notes on things I'm learning. currently: Korean

Lesson 115 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 13)

This should be the last for Pre-Advance 1, since this was the test.

I won’t go into a lot of detail, but generally, it was easy. It was easy, and doable, from me who has not been studying and reviewing Anki much. Listening was easy and I could catch most things. Oral was easy too in that nothing was conversation or question and answer. Yes, I still made mistakes that I know I did. I forgot words that I should not have forgotten if I had properly revised. And I found myself forgetting conjugations of things before, and even those in this chapter, and just guessing. For the first time, I had to guess, a few things for grammar, or whatever that section following that was. The essay topic wasn’t hard; it was self-intro and then about habits and that was basically the last essay we had to write (since it was 3A chapter 2). Except I did not write it, though I drafted the points. Still, that was that.

There were some scares because of my printer not printing grey properly, so I had images for the oral disappear from my paper. The squares for writing too, but fortunately the answer sheet still exists, it still gets sent with the notes, so I used that. If not, I would just use my usual writing paper (since I am back to writing paper, as I have used up the book and have yet to buy another).

This other teacher was… nice, seems a bit more… outgoing. We started listening 15 mins into the test, not at the start, so that was fortunate for me who was 2 minutes late because of issues connecting to Zoom after the printer. Which led me to cancel and try again, and I thought (because it disappears from history, and I do not memorise the meeting IDs) that the one that I am left with is not the last one I tried to enter, and the last one is gone from the list. So I had to scramble to my messages to search for the meeting link. Saw it was the same, but by the time I entered it was 2 minutes late. Still, someone joined after me. I actually did NOT pay attention to who was in class (even at the end, more on this later) but when I joined it was 8 participants, so it should be 7 students. And 1 person joined after me based on the teacher saying so, so maybe it was 8 people? But I also think everyone was there, or not, who knows.

So the thing is at the end, I did not get called for oral until the very end. I was the second last. But mine was after the rest could leave as the lesson time was over (1 and a half hours). The timing was also such that the paper is due (to send to our regular teacher) 15 mins after the lesson ends. My oral ended 13 mins after the usual end, so by the time I’d taken pictures, it was 17 minutes past (2 minutes after the deadline). And then I had to resend the writing part because in my haste I took a blurred picture. So it was that by the end, my brain was pretty much, uh, dead.

If there is one lesson to be learnt, it is to be prepared. In the end, this was possibly one of the best outcomes I could have. Actually, I think given the circumstances, I can safely say it was the best in terms of how well I could possibly do. But I am dissatisfied with myself and what I have done that led to this. But I am also so, so tired these days, that I don’t know if I will actually make the changes so that I do not find myself in a similar situation the next time around, where I do not think the outcome will nearly be as good.

Lesson 114 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 12)

Today was a marathon of posts (6 in total) and this is the last. With this I will be caught up but who knows for how long before I fall behind again and I still have homework. Part of my purpose for grinding this out first is also for the sake of revision before I attempt the revision worksheet that is the homework. (This was possible only because of the rain and I did not go out.)

When the teacher mentioned a revision lesson the previous week, I thought it would be like before, going through the revision notes. That did not happen. We revised only chapter 2 (starting from the first grammar, in the textbook).

As part of the review we also did p.46 textbook (that was done two lessons ago). I remember not only because I had written in the textbook some notes, but was unsure of the pronunciation for 머리를 긁다. This, if I recall correctly, happened in the breakout room (the other student was unsure and asked the teacher who joined), and the teacher gave the correct pronunciation. This time it was going through as a class, and I was the lucky one who had to read that, and I read it correctly.

We had not touched the textbook for Chapter 2 apart from p. 46 so there was a lot to get through, from the Speaking, and also Listening, then Culture Note and Pronunciation. By the time we go to the Self-Check at the end, the lesson time was over.

Culture Note

We went through the story in the culture note. It is about a folk tale. There was once a lazy kid who did not like to work. He would lie down and sleep after eating. His mother would always say that if you did that, you would turn into a cow. And then one day he turned into a cow. When he became a cow, he was worked very hard. Turned out it was a dream of course. After that he woke up, and started to work hard.


The pronunciation topic is about intonation.

In imperative sentences, the first syllable of the main clause verb is pronounced strongly with a rising intonation, and the last syllable is pronounced with a short, falling intonation.

When the sentence is a request (rather than a command, i.e. an imperative sentence), then the last syllable can rise slightly. (Think of 기다리세요, asking someone to wait patiently as a request.)


