mention this at all. I think this is just something she mentioned in class, though there is the possibility I misheard and maybe she meant that we will go through p. 9 next time. Or she meant only the first exercise of p. 9, which is not written, but just speaking practice.
    • In the next lesson, we went through the last 2 pages so… clearly I misheard.
  • Quizlet (but I checked, we do not have access yet for Chapter 18—this was a week after the lesson when I checked, but it was added at some point, which made me realise I have not been getting emails for sets added to the new class…)


  • Students: 11 out of 11
  • Breakout room activities: Just one

Lesson 105 (Pre-Advance Lesson 3)

This lesson does not have a lot to write for the post. It feels strange to have so much speaking activities again and slowing down the pace to what was normal in the past.

My wifi was acting up at the start of this lesson. Fortunately, it was just the wifi and not the internet, and plugging in a LAN cable worked. If not, I kept having things freeze on me every minute at the start of the lesson.

In the textbook, we started with p. 232 which was an activity to describe the picture, serving as a revision for the last grammar point that we covered last week. Then, we did Speaking 2, the activity after that, then the Listening.

Next week, I guess we might do the self-check and then start on the next Chapter. But for the two weeks after that lesson, there will be no lesson due to the Christmas and New Year break. The next lesson after that will be in the new year.

Culture Note

This was the second last thing covered. We did not read the passage. The topic was about preferred colours in traditional costumes.

In Korea, the children wear top (called 저고리) which is multi-coloured. Boys would wear pants while girls would wear a skirt with it.


This is nothing new, but this is the first time the rule is stated in the textbook.

In most cases, when the final consonant ‘ㄴ’ is followed by ‘ㄹ’, ‘ㄴ’ is pronounced as [ㄹ].

We had the closely-related (with ㄹ + ㄴ instead of ㄴ + ㄹ) version covered in Lesson 100, and I noted that I could not find this version. (And today as well, the teacher did mention that the rule applies to the opposite order.)


  1. 한라산 [할라산]
  2. 편리하다 [펼리하다]
  3. 연락처 [열락처] ## Vocabulary
Korean English Notes
책종이 page of a book
접다 to fold
접히다 to be folded 책종이가 접혀 있어요.
달리다 to be hung, to be hooked This is usually hung on a string, where it is not so easily detached, e.g. a kind of doll on a bag. 걸리다 would be hanging something like a picture on the wall, where it can be easily removed. (Note that 달리다 also means “to run”.)
손잡이 handle In this context, it was one of the handles on the subway that someone was holding on to
잡다 to hold 손자이를 잡고 있어요.
열쇠고리 key ring 키체인 and 키링 are also understandable.
점원 clerk, shop assisstant 店員. In the context, it was a waiter. Also can be called 직원 (職員, employee) or 웨이터.
유실물 센터 lost and found (centre) 빈실물 센터
빈실물 lost article
strap, string
추억 memory
소중하다 to be precious
돌려주다 to return
신고 report
돌잔치 first birthday party
무지개 rainbow
색동저고리 multicoloured Korean top 저고리 is a traditional Korean top


  • Textbook Chapter 17 Reading & Writing
  • Textbook Task on p.196 (write the stories for the cards on p. 234 and p.235; p. 233 was a demo in class)


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (Same as last week, turned out that girl was attending a wedding last week, and another this week)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs

Lesson 104 (Pre-Advance Lesson 2)

This lesson, we covered the last two grammar points in Chapter 17.

We started with Quizlet, then covered the textbook, skipping p. 184 (the first grammar point) and going to the second on p. 185.1) Then we did Speaking 1, before going to the handout to cover the grammar points.


3. ‘ㅎ’ 불규칙

Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This applies to some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’. Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This irregular conjugation applies to the following:

  • 빨갛다 (to be red)
  • 파랗다 (to be blue)
  • 노랗다 (to be yellow)
  • 하얗다 (to be white)
  • 까맣다 (to be black)
  • 이렇다 (to be like this)
  • 그렇다 (to be like that)
  • 저렇다 (to be like that)
  • 어떻다 ([to be] how)

It does not apply to: 놓다, 넣다 (both are verbs); 좋다 (adjective, but regular).

Irregular Conjugation Rule

When the adjective is one of the irregular adjectives that have an adjective stem that ends in ‘ㅎ’.

  1. When endings beginning in vowels other than ‘아/어’ are added (usually this is 으), ‘ㅎ’ is dropped.
    • 빨갛다 + -(으)ㄴ → 빨
    • 파랗다 + -(으)니까→ 파라니까
  2. When endings beginning in ‘아/어’ are added, ‘ㅎ’ is dropped and ‘l’ is added.
    • 까맣다 + -아서 → 까마 + ㅣ + 아서 → 까매서
    • 하얗다 + -아요 → 하야 + ㅣ + -아요 → 하얘요
    • 이렇다 + -아요 → 이러 + ㅣ + -요 → 이래요[2]
  3. There is no change when the endings begin with consonants.
    • 노랗다 + -고 → 노랗고
    • 그렇다 + -습니다 → 그렇습니다

4. V-아/어 있다

This is used to indicate a continuing state of a completed action. It is often used with passive verbs. (The formation of passive verbs from their active counterparts is the topic of a future grammar point. For now, we learn the passive forms as they are.)

Previously, we learnt V-고 있다, which is the progressive form. When that form is used, it indicates that the action is in progress. However, for V-아/어 있다, the action is completed, but the state continues.

While it did not occur to me during the lesson (or even the lesson after), I am now wondering about the relationship between this and V-아/어/해 놓다. In both cases, the action is completed, but the state continues.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
앉다 → 앉아 있어요 붙다 → 붙어 있어요 하다 → 해 있어요


  1. 선생님이 서 있어요. (The teacher is standing.)
  2. 학생들이 교실에 앉아 있어요. (The students are sitting in the classroom.)
  3. 불이 켜져 있어요. (The light is on.)
  4. 꽃이 피어 있어요. (The flowers have bloomed.)
  5. 어 있어요. (It is dead.)


Korean English Notes
백설 공주 Snow White
구름 cloud
까매지다 to get suntanned
닫히다 to be closed
쓰이다 to be written
놓이다 to be placed
쌓이다 to be piled up e.g. work, laundry
켜지다 to be turned on
피다 to bloom 꽃이 피어 있어요. The flowers have bloomed. (Note that it is 피어 and not combined as per usual into 펴.)
촛불 candlelight, candle flame 케이크에 촛불이 켜져 있어요.
서랍 drawer


  • Rest of Chapter 17 Worksheet (p. 158–161)
  • Handout p. 11–12
    • 11 was the one we did as the last activity so I did not know if she meant to do page 13 (the last page). Turned out it did not have to be done, but I was not the only one who submitted. We did p. 13 in the next lesson.
  • Quizlet V아/어 있어요 set


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (the girl who went to Kr from my original class was not there)
  • Breakout room activities: First was with one person, last 3 with another

  1. Since I am writing this after the next lesson is over, we also ended up skipping p. 188–189, where the next two grammar points were covered in the textbook. 

Lesson 103 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 1)

This is two weeks overdue.

This was the first lesson at the new timing and the class size effectively. It started with self-intro (as I expected). Seems like even on the other side, most people did not prepare anything. I had a few sentences that I wrote but I ended up not using most of it, but instead kept it simple.

We went through the first two grammar points in Chapter 17, then did textbook for the vocab. It is such a leisurely pace, I am shocked, but even then, I think it is exactly what I need too. I barely got the homework done in time, and this post is obviously late.


1. V-아다/어다 주다

This is used when the subject does something for others.

We have seen something similar with V-아/어 주다.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
사다 → 사다 줘요 빌리다 → 빌려다 줘요 하다 → 해다 줘요

There are some fixed expressions that you would use with this:

  1. (object)을/를 사다 주다 (드리다)
  2. (object)을/를 빌려다 주다 (드리다)
  3. (person)을/를 (place)에/까지 데려다 주다 (모셔다 드리다1)

In brackets are the forms you use to respect the person. 드리다 is used instead of 주다.

What is the difference between 사 주다 and 사다 주다?

  • 사 주다 means that you are asking someone to buy something for you, and they pay for it.
  • 사다 주다 means someone else is someplace else2 (e.g. café) and you request that they help you buy something, but you pay them later for helping you with the purchase.

For 빌려 주다 and 빌려다 주다:

  • 빌려 주다 is to request someone lend you something of theirs; you want to borrow something from them.
  • 빌려다 주다 is a request for someone to help you borrow something (e.g. a book from the library).