  • Revision worksheet (due latest Thursday, 3 Mar)


  • Date: Feb 26
  • Students: 7 out of 11 (I think it was 8 originally, because I noticed that someone that I paired with for breakout room disappeared after that)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random (different each time)

Lesson 113 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 11)

This was the lesson that at the end of the class, the teacher informed us that the test would be in two weeks. The best part is that she would not be around and it would be another teacher administering the test (yes, that includes oral, and it will be recorded so she can view it). Great.

We finished the last 2 grammar points in the handout. We also went through the video script. This time, the video script wasn’t separate, but was stapled together with the handout, making the notes extra thick. We did not touch the textbook. The teacher said that in the next lesson we would finish up the chapter and do revision.


3. V-느라고

This is used when expressing the reason or cause for:

  1. not being able to do something (못 했어요), or
  2. not being able to do something with a good result (안 좋아요)

For the first case, it is about making a choice between two actions. There is an element of time involved, where you cannot do two things at once. If you do A, you are unable to do B. You can choose to either watch your favourite TV show, or do your homework.

For the second, there are not two actions. It is just a single action, where a negative result occurs.


  1. 어젯밤에 축구를 보느라고 숙제를 못했어요. (I could not do my homework last night because I was watching a soccer game.)
    • A choice between two actions (1)
    • For this usage, you expect to see 안 or 못 for the second action following -느라고 (which couldn’t be completed because of the first action before -느라고)
  2. 마이클 씨는 요즘 결혼 준비를 하느라고 정신이 없는 것 같아요. (Michael seems to be really busy these days because he is preparing for his wedding.)
    • Single action, but a negative result (2)
    • The negative result comes after -느라고

Usage Notes

  1. In any situation where you can use V-느라고, you can also use A/V-아서/어서/해서. V-느라고 would just be more specific (and in that sense, a better fit).
    • However, there are many situations where you cannot use V-느라고, but V-아서/어서/해서 would be correct. See the examples in the points to follow.
  2. Like with V-아서/어서/해서, V-느라고 cannot be used with imperative or propositive forms.
  3. Do not use a positive clause after V-느라고 as it will sound unnatural.
    • 데이트를 하느라고 기분이 좋아요. (X)
      • ⇨ 데이트를 해서 기분이 좋아요. (O)
      • ⇨ 데이트를 하느라고 너무 바빠요. (O)
  4. V-느라고 cannot be used with verbs that do not show the will of the subject. It cannot be used for things like traffic accidents or the weather (which are outside of your control).
    • 교통사고가 나느라고 회사에 지각했어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 교통사고가 나서 회사에 지각했어요. (O)
    • 요즘 스트레스를 받느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 요즘 스트레스를 받아서 잠을 못 잤어요. (O)
    • 비가 많이 오느라고 등산을 못 했어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 비가 많이 와서 등산을 못 했어요. (X)
  5. V-느라고 cannot be used with verbs that do not require a fixed time period. It does not work for things that are either a moment in time.
    • 늦게 일어나느라고 여행을 못 갔어요. (X)
      • Waking up does not requires a fixed time period; it is a moment in time.
        • ⇨ 늦게까지 자느라고 학교에 늦은 적이 있어요. (O)
        • Written this way is fine, because if the action is sleep, sleep takes up a period of time.
    • 집에서 늦게 나가느라고 버스를 놓친 적이 있어요. (X)
      • Going out (나가다) is also a short moment in time and so it is not appropriate.
      • ⇨ 집에서 늦게 나가서 버스를 놓친 적이 있어요. (O)
  6. The subject of both clauses must be the same.
    • 룸메이트가 시끄럽게 코를 고느라고 (내가) 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
  7. Do not use the past tense -았/었-, only the basic form.
    • 어제 숙제를 했느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 어제 숙제를 하느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (O)
  8. -느라고 can be used idiomatically with 고생하다/수고하다. Both have the meaning of hardship or trouble and (my own guess) is perhaps that is how it came to be able to be used with -느라고 since it is a negative result. (Note that I am not familiar with both of these expressions when I encounter them here.)
    • 야근하느라고 수고하셨어요. (Thank you for working overtime.)
      • “수고하셨어요!” is said at the end of a work day to acknowledge/thank everyone for their hard work, as a kind of “Well done!”
    • 청소하느라고 고생하셨어요.

4. 누구나, 언제나, 어디나, 무엇이나, 무슨 N(이)나

This is used when expressing “any” or “every” without exception. It combined with wh- nouns and pronouns (who, when, where, what).

You can replace 나 with 든지 and the meaning is the same. There is no difference in the usage (in terms of formality): 누구든지, 언제든지, 어디든지, 무엇이든지, 무슨 N(이)든지.