  1. 집에 올 때 빵 좀 사다 주세요. (When you come home, please help me buy bread.)
  2. 도서관에 가면 책 좀 빌려다 줄 수 있어요? (If you go to the library, can you help me borrow a book?)
  3. 민수 야, 물 좀 갖다 줄래? 네, 갖다 드릴게요. (Minsu, can you bring me some water? Yes, I’ll get you some.)
  4. 아이를 학교에 데려다 줬어요. (I brought/fetched my child to school.)
  5. 할머니를 댁까지 모셔다 드렸어요. (I brought/fetched grandmother home.)

2. V-(으)ㄹ 뻔하다

This is used to indicate a close call or an action that almost occurred. In most cases, it is used to express the speaker’s relief that the event or action did not happen.

Since it usually describes something in the past, it is often used in the past tense.

It is often used with 하마터면, which means “almost” or “nearly”.

받침 X, ㄹ + ㄹ 뻔했어요 받침 O + 을 뻔했어요
다치다 → 다칠 뻔했어요 죽다 → 죽을 뻔했어요


  1. (하마터면) 버스에서 가방을 놓고 내릴 뻔했어요. (I almost left my bag on the bus.)
  2. 요리하다가 손가락을 다칠 뻔했어요. (I almost hurt my finger while cooking.)
  3. 기차를 놓칠 뻔했는데 타서 다행이에요. (I almost missed the train, so it’s a relief that I managed to get on.)


Korean English Notes
사고가 나다 to have an accident 事故
이 나다 to have a fire break out
고장이 나다 to break down 故障
큰일이 나다 to have a big problem
잃어버리다 to lose sth
떨어뜨리다 to drop sth
부딪히다 to bump into
넘어지다 to fall over
놓치다 to miss
정신이 없다 to be out of one’s senses 精神
열리다 to be open
깜빡 졸다 to nod off
서다 to stand
걸리다 to be hung
하얀색 (흰색) white
까만색 (검은색) black
회색 grey 灰色
빨간색 red
홍색 red Used by older generation, do not use it unless you want people to say that you learnt Korean from a grandmother (할머니).
노란색 yellow
파란색 blue
청색 blue Used by older generation
초록색(녹색 green 草綠色
연두색 yellow-green 軟豆色
주황색 orange 朱黃色
오렌지색 orange alternative to 주황색 that young people use today
분홍색 pink 粉紅色
핑크색 pink alternative to 분홍색 that people use today
보라색 purple
자주색 purple Used by older generation, do not use it unless you.
갈색 brown
하늘색 sky blue
와인색 maroon colour of (red) wine
줄무늬 striped pattern
가로 줄무늬 horizontal striped pattern
세로 줄무늬 vertical striped pattern
체크무늬 checkered pattern
꽃무늬 flowered pattern
물방울무늬 polka dots
하얀색에 파란색 물방울무늬 blue polka dots on a white background
(장소)에 데려다 주다 to fetch (accompany) someone to a place 아이를 학교에 데려다 줬어요.
(장소)에 모셔다 드리다 to fetch (accompany) someone to a place (honorific) 할머니를 병원에 모셔다 드렸어요.
손가락 finger
골목 alley 골목에서 갑자기 차가 나와서 부딪힐 뻔했어요.
놓고 내리다 to leave and alight To forget something on some form of transportation. 버스에서 가방을 놓고 내릴 뻔했어요.
떨다 to shiver (due to cold)
마감 deadline 보고서 마감


Realised when checking the homework that I am not in the KakaoTalk group for this new lesson. Not sure if the rest were added.

  • Chapter 17 Worksheet for Grammar points 1–2 (p. 152–157)


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (one from the original class did not attend, no idea who)

  1. Not 데려다 드리다 

  2. The difference in location was not explicitly mentioned in class, but while doing the homework, I searched up more information and I found out that this difference in location is another differentiating factor. V-아다/어다 주다 implies that there is a different location where the action takes place. But it ties in with the examples and fixed expressions. 

Lesson 102 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 8): Intermediate 4 Test

Test week. Wow, is this only Lesson 8? This is insane, it is twice the usual speed. Normally each level has 2 terms of 8 lessons each.

Next week, we have lesson at the new timing, joining another class. Not sure if the meeting ID will change. Also, I hope I receive the materials this week because I don’t have any materials for the upcoming chapters. I realised that the teacher did not mark or return the homework I sent the previous week just before class. She did mark the one I did this past week, though. (I also discovered while revising that I forgot to save one of the worksheets that she marked, and so the file is now gone…)

What I think is worth mentioning about the test:


We started with this and I was the last one to join because somehow I messed up, and the first time I tried to join, I got the message that the meeting ID was invalid. I think I might have somehow pressed backspace or something, because I selected the meeting from the history in the dropdown, so it is not as though I typed it.

Like the last test (Intermediate 2), it was not once through all questions, and then a second time, but we heard each question twice before moving on to the next.

I thought the speed of speech was generally okay. But still, I strugged at portions. There were a few I were uncertain about. I also did not have time to read any of the more wordy options later on in advance before the test started.

My printer had no more red ink so the printed test paper… well, I had some issues looking at the image for listening, which the first two questions had. Fortunately, the teacher (as usual) did screen share that page, so I had that to refer to.


The oral component was given on the second page. In the past, we have never been shown the oral questions in advance.

It is somewhat similar to before, the first section was on reading some sentences (with the notable part bolded), and then some questions to talk about and requirement to use the grammar we learnt.

I noticed the teacher skipped asking me one question, which was about my experiences in Korea. Maybe she remembered that I haven’t been there in years. (More than 10 years, actually.)

I did probably as well (badly) I usually do. I think this time the reading of the sentences was easier and I was okay with it. They were also short, so those were fine.

It was a bit scary to me that she repeated what I said.


The topic this time was not one of the writing activities, but it was also based on something that was in the textbook: To write about your important life events. I really struggled to cough out 300 words (the limit is 300–400) in around 30 minutes. I actually think that I did not meet the word limit; the paper does have a word count, and while I exceeded the line for the 300 word mark, due to the blank spaces, I do not think I might have met the word limit. I did make sure to squeeze in the required grammar.


  • Students: 5 out of 5

Lesson 101 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 7)

This will be a short post. Nothing new to cover today as it was a pure revision lesson. We even ended early, and the teacher said we will be given a discount on the next invoice (which will be sometime next year, since we—or at least I—just paid for a new term this past week, which lasts until the end of January).

We covered the Self-Check section in the textbook.

Next, we covered the first page of the revision sheet (which is vocab), and did Quizlet Live on the word sets. For Chapters 13 and 14, we did 2 rounds (one was EN to KR and the other KR to EN), while for Chapters 15 and 15 we only did 1 round. If you ask me which was it, I… really cannot remember, even after just playing that round, I find it hard to recall.

Then we covered the grammar revision (second page of the revision sheet).

Finally, there was the Pattern Practice section, also part of the revision sheet. We covered the first two sections in the main session, but then we were supposed to do 2 questions from each of the subsequent sections in the breakout room and alternate between the person asking and responding (as a pair). As my room had 3 people, we just took turns even though it was just 2 questions. Each section has 4 questions, so the rest of that is homework.

Next week is the test, and the following week we will be joining another class at a different timeslot. And that also starts the next level, which is Pre-Advance. While there are two more chapters in the 2B book, they are covered under the Pre-Advance level. The teacher mentioned that there are some important grammar inside these last two chapters that would be important to know before we start on the 3A book.


  • Rest of Pattern Practice exercises
  • Whatever other Homework debts (I have one, the last writing assignment)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
    • I did not catch everything the teacher said in Korean, but essentially the newest French student is stopping classes (and seems to be even leaving the country and going back to France)
  • Breakout room activities: One

Lesson 100 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 6)

Test is in two weeks. We finished Chapter 16 this lesson, and next lesson will be revision. After the test, the lesson time will change, which means we are merging with the other class. I hope the class does not end up becoming too big…

We started this lesson with Quizlet Live. This was really fortunate for me (because that means I can guess as it is MCQ) rather than having to answer individually. Of course this was the word deck (this is never done with the sentence deck). The winner was not surprising; it was first the older lady (cos she actually studies), then later when the other newer girl (not the newest) joined the class, then she finished first. Then that other lady got second. I got second and third with some care since I could eliminate some answers.

We finished up with the worksheet (the last grammar point). There was also a review after that of the Quizlet sentence deck, if I recall correctly, mostly to go through the new grammar? I cannot remember.

Anyway, after that, we looked at the textbook, from the beginning. Not everything was covered. We skipped going through the grammar points again, but did some of the activities below. One of the speaking activities we did, I just have this feeling it is going to come out on the test…

We did not do the culture note either, and finished with pronunciation. We did not cover the self-check in class since there wasn’t time. I suspect we might not do it next week but go straight to the revision sheet. If we do have the entire lesson for revision, I wonder if we will be using Quizlet like we did a very long time ago… probably the first or second test I had…


4. A/V-(으)ㄹ 테니까

Apparently, just like how the noun modifiers would be a form that we would see frequently in other grammar forms, we will also be seeing more of 테 in other grammar forms.

This particular grammar is used to indicate a speaker’s strong supposition or intention before giving orders or making a suggestion.

Essentially, it is one of:

  1. -(으)ㄹ 거예요 (supposition that thing will happen) + 그러니까
  2. -(으)ㄹ게요 (strong intention) + 그러니까

And so, usually it is followed by a suggestion, order, or request.

받침 X, ㄹ + ㄹ 테니까 받침 O + 을 테니까
A 크다 → 클 테니까 작다 → 작을 테니까
V 가다 → 갈 테니까 먹다 → 먹을 테니까


  1. 청소를 제가 할 테니까 설거지 좀 해 주세요. (I will clean up, so please do the dishes.)
  2. 주말에는 사람이 많을 테니까 미리 예악하세요. (There will be a lot of people on the weekend, so please book in advance.)
  3. 내가 도와줄 테니까 걱정하지 마. (I will help you, so don’t worry.)


It feels like I just wrote about pronunciation very recently… oh, I actually did in the last post. This just shows how fast we are going.

For Chapter 16, the pronunciation is about what happens when ‘ㄴ’ meets ‘ㄹ’.

When the initial consonant ‘ㄴ’ is preceded by the final consonant ‘ㄹ’, ‘ㄴ’ is pronounced as [ㄹ].

The teacher said it is also the same when the final consonant is ‘ㄴ’ and initial consonant is ‘ㄹ’, like we saw in 연락 [열락]. I tried to search, but I think we learnt this one without it being covered in a pronunciation section in the textbook. (It is in Lesson 58’s vocabulary section.)


  1. 실내 [실래]
  2. 물냉면 [물랭면]
  3. 사진이 잘 나왔네요 [잘라완네요]


Korean English Notes
침구 bedding pillows, blankets… the stuff on your bed (침대)
침구를 정리하다 to make the bed 침구를 정돈하다 as well, and maybe this latter one is more precise (from Naver).
쓰레기통을 비우다 to empty the dustbin 쓰레기통을 비워 놓았어요.
메모 memo (short note) 메모하다 = to jot down, to write a memo. 냉장고에 메모를 붙여 놓았어요. = He stuck a memo on the fridge.
우렁각시 Snail bride (Korean traditional fairy tale) 각시 is an old word for bride. Basically the snail a guy rescued and brought home and forgot about cleans up the house for him, and even prepared food. This is used to describe when someone helps you clean up the house while you are not around. On seeing the clean room upon your return, you exclaim: 우렁각시가 왔다 갔어요!
끓이다 to boil 국을 끓이다 = to boil soup
보여 주다 to show 여권을 보여 줘야 돼요. = You have to show your passport.
(명절) 선물세트 gift set Can buy from the 마트 (mart) to give to others (family?) during the holidays. There is a huge variety, some have Spam (the meat) and olive oil, others have shampoo.
상경하다 to go to Seoul 上京. 언제 (서올에) 상경했어요? = When did you come to Seoul (from your hometown)? Has to do with the fact that Seoul is in the north, and why people usually say 고향에 내려가다 (to go down to the hometown) and 서울에 올라가다 (to go up to Seoul)
재료 material, ingredient 材料
곤란하다 to be difficult; embarrassing, awkward 困難
부탁 request, favour 곤란한 부탁 = difficult request.
부탁을 거절하다 to refuse a request
곡식 crops 곡식을 추수하다
강강술래 traditional Korean circle dance
보름달 full moon
실내 interior, indoor 실내 수영장 is an indoor swimming pool


  • Rest of Chapter 16 Worksheet (last Grammar)
  • Chapter 16 Reading & Writing


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated

Lesson 99 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 5)

We started with the Quizlet sentence deck for Chapter 15, each one taking turns to answer.

We went to the textbook after that to do Speaking 1, then Speaking 2, as well as Listening. We skipped Culture Note, but did go through Pronunciation, but that was not really anything new.

The vocab is all for the new chapter, Chapter 16. I am concerned that a test is coming soon, because the revision sheet is for Chapter 13–16… I don’t think we would skip 2 tests in a row… right?


This is an extension of part of the rule seen back in Lesson 28 to mention the two complex consonants that contain ‘ㅎ’.

When the final consonants ‘ㅎ, ㄶ, ㅀ’ are followed by the initial ‘ㅇ’, [ㅎ] is silent.

  • 넣어요 [너어요]
  • 싫어요 [시러요]
  • 많아져요 [마나저요]

For the last one, I did not get to ask why 져 is [저]. Not sure if I missed something…


1. V-아/어/해 놓다

This is used to indicate that an action is completed and the state of the action is maintained.

It is frequently used to express that something was done in preparation for some future use. For example, say there is an event tomorrow (a party) and you have bought some items for it (cake).

ㅏ,ㅗ O + -아 놓다 ㅏ,ㅗ X + -어 놓다 하다 → -해 놓다
사다 → 사 놓다 끄다 → 꺼 놓다 예매하다 → 예매해 놓다


  1. 비가 왔으니까 창문을 닫아 놓았어요. (It rained so I closed the windows.)
  2. 표를 예메해 놓아야 돼요. (You have to reserve the tickets.)
  3. 밖이 시끄러우니까 문을 열어 놓지 마세요. (Do not open the door as it is noisy outside.)
  4. 음식 냄새가 많이 나서 창문을 열어 놓았어요. (The smell of food is very strong, so I opened the windows.)

Comparing -았/었/했다 with -아/어/해 놓다

  • The regular past tense (V-았/었/했다) focuses on the performance of an action. It is impossible to know whether the result of the action continued following its completion.
  • V-아/어/해 놓다 makes it clear that the resulting state of an action after it has been completed is maintained.

Consider the two sentences:

  • 친구와 이야기하는 동안 라디오를 켰어요. (While speaking with my friend, I turned on the radio.)
    • No way to tell if at this moment, the radio is still on.
  • 친구와 이야기하는 동안 라디오를 켜 놓았어요. (While speaking with my friend, I turned on the radio [and left it on].)

Usage Notes

  1. It is common for ‘-아/어 ’ to be used instead of ‘-아/어 놓아’. This contraction also applies in writing, not just spoken language.
    • 음식 냄새가 많이 나서 창문을 열어 어요.
  2. ‘-아/어 놓아’ is the same as ‘-아/어 두아’.
    • 음식 냄새가 많이 나서 창문을 열어 두었어요.

2. N 대신

This is used to indicate the substitution or replacement of the noun preceding ‘대신’ with something else.

This can be translated as “instead of N” or “on behalf of N”.

받침 X 받침 O
친구 → 친구 대신 밥 → 밥 대신


  1. 소고기가 없으면 (소고기) 대신 닭고기를 넣어도 돼요. (If there is not beef, chicken instead of beef is also fine.)
  2. 친구가 한국어를 잘 못헤서 (친구) 대신 제가 영화표를 예매했어요. (My friend is not so good at Korean, so instead of my friend, I reserved the movie tickets.)
  3. 동생이 아파서 제가 대신 운전했어요. (My younger brother was sick, so I drove instead.)

In the first two sentences, it is possible to omit the noun just before 대신.

In the third sentence, I am replacing my brother, even though the noun just before that is 제 (“I”). That is because the noun that is being replaced has been omitted. Rewriting the third sentence: 동생이 아파서 제가 동생 대신 운전했어요.

In both the first two sentences, it is also possible to place the 대신 behind. The first two examples can also be written as:

  1. 소고기가 없으면 닭고기를 대신 넣어도 돼요.
  2. 친구가 한국어를 잘 못헤서 제가 대신 영화표를 예매했어요.

For that reason, be careful not to assume that the noun that comes immediately before 대신 is necessarily what is being replaced. It can be the noun that is doing the replacing. Read the sentence properly to understand the meaning correctly.

Also, not covered in class, but from looking at the examples, I would hazard a guess and say it is safe to say that if the noun that appear before 대신 has a particle after it, it is most definitely not the noun being replaced, but the one doing the replacing.

3. V-(으)ㄹ까 하다

This is used to express a speaker’s intention or consideration of doing something, but is still undecided on the course of action.

It cannot be used if the decision has already been made. If the decision has been made, the future tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요 should be used.

The way the teacher introduced this was to give the scenario where we imagine we are thinking of what we want to do after class. The way we might ask ourselves is to use V-(으)ㄹ까요? (I believe it is probably this V-(으)ㄹ까요? rather than the other one, only because in the example the questions being asked were “Shall I…?”)

The 하다 is the thought (생각).

받침 X, ㄹ + ㄹ까 해요 받침 O + 을까 헤요
가다 → 가까 해요 먹다 → 먹을까 해요


  1. 가: 주말에 뭐 할 거예요? (What are you going to do on the weekend.) 나: 별일 없으면 친구를 만날까 해요. (If nothing special is going on, I am thinking of meeting a friend.)
  2. 가: 점심에 맛있는 거 먹으러 갈까 하는데 같이 갈래요? (I’m thinking of going to eat something delicious for lunch. Do you want to come with me?) 나: 전 할 일이 많아서 햄버거나 먹을까 헤요. (I have a lot of work so I was thinking of eating a hamburger.)


Korean English Notes
명절 traditional holidays 名节
설날 Lunar New Year’s Day 음력 1월 1일
정월 대보름 Full moon day 음력 1월 15일, first full moon of the lunar new year. Wishes are made on this day.
단오 the May Festival 음력 5월 5일
추석/한가위 autumn festival 음력 8월 15일. 한가위 is the native Korean name.
동지 the winter solstice 음력 12월 22일
송편 half-moon-shaped rice cake Eaten during 추석
떡국 rice cake soup Eaten during 설날
팥죽 red bean porridge Eaten during 동지. It is the longest night and shortest day. Because ghosts are said to be afraid of red, hence something red is eaten on this day. Also why you might see in shows they throw red beans to scare away the ghosts.
귀신 ghost
오곡밥 five-grain rice Eaten during 정월 대보름
나물 vegetables side dish with vegetables eaten with five-grain rice during 정월 대보름
풍습 custom 風習
차례를 지내다 to have a memorial service for ancestors 茶礼
성묘하다 to visit a family member’s grave 省墓
세배하다 to bow on the new year’s day 岁拜
덕담하다 to give a word of blessing 德谈
세뱃돈을 받다 to receive a new year’s cash gifts
소원을 빌다 to make a wish 所愿
윷놀이를 하다 to play Yut-nori
고스톱을 치다 to play go-stop
연휴 holidays 连休
조상 ancestor 祖上
식혜 sweet rice drink
한과 Korean traditional sweets and cookies
농사 farming 农事
한복을 입다 to wear Korean traditional dress
이웃 neighbour
고향에 가다 to go to one’s hometown
장을 보다 to shop for groceries
방을 닦다 to clean the room
정리하다 to organize 整理
음식을 차리다 to set the table with food
설거지를 하다 to wash the dishes
세탁기를 돌리다 to run the clothes washer 洗濯機
청소기를 돌리다 to vacuum
빈대떡을 부치다 to make mung-bean pancake
추수하다 to harvest 秋收
나누다 to share This is only used when sharing means dividing something up, e.g. food.
공유하다 to share 共有. This is “sharing” on social media where there is no concept of division.
맡다 to be put in charge of 프로젝트를 맡았어요.


  • Chapter 15 Reading & Writing
  • Chapter 16 Handout sentences
  • Chapter 16 Worksheet for Grammar points 1–3
  • Quizlet (both word and sentence sets)


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (the newest student [French] did not come)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated

Lesson 98 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 4)

I was around 2 minutes late trying to scan my homework for the previous week, and when I joined, they were going through the chapter 14 sentence Quizlet deck.

We jumped right into chapter 15 after that, so nothing on the Culture Note or Pronunciation topic for chapter 14. We completed the handout, and also part of the textbook (just the vocab portions).

As a side note, I have been experimenting with Obsidian once again since I bought publish. I think the way to link things up is very useful for grammar. Since two lessons ago I have been adidng the new grammar points to that, as well as some of the older links. I will eventually hope to add everything that is also here, and then after that, we shall see if it still makes sense to post in this format.


I decided to cover it here, even though we did not go through it.

Pronunciation topic is similar to that covered in Lesson 94. While not explicitly stated anywhere in this form, it is not something entirely new either given what has been taught before.

When preceded by verbs or adjectives which end with the final consonant sounds [ㄴ,ㅁ], ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ’ are pronounced as [ㄲ, ㄸ. ㅉ].


  1. 신고 [신꼬]
  2. 감다 [감따]
  3. 읹지[안찌]


1. A-아/어/해지다

This indicates a change to a certain condition. It has the same meaning as “to become” or “to get”.

Usually, the past tense (졌어요) is used, as the change (when it is being described) has already occurred. This is somewhat similar to how when you say someone is wearing something, you use the past tense form of 입다 (as the action of putting the clothes on was already done in the past).

You would use the present tense mostly when describing a hypothetical situation, along the lines of “if you do this, then that will happen”.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
작다 → 작아졌어요 길다 → 길어졌어요 이숙하다 → 이숙해졌어요


  1. 서울에 외국 사람이 많아졌어요.
  2. 날씨가 많이 따뜻해졌지요?
  3. 난 것을 많이 먹으면 뚱뚱해져요.
  4. 머리를 자르면 분위기가 좀 달라질 거예요.

2. V-게 되다

This is used to indicate that something turns out a certain way regardless of the speaker’s will.

This is usually expressed in the past tense because it describes a condition that has already changed.

받침 O/X
하다 → 하게 되었어요 (됐어요)


  1. 처음에는 한국말로 인사도 잘 못했는데 이제는 한국말을 잘 하게 되었어요.1
  2. 한국 노래를 좋아해서 한국어를 배우게 되었어요.
  3. 취직을 해서 고향으로 돌아가게 되었어요.
  4. 내년부터 2년 동안 서울에서 살게 됐어요.

For the last 2 examples, realise that this construct can be used to describe future events. The key here is that the situation has already changed; hence the sentence is in the past tense. However, the consequences might still happen in the future.

For sentence 3, it is entirely possible that the speaker has not yet returned to their 고향 yet when speaking the sentence. They have already gotten the new job, but could be speaking to their existing colleagues to say that they will soon be leaving because they got a new job.

3. V-기 전에

This is used to express than action is done or occurs before another action. (“Before V-ing…”)

For nouns, we have:

  • 1시간 전에 (one hour before)
  • 한 달 전에 (one month before)
  • 1시 전에 (before 1pm)

For verbs:

  • 자기 전에 (before sleeping)
  • 마시기 전에 (before drinking)
  • 오기 전에 (become coming)


  1. 집에 가기 전에 헬스장에 갔어요.
  2. 집에 가기 전에 헬스장에 갈 거예요.
  3. 영화가 시작하기 전에 휴대 전화를 끄세요.

4. V-(으)ㄴ 후에

This is used to express that after the action of the preceding verb is done, an action is done. (“After V-ing”)

Notice the use of the past tense noun modifier V-(으)ㄴ.


  1. 식사 후에 커피를 마셔요.
  2. 학교 후에 졸업한 후에 바로 취직했어요.
  3. 한국에 온 후부터 한국어를 배웠어요.

In conversations, V-고 나서 is often used instead of V-(으)ㄴ 후에.


Korean English Notes
태어나다 to be born
죽다 to die
입학하다 to enter a school 入学
졸업하다 to graduate 卒业. 학교를 졸업했어요.
친구를 사귀다 to make a friend
사랑에 빠지다 to fall in love This also means a literal “fall”, as fall into water = 물에 빠지다
취직하다 to get a job 就职
승진하다 to get a promotion 升晋
은퇴하다 to retire 隐退
줄다 to decrease, lessen This is amount the amount or quantity, where originally there were many, and it decreased.
늘다 to increase This is the opposite of 줄다. It is also about an amount or quantity that increased.
오르다 to go up Apart from the literal going up, this is also used of numbers (e.g. exchange rate, price) to indicate there was an increase. Important to know when to use this rather than 늘다.
내리다 to go down Opposite of 오르다. Also used for numbers.
결혼하다 to marry 结婚
아기를 낳다 to give birth
생기다 to be formed, to have to be newly formed, to newly have (that was not there in the past)
봉사 활동을 하다 to do volunteer work 奉仕活动
발전하다 to develop 发展
(-에) 익숙하다 to be practiced, to be familiar (to)
별일 없다 to have nothing special going on
오래간만이다 It's been a long time
고생하다 to have a difficult time 苦生
다행이다 to be fortunate 多幸
어디에서나 anywhere 나 = 든지. 언제나, 언제든지 (anytime); 누구나, 누구든지 (anybody)
잘되다 to go well
기대가 되다 to expect 期待
예전에 in the old days Same as 옛날에
변화 change 变化
인구 population 人口
변호사 lawyer 辩护士
일기 diary, journal 자기 전에 일기를 써요.
복습을 하다 to review 수업이 끝난 후에 복습을 해요.
몸이 좋다 to be in good shape
단 것 sweet things e.g. chocolates, cakes. 단 것을 많이 먹으면 뚱뚱해져요.
잔소리 nagging, nitpicking
물가 price (of commodities) 物價. 요즘 물가가 너무 비싼 것 같아요. 물가가 올랐어요.
휴가철 vacation season 휴가철이라서 길에 차가 적어요.
초등학교 elementary school
원래 originally 마리코 씨는 원래 한국 음식을 안 좋아했어요. 한국에 와서 좋아하게 됐어요.
점점 gradually 처음에는 그 사람을 안 좋아했는데 점점 좋아하게 됐어요.
자료 material, data 資料. 자료를 준비하다
보고서 report 報告書. 보고서를 쓰다. Is this more for work, while 리포트 is more for schoolwork? Or are they completely interchangeable?


  • Write 3 sentences (in Handout, on Grammar points 1 and 2)
  • Chapter 15 Worksheet


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (the older lady was unwell)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated

  1. While you can just as easily say “잘 해요”, using 잘 하게 되었어요 seems to emphasise the change. The teacher’s words were that she “could feel that there is a change”. HowToStudyKorean mentions how using this construct (because it implies that something happened regardless of the speaker’s will) can be a humble way of saying the same sentence. 

Lesson 97 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 3)

We started with Quizlet review. It was a real review, where each of us took turns to translate into Korean the words from the chapter 14 Quizlet word set. I had revised that morning, but it was still hard. I am very far behind on Anki, so I have not seen the new cards outside of the Quizlet review that I did.

Then, we finished off the rest of the handout, which had the last three grammar points for the chapter.

For the textbook, we got as far as the Listening section. Reading and Writing is for homework.


2. A/V-았을/었을/했을 때

This is used to indicate a point in time when something took place or existed in the past.

It is important to note that this form is used for a past and completed action.

ㅏ,ㅗ O + -았을 때 ㅏ,ㅗ X + -었을 때 하다 + -했을 때
보다 → 봤을 때 어리다 → 어렸을 때 시작하다 → 시작했을 때
앉다 → 앉았을 때 젊다 → 젊었을 때 반말하다 → 반말했을 때


  1. 한국어 공부를 처음 시작했을 때 좀 어려웠어요.
  2. 밥을 다 먹었을 때 친구가 왔어요.
  3. 젊었을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.

때 (“when”) should be familiar from A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때.

In some cases, there isn’t any difference when using A/V-(으)ㄹ 때 instead of A/V-았을/었을/했을 때. The third sentence above would not have the meaning changed if you wrote 젊을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.

Both can be used to express something that occurred during a given time period.

However, in other cases, there is a difference:

  • 집에 갈 때 비가 왔어요.
    • This means that while I was on the way home, it started to rain.
    • I would need an umbrella.
  • 집에 갔을 때 비가 왔어요.
    • It only started to rain after I was home.
    • I do not need an umbrella.

A/V-았을/었을/했을 때 is used especially to refer to the point in time just after you have completed the action.

3. V-아도/어도/해도 되다

This is used to ask for permission (if it is a question) or to give permission to do something.

It is the same as “may ~” or ”can ~” (not whether someone has the ability to do something—that is V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다) in English.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
보다 → 보도 되다 마시다→ 마셔도 되다 구경하다 → 구경해도 되다


  1. 사진을 찍어도 돼요?
  2. 카도로 내도 돼요.
  3. 이거 먹어도 돼요? 네, 드세요.

Instead of using 돼요, it is also possible to use 괜찮아요: 가도 괜찮아요.

The negation of this form means that it is okay not to do something, and not that it is not okay to do something.

  • 가도 돼요. (You may go.)
  • 안 가도 돼요. (You don’t have to go.)

For how to say that something is not allowed, see the next grammar point.

4. V-(으)면 안 되다

This is used to express denying permission or approval for an action.

받침 O 받침 X, ㄹ
먹다→ 먹으면 안 되다 가다 → 가면 안 되다


  1. 극장에서 전화하면 안 돼요.
  2. 박물관에서 사진을 찍으시면 안 돼요.
  3. 아침 8시까지 학교에 안가면 안 돼요.
    • = 아침 8시까지 학교에 꼭 가야 돼요.

As seen from the last sentence, the negation of this form (resulting in a double negative) has the same meaning as V-아야/어야/해야 되다.

We have also previously learnt V-(으)면 되다, which was used to express that something is permissible.


Korean English Notes
연애편지 love letter
부서 department 같은 부서에서 일다
봉사 활동을 하다 to do volunteer work
시험에서 떨어지다 to fail a test
원고 script 발표할 때 원고를 보면서 하면 안 돼요? 네, 다 외워서 해야 돼요.
남기다 to leave 약이 너무 쓴데 조금만 남기면 안 돼요?
영혼 soul


  • Rest of Chapter 14 Worksheet
  • Chapter 14 Reading & Writing


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (the newest student was sick)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated

Lesson 96 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 2)

While digging out the chapter 14 notes before the start of the lesson, I realised for this set from chapter 13 to 16 notes, with the revision from 13 to 16... there are no video scripts.

This lesson we finished up with chapter 13, did a Quizlet review of chapter 13 vocab (good thing I revised), and then started on chapter 14. We finished the first grammar point in chapter 14.

Culture Note

The culture note was about traditional Korean houses. I felt it was not too long ago that we talked about Korean housing and Hanok was also mentioned… but it turned out it was 20 lessons ago, which is 5 months ago.


This pronunciation topic is super familiar. In fact, it was covered back in Lesson 44—SNU 1B Chapter 11.

While finding the link to the above, I discovered that in Lesson 72 links to it, because, SNU 2A Chapter 3’s pronunciation topic covers the first half of that rule.

Now, in SNU 2B Chapter 13, the pronunciation topic covers the second half of the rule. Yes, only the second half.

When the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] are followed by the initial consonant ‘ㅎ’, the sounds of ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ’ combine with the initial ‘ㅎ’ and are pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ].1


  1. 예약하세요[예야카세요]
  2. 입학[이팍]
  3. 막혀[마켜]


1. V-(으)ㄴ 적이 있다/없다

This is used to indicate that someone has (있다) or has not (없다) experienced something.

V-(으)ㄴ is the past tense noun modifier.

It is quite common to attach this to ‘아/어/해 보다’, which indicates a trial or attempt. This becomes ‘아/어/해 본 적이 있다’.

받침 X, ㄹ 받침 O
보다 + ㄴ 적이 있다 → 본 적이 있다 입다 + 은 적이 있다 → 입은 적이 있다


  1. 혼자 여행한 적이 있어요.
  2. 저는 한국 음악을 들어 본 있어요.
  3. 저는 한국 드라마를 본 적이 없어요.

Note that for the verb 보다, you do not add an additional 보다 even if trying to convey the meaning of “trying”. So the third sentence is not 봐 본 but simply 본.

Usage Notes

  1. This form is not used to describe ordinary things that you do every day. It would be strange to say: 화장실에 간 적이 있어요.
  2. The difference between this grammar’s 있다 form and -아/어/해 보다 (specifically, the past tense form -아/어/해 봤어요) is that the latter conveys the speaker’s intention to have tried the thing in question. This grammar does not convey any intention, but only whether you have experienced something or not. It is neutral on intention.
  3. Following the above, this grammar is typically used to describe negative experiences that you have experienced, without necessarily wanting to have experienced them. An example could be losing your wallet: 지갑을 잃어버린 적이 있어요.


Chapter 13

Leftovers from last week’s homework and others.

Korean English Notes
계약 contract Rental, or employment as well. 약정 is a synonym, I believe. (약정 was from some time ago when I was talking about mobile phone contracts.)
5월에 계약이 끝나다 the contracts ends in May
미끄럽다 to be slippery
(뭄 이) 탄탄하다 to be fit/strong/healthy
일류 운동 선수 top athlete
보람이 있다 to be effective, worthwhile 이 일은 힘들기는 하지만 보람이 있어요.
배경 background, situation 각기 다른 배경 = individual different backgrounds; 다양한 배경 = diverse backgrounds
민속촌 folk village
입학 entrance/admission into a school

Chapter 14

Korean English Notes
예절 etiquette 礼节
이름을 부르다 to call someone's name
높임말[존댓말]을 하다 to speak in honorific language
반말을 하다 to speak in banmal
자리를 양보하다 to offer one's seat to others 让步
한 손으로 받다 to receive with one hand
두 손으로 드리다 to give with both hands
다리를 꼬고 앉다 to sit with one's leg crossed
고개를 숙여서 인사하다 to greet while bowing one's head
고개를 돌리고 마시다 to drink turning one's head
공중도덕 public etiquette 公众道德
금연 No Smoking 禁烟
주차금지 No Parking 驻车禁止
사진 촬영 금지 No Photographs -撮影禁止
음식물 반입 금지 No Food or Drinks 饮食物 搬入 禁止
휴대 전화 사용 금지 No Cell Phones 使用 禁止
실수하다 to make a mistake
안다 to hold, hug
나이가 들다 to get older
쓰다듬다 to pat
참다 to endure
칭찬하다 to compliment 称赞
비어 있다 to be unoccupied
상관없다 to not matter
머리를 감다 to wash one's hair
저에 대한 이야기 story about me
싱가포르에 대한 뉴스 news about Singapore
들다 to lift
야단을 맞다 to get a scolding
쓰다 to use
물론이다 of course 물론이지요 is more common than 물론이에요.


I kind of zoned out at the end when the homework was announced for Chapter 14, so, I'm guessing for Chapter 14. This just had to be the week that the teacher decided to not post the homework on KakaoTalk after having done so for a few weeks…

  • Chapter 13 Reading & Writing
  • Chapter 14 Worksheet (for the first grammar point)
  • Chapter 14 Quizlet word set


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Just one, for Speaking 2

  1. Why is the pronunciation rule split in the level 2 book, but covered together in the level 1 book? There might be some reason for this. I’m no educator, so I do not know anything about this topic. But I find it interesting nonetheless. Sudden memories of spiral learning (which a colleague of mine, a teacher, has spoken about)…but this is just the same thing right? I decided to pull out the 1B book, and it is interesting that it only mentions that “‘ㅎ’ is pronounced differently according to the consonants that proceed or follow it.” Seems like the explanation here is a bit more detailed? Though it could be because it is dedicated to just one thing, instead of two. 

Lesson 95 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 1)

This is the start of a new term. There is also a new student who joined. She’s French, from France… I initially thought she was a student as she did look pretty young, but she said she was working here if I heard her correctly.

The teacher said she had learned Korean back in France before. So I would guess she came over recently? Or only recently decided to pick up Korean again.

Went through the entire handout for chapter 13 and covered all the grammar points. Even had time for the textbook and covered until Speaking 1.


1. A/V-(으)ㄹ지 모르겠다

If you look at the form, it is very similar to V-(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다.1

This is used to express uncertainty over something that the speaker is concerned about.

The key difference here between this and V-(으)ㄹ 줄 모르다 is the concern and worry that the speaker has about not knowing something.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 클지 모르겠어요 작다 → 작을지 모르겠어요
V 오다 → 올지 모르겠어요 먹다 → 먹을지 모르겠어요


  1. 음식이 입에 맞을지 모르겠어요.
  2. 내일 시험을 잘 볼 수 있을지 모르겠어요.
  3. 다음 주에 공부 할 시간이 있을지 모르겠어요.

1.1 Past Tense

You can also express uncertainty about past events.

  1. 나나 씨가 시험을 잘 을지 모르겠어요.
  2. 그 사람이 고향에 잘 돌아갔을지 모르겠어요.

2. A/V-기는 하지만

Naturally, with 지만 there, you would expect some contrast.

This is used when the speaker acknowledges or admits the facts in the first clause (the A/V before -기는), but has a contrasting relationship with the final clause (after 하지만). It is best explained with examples.

In dramas, instead of hearing 기는, you will hear it shortened to 긴. This is common in spoken language.

받침 X 받침 O
크다 → 크기는 하지만 작다 → 작기는 하지만


  1. 이 식당은 음식값이 싸기는 하지만 맛이 없어요.
  2. 다리를 다쳤어요. 아프기는 하지만 괜찮아요.
  3. 커피를 마시기는 하지만 좋아하지는 않아요.

2.1 Comparison with 지만

So, what is the difference between this and 지만?

-지만 -기는 하지만
Subject of preceding clause can be different from the following clause. Both clauses must have the same subject.
Used to express a simple contrast. Used to emphasise a contrast.

2.2 Past Tense

Like how you can put a past tense before -지만, you can do this too for -기는 하지만.

Specifically, you conjugate the 하 that is before the 지만.

  • Past tense: -기는 했지만

The teacher only mentioned the past tense form in class, saying that it will appear in the homework. Well, the past, present, and future forms all appeared. I did not recognise the future form as a future form, and had to look it up.

  • Future Tense: -기는 하겠지만

3. A/V-기 때문에, N(이)기 때문에

This chapter’s full of familiar-looking things.

It looks like N 때문에, right? Well, except the meaning is not the same as N 때문에. (The N(이)기 때문에 should have been a clue.)

It indicates cause or reason.

Meaning, this one has the same meaning as A/V-아서/어서/해서 and N(이)라서, the thing you should not confuse N 때문에 for.

It is mostly used in writing or formal settings.

받침 X 받침 O
A/V 싸다 → 싸기 때문에 먹다 → 먹기 때문에
N 친구 → 친구기 때문에 학생 → 학생이 때문에


  1. 값이 너무 비싸기 때문에 그냉 구경만 할 겁니다.
  2. 학생이기 때문에 공부를 열심히 해야 합니다.
  3. 이번 주말에 고향에 돌아가야 하기 때문에 서둘러서 비행기 표를 샀습니다.

3.1 Past Tense

  • 어제 휴대폰을 잃어버렸기 때문에 친구에게 연락을 못 합니다.

3.2 Usage Notes

Like -아서/어서/해서, -기 때문에 cannot be used in a command or suggestion.

If it is a command or suggestion, usually you would use A/V-(으)니까.

4. V-기(가) A

This is used to express the speaker’s general judgment or evaluation of an action.

The judgment is the adjective. Not all adjectives use this form. The ones that do are: 쉽다, 어렵다, 좋다, 나쁘다, 편하다, 불편하다.

In English, you might say something is “easy to do” or “hard to find”. The 기 part is equivalent to the “to”.

받침 X 받침 O
가다 → 가기(가) 편하다 살다 → 살기(가) 좋다


  1. 지하철역이 가까워서 회사 가기(가) 편해요.
  2. 공기가 맑아서 산책하기(가) 좋습니다.


Korean English Notes
아파트 apartment
빌라 multiplex house (villa)
단독주택 detached house
원룸 studio apartment “one room”
안방 master room
작은방 small room
거실 living room 巨室
부엌/주방 kitchen 부엌 is native Korean. 주방 is Sino-Korean: 厨房
화장실 toilet
욕실 bathroom 浴室
베란다 veranda Compared to a balcony, a veranda is narrower and more “flat”.
발코니 balcony
현관 entrance (at a house) 玄关
마당 garden, yard
대문 front gate 大门
부동산 real estate 不动产. Also refers to a real estate agency
보증금 security deposit 保证金
월세 monthly rent 月贳
전세 long term deposit lease 全贳. This is a unique system in Korea, but is also something that has become rarer these days. How this works is that if a house costs $500k, then you would have to pay a lump sum of (say) $300k to the landlord. However, at the end of the lease, you get the entire sum back. You pay only for the electricity and water. Usually what a landlord would do with the money is to use it to invest.
전화 요금 telephone bill 电话 料金
전기 요금 electric bill 电气 料金
수도 요금 water bill 水道 料金
가스 요금 gas bill
생활비 living expenses 生活费
식비 food expenses 食费
관리비 maintenance fee 管理费
교통비 transportation fee 交通费
고시원 examination preparation housing 考试院. 고시 = exam. This is for students who want to focus on studying without distractions. It is a very small room, usually with shared shower facilities (private bathrooms would cost more). Mostly for students, but there are some people who choose to stay here as the rent is much cheaper than renting a house.
오피스텔 office with kitchen and sleeping facilities office + hotel
방이 넓다 to have a spacious room
시설이 잘 되어 있다 to have good facilities 施设. For facilities, we might think of condo facilities such as gym and swimming pool, etc. but this term also refers to appliances available in the house. A house that comes with a fridge, microwave, etc. would be said to have good facilities too, since someone can just move in without having to buy anything else.
시설 facilities
잘 되어 있다 to be well done
풀옵션 a fully-equipped house/room “full option” means that it has everything, e.g. all appliances
방값이 싸다 to have cheap rent 방값 refers to the price of a room. You can also say 집값이 싸다 for an entire house.
교통이 편리하다 to have convenient transportation
새로 지었다 to be newly built
주변 surroundings
주변이 조용하다 to have quiet surroundings
집주인이 좋다 to have a nice landlord
주인 owner
전망이 좋다 to have a good view 展望
바람이 통하다 to be ventilated
집세 rent
구하다 to find; to seek 집, 직장, 사람
결정하다 to decide 決定
장을 보다 to shop (for groceries) 장 comes from 시장 (market)
회사를 옮기다 to move to another company change job
공기가 맑다 the air is fresh (clear)
그렇지 않아도 as a matter of fact


  • Chapter 13 Worksheet (entire)
  • Quizlet Chapter 13 Word and Sentence Sets


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (girl who went to Korea was sick)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, same groups. Last pair was with one of the persons from the group.

  1. For the -겠다 part, we have seen A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다. Elsewhere, I wrote about when 겠다 is used for the first person, it emphasises a strong intention on the speaker’s part to do something. The link between these was not mentioned, though I vaguely recall reading somewhere about 모르겠다…  

Lesson 94 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 9)

There is no test for Intermediate 3. We found out somewhere in the middle of the lesson, after we had completed Chapter 12 and were moving into the revision paper.

This means that this is the last lesson for Intermediate 3. It also explains why I received the cert for this level together with the next set of notes in this past week.

It turns out that… we have indeed been speeding through the chapters (averaging 2 lessons per chapter instead of 2.5). I certainly noticed it somewhat (quite hard not to notice when I write a post for each lesson) but I thought it was things speeding up as this was the new usual pace, being in the intermediate level.

That was cleared up today.

After the lesson last week, the teacher messaged us to ask if we would be fine with changing our lesson time. While it was not confirmed, it was to do with our teacher having to possibly take over the class of another teacher. If there are changes, it will only come about in December, so it is also not immediate. What the teacher said is that she would update us again if there are changes. However, there was additional context today given. At the start of the class, the teacher did say that all of us were okay with the adjusted timing. But after we finished Chapter 12, the teacher said that there was no test, plus we were going at a faster pace, because the existing class is ahead of us.

So it is not that our class timing is shifting, but rather, it is merging our class with another class. From what I can see on Quizlet (it has the classes, and they are marked by the date/time and also which teacher), that class has 9 members. That is quite a lot, if you take away say 1 that is the teacher, that means there are 8 students? Though usually the school only has a class size that is I think maximum 8 or 9, so I don’t know if it is just that the teacher had not pruned some of the students who have already quit.

Today, we did the textbook, and then covered the video script. Instead of the test, we have slightly more (extra) homework in the form of some “pattern practice” sheet. No wonder the revision sheet was so thick compared to usual.

Culture Note

The culture note was about an expression to say two people look alike. You say that it is exactly like 붕어빵 (“carp bread”). It is very similar to the Japanese snack taiyaki (except that is modelled after the tai fish, not carp).

The point being that these snacks are made using a fish-shaped mold, so each piece looks the same.


The pronunciation was about words where the final consonant is ‘ㄻ’.

When the final double consonant ‘ㄻ’ is followed by the initial consonant of the next syllable, only [ㅁ] is pronounced.

  • 닮는 [담는]
  • 젊네요 [점네요]

After the final consonant ‘ㄻ’, ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ’ in the intial consonants of the next syllable are pronounced as [ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅆ, ㅉ].

  • 닮고 [담꼬]
  • 젊다 [점따]
  • 젊습니다 [점씁니다]
  • 닮지 [담찌]

Naturally, if you have the next syllable starting with a vowel, the usual applies:

  • 닮았어요 [달마써요]

I went back to review the old pronunciation rules that related to double consonants. It was back in Lesson 55. To my surprise, ㄹ actually comes before ㅁ in the alphabet order, and yet… we pronounce [ㅁ] here. The textbook never said that it is in alphabet order; that came from the teacher then way back in Lesson 11.

For now, I will try to remember this as-is, that this one is prononunced with the [ㅁ] sound.


Korean English Notes
어른 adult 어른스럽다 = mature. 저 동생은 열 살인데 어른처럼 말해요.
자매 sisters 姊妹
피부 관리를 받다 to receive a facial Seems that 피부 관리 might just refer to generic skin care?
파마를 하다 to get a perm, have one’s hair permed
앞머리를 다듬다 to trim bangs
염색을 하다 to dye 검게 머리 염색을 하다
새롭다 to be new
제스처 gesture
속마음 inner thoughts


  • Chapter 12 Reading & Writing
  • Revision Sheet


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (guy wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, with the same person for the 2 rounds. Initially, when only 3 of us were in the class, we remained in the main room for Speaking 1.

Lesson 93 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 8)

We started on Chapter 12, and went through the entire handout. This covered all the grammar points. We also reviewed the Quizlet sentence deck.

Originally, there should be a test after Chapter 12, so I figured the test would be in about 2 weeks from today (i.e. 3 lessons after this one, since I am writing this a week late), but… well, I will talk about that in Lesson 94’s post.


1. A-아/어 보이다

This is used to express one’s guess or judgment about something based on its appearance.

Literally translated, it will be “you look…” or “it looks…”.

This is used with adjectives only.

  • For nouns, that is covered in the next grammar point (처럼/같이 보여요).
    • There is another grammar used for verbs (V-나 봐요), but that is something that we will learn another time.
A-아/어 보이다 -아 -어
Present A-아/어 보여요 작다 → 작아 보여요 넓다 → 넓어 보여요
Past A-아/어 보였어요 작다 → 작아 보였어요 넓다 → 넓어 보였어요
Future A-아/어 보일 거예요 작다 → 작아 보일 거예요 넓다 → 넓어 보일 거예요

So how does this differ from A-(으)ㄴ 것 같다? The key is that A-아/어 보이다 is based on appearance, whereas the conjecture from A-(으)ㄴ 것 같다 might be based on something else.

2. N처럼[같이]

This is used to express that some action or thing appears similar to the noun. It would be translated as “like” in English.

받침 X 받침 O
가수 → 가수처럼 가족 → 가족처럼

The caveat here is that you must follow up with an adjective or verb behind this. You need to specifically mention what it is about the noun that is similar.

  • 가수처럼이에요. (X)
    • An incorrect way to say ”He is like a professional singer.”
  • 가수처럼 노래를 잘 불러요. (O)
    • He sings well like a professional singer.

처럼 and 같이 essentially mean the same thing and are interchangeable. There is no difference in formality.

처럼/같이 are also used to express characteristics metaphorically by comparing them to animals or other things in nature. (English has this too in the form of similes.)

  • 호랑이처럼 무섭다 (fierce like a tiger)
  • 거북이처럼 느리다 (slow like a turtle)
  • 토끼처럼 귀엽다 (cute like a rabbit)
  • 바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (big-hearted like the ocean)

3. A-(으)ㄴ/V-는 편이다

This is used to express something that has a tendency toward a certain condition.

편 literally means “side”. You find it in words such as 건너편 (“opposite side”) but using it in this structure with an adjective or verb is used to say that something/someone is rather (tall) or somewhat (thin) , or that they tend to (be introverted).

This is used when usually there are two words that describe opposite traits (e.g. tall vs short) and you are trying to categorise everyone neatly into 2 groups. Since not everyone can easily be said to be tall or short (is someone who is 1.7m really tall?), but it is a scale, this is where you use this structure to say that they are in one category over another, but it is not as though they would necessarily belong otherwise (if we were not being forced to make do kind of classification into two groups).

Note: You cannot use this if someone falls into a clear category. For example, if the person is over 2m tall, you would not say they are 키가 큰 편이에요 (equivalent to saying they are somewhat tall), but simply that 키가 커요 (they are tall)!

For adjectives, you can simply use them as seen in the example above. For the negative form, there are two ways to do it:

  1. 키가 큰 편이 아니에요.
  2. 키가 큰 편이에요.

Though for negative forms, I have a feeling that it is more used for verbs, since it would be more natural to simply find another adjective e.g. 작다 instead of 크다.

  1. 많이 먹는 편이 아니에요.
  2. 많이 먹는 편이에요.

For verbs, it is usually necessary to add an adverb that modifies the verb, such as 자주, 잘, etc.


  1. 나나 씨는 치마를 자주 입는 편이에요.
  2. 스티븐 씨는 매운 음식을 잘 먹는 편이에요.
  3. 저는 많이 자는 편이에요.

4. A-게

This is used to express some degree or means of an action. Basically, this is how you convert an adjective into an adverb.

Naturally, being an adverb, it is followed by a verb.

받침 X 받침 O
예쁘다 → 예쁘 짧다 → 짧


  1. 마리코 씨는 머리를 짧게 잘랐어요.
  2. 오늘 아침에 늦게 일어났어요.
  3. 크게 쓰세요.

Now, there are some exceptions to this. Not all adjectives have the corresponding adverb formed like this but instead have special forms.

  1. 많다 → 많이 (not 많게)
  2. 이르다 (to be early) → 일찍 (not 이르게)

For the following three, while the special forms are much more common, it is not wrong to also use -게 forms.

  1. 빠르다 → 빨리/빠르게
  2. 적다 → 조금/적게
  3. 느리다 → 천천히/느리게


Korean English Notes
외모 appearance 外貌
성격 personality 性格
눈이 크다 to have big eyes
눈이 작다 to have small eyes
입이 크다 to have a wide mouth
입이 작다 to have a small mouth
키가 크다 to be tall (height)
키가 작다 to be short (height)
쌍꺼풀이 있다 to have double eyelids
쌍꺼풀이 없다 to not have double eyelids
속쌍꺼풀 inner double eyelids The less obvious kind.
겉쌍꺼풀 outer double eyelids
코가 높다 to have a high nose
코가 낮다 to have a flat nose
입술이 두껍다 to have thick lips
입술이 얇다 to have thin lips
이마가 넓다 to have a wide forehead
이마가 좁다 to have a narrow forehead
어깨가 넓다 to have broad shoulders
어깨가 좁다 to have narrow shoulders
어깨깡패 a person with broad shoulders (slang) 깡패 is a gangster, something about being able to win if comparing shoulders with others (?)
눈썹이 진하다 to have thick eyebrows
눈썹이 연하다 to have thin eyebrows
마르다 to be skinny
날씬하다 to be slim
뚱뚱하다 to be fat
활발하다 to be active 活泼. Kind of used for an extroverted person.
외향적이다 to be extroverted
내성적이다 to be introverted 內省的
남성적이다 to be masculine, manly 男性的
여성적이다 to be feminine 女性的
꼼꼼하다 to be meticulous
성격이 급하다 to be hasty
어리다 to be young physically young
젊다 to be young (used for adults)
닮다 to resemble
시간을 지키다 to keep time
자르다 to cut
생기다 to look like
정확하다 to be accurate 正确
머리 모양 hairstyle 模样
이상형 ideal type 理想型
화장품 cosmetic
비결 secret 나이보다 젊어 보여요. 비결이 뭐예요?
세다 strong 술이 세다 = 술을 잘 마시다 (can hold your liquor). Opposite is 약하다.
이르다 to be early
글자 letter, character 선생님, 글자가 작아서 잘 안 보여요.
글씨 handwriting 선생님, 글씨 좀 크게 써 주세요.
어른스럽다 mature


  • Chapter 12 Worksheet (entire)
  • Quizlet Chapter 12 Word and Sentence Sets


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (newest girl wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, full rotation for 3.

Lesson 92 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 7)

So it turns out that someone else in the class asked about the video script. There isn’t one for Chapter 11 (I searched for it after I wrote the post for the last lesson but before class began). In the end, we covered the video script for Chapter 10.

Then, we finished up with the textbook, including Culture Note and Pronunciation, which I will cover.

Next week, we will start on Chapter 12, which is also the last chapter before the next test. 😱 If that takes 2 weeks and another week for revision, that means the test would be in 4 weeks, in early October.

There was a small thing that came up under Listening & Speaking on p. 58, on how to read the age there.

There are two counters (unit nouns) for age: 살 and 세.

  • 살 is the more common one that we have seen before and is used when speaking.
  • 세 is more common in written form (e.g. news articles, which was what was supposed to be the context in the textbook). Hanja is 歲 (岁).

You make use of the native Korean numbers with 살, but you use the Sino-Korean numbers with 세.

  • 88살 (여든여덟 살)
  • 88세 (팔십팔 세)

Sadly, I didn’t get to ask how to read the “42.195 km” part (specifically the decimal). Context is that it was a “news article” about an 88-year-old man who completed a marathon.

Culture Note

Since this chapter was on health, the culture was on health foods (건강식품). Of course, Korean ginseng (인삼) was mentioned.

Then there was a discussion around red ginseng (홍삼). There is a version for kids (홍삼 키즈) because apparently kids don’t like the taste? And there is also a version for test-takers: 홍삼 수험생 (수험생 = test-taker) and it is called 아이패스. (I did not know in class and had to google after, but… the name is actually from English “I pass”).

Locally, I think people were saying things like bird’s nest, and the cheaper version of frog ovaries. And then there is chicken essense. Though at the start people were saying things like vitamins and omega 3.


The pronunciation topic was about how somtimes the final consonants change to sound like [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] when followed by a syllable that begins with ‘ㅇ’.

Basically, as probably discussed at multiple points such as in Lesson 41, all these final consonants are pronounced as [앋]: 앋, 앝, 앗, 앚, 앛, 앟.

Also, we know that normally, when the next syllable starts with a vowel, the final consonant from the syllable is shifted over to the next syllable. This was covered way back in Lesson 14 (SNU 1A Chapter 3).

However, in some specific cases, instead of sounding like how it is written, it changes to sound like [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] when it is carried over. For example, the final consonant can be ㅅ, but if the rule applies, in the next syllable, it sounds like [ㄷ] rather than [ㅅ].

The one it changes to depends on what is the sound if it were just a standalone syllable, and more accurately, has the same place of articulation as these three. It has been discussed before .

And no, this pronunciation rule is entirely new. It was covered in a note in Lesson 72, though it wasn’t the pronunciation lesson from that chapter.

These are two cases where this change happens:

  1. When two words become one word (compound words)
    • 맛없어요 (맛 + 없어요) → [마써요]
    • 첫인상 (첫 + 인상) → [처상]
  2. When two words are pronounced one after another
    • 부엌 안 → [부어간]
    • 잎 위 → [이뷔]
    • 못 와요 → [모돠요]

Otherwise, if it is followed by a particle, then nothing happens, the final consonant doesn’t change:

  • 옷이 [오시]


Korean English Notes
낮에 during the day 낮에 비빕밥 먹었어요. Context was the person had eaten Bibimbap for lunch, and was saying they wanted to eat something else rather than Bibimbap again for dinner.
약사 pharmacist
자꾸 repeatedly
생활비 living expenses
돈이 들다 to cost money
화해하다 to reconcile
마스크팩 mask as in the kind you put on your face for beauty purposes/nourishing the skin, and when you use it: 마스크팩을 하다
사흘 three days More common to use 삼일. This form is formal and would be heard on the news. This is the equivent type to 하루 and 이틀 for one day and two days respectively, but those are commonly used because the alternative of 일일 and 이일 are harder to distinguish.
나흘 four days Similarly, 사일 is more common.
마라톤 marathon
완주 finish, complete 完走
인삼 ginseng
건강식품 health foods Commonly used as gifts to parents
홍삼 red ginseng
홍삼 키즈 red ginseng for kids 키즈 = kids.
수험생 examinee (test-taker)
인상 impression
첫인상 first impression 첫인상이 좋다 = give a good first impression
오메가 3 omega 3 The “3” is prononuced as in English.
unit noun for pills
나비 butterfly
습관 habit
영양제 nutritional supplement
그러나 however
노력하다 to make an effort
외출하다 to go out 外出
예방하다 to prevent


  • Textbook p. 60–61 (Chapter 11 Reading & Writing)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, was kind of random. The only person I did not encounter was the newest girl to join the class.