받침 X → -나 받침 O → -이나
누구 → 누구 무엇 → 무엇이나


  1. 이 공연은 누구나 볼 수 있으니까 어린이를 데리고 오셔도 돼요. (Anyone can see this performance, so you can bring your children.)
  2. 그 사람은 성격이 좋아서 누구하고나 친하게 지내요. (His personality is good, so he can get along with anyone.)
    • You can also have 누구한테나/누구에게나 for “to everyone”: 마리코 씨는 누구에게나 친절하기 때문에 우리 반 친구들이 누구나 좋아하는 사람이다. (Mariko is kind to everyone, so she is someone that is liked by everyone in our class.)
  3. 할머니가 만드신 음식은 무슨 음식이나 다 맛있어요. (Any food that grandmother makes is delicious.)
    • = 할머니가 만드신 음식은 무엇이나 다 맛있어요.
  4. 학교 근처에 어디나 마찬가지일 거예요. 월세가 싼 집 없어요. (Anywhere near the school will be the same. There are no houses with cheap rent.)
  5. 오토바이가 있으면 어디에나 빠르게 갈 수 있어요. (With a motorbike, you can go anywhere quickly.)


  • 3A Chapter 2 Worksheet p. 38 to 41
  • 3A Chapter 2 Textbook p. 58 to 60 (Reading and Writing)


  • Date: Feb 19
  • Students: 8 out of 11 (slightly different people not around each week)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. I think it was the same person.

Lesson 112 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 10)

We started by going through the vocabulary on the first page of the Chapter 2 handout. My scrap notes for this lesson were also unsure and forgot what we had covered in the previous lesson. (The only way I can actually write these posts is actually because I have some notes, though they may be missing information.)

We also went to look at the textbook (vocabulary section, p. 46 only) to talk about bad habits. This was an activity of sorts too in the handout. Then, we covered the first two grammar points.


3A Chapter 2

1. V-자마자

This is used when an action happens right after another action (V1자마자 V2). It translates to “as soon as” or “right after” in English.


  1. 너무 피곤해서 집에 오자마자 잤어요. (I was very tired, so I went to sleep as soon I came home.)
  2. 수업이 끝나자마자 학생들이 교실을 나갔어요. (The students left the classroom right after the class ended.)
  3. 도착하자마자 전화하세요. (Please call me as soon as you arrive.)
  • Do not combine with ‘-았/었-’ or ‘-겠-’ (tense). Only use the basic form.
    • 집에 갔자마자 잤어요. (X) ⇨ 집에 자마자 잤어요. (O)
    • 밥을 먹겠자마자 샤워할 거예요. (X) ⇨ 밥을 자마자 샤워할 거예요. (O)

2. V-(으)라고 하다

This is used when indirectly quoting an imperative (command) or a request. For statements, see A-다고 하다, V-는/ㄴ다고 하다, N(이)라다 and A-대요, V-는/ㄴ대요, N(이)래요.


For V-(으)세요:

받침 X, ㄹ + -라고 했어요 받침 O + 으라고 했어요
가다 → 가라고 했어요 읽다 → 읽으라고 했어요

For commands not to do something (quoting V-지 마세요):

-지 말라고 했어요
가다 지 말라고 했어요
읽다 지 말라고 했어요


  1. 친구에게 이메일을 보내라고 했어요. (I told my friend to send me an email.)
  2. 언니가 이 책을 읽으라고 했어요 (My sister told me to read this book.)
  3. 선생님이 교실에서 영어로 이야기하지 말라고 하셨어요. (The teacher told me not to speak in English in the classroom.)

Quoting ‘주다’ Sentences

주다 is a bit special, since not only does it mean “give” as in N 주세요, it appears in other grammars, such as V-아/어 주다 and V-아다/어다 주다 where it indicates that something is being done for someone, and also certain verbs such as 도와주다 (to help) and 빌려주다 (to lend).

When indirectly quoting imperative ‘주다’ sentences, it depends on whether the speaker is making a direct request of the listener, or whether he is making a request on behalf of a third person.

  1. Making a direct request of listener: Use ‘-아/어 달라고 하다’
  2. Making a request on behalf of a third person: Use ‘-아/어 주라고 하다’
Example 1

Say 유진 is at a restaurant. She asks the waiter to give her a glass of water:

  • 유진 (웨이터한테): “물 좀 주세요.” ⇨ 유진 씨는 물을 달라고 했어요.

Now, imagine 켈리 just comes into the restaurant, sits beside 유진 and 켈리 looks like she could use a drink. The waiter has returned with a glass of water, and 유진 asks the waiter to give the water to 켈리:

  • 유진 (웨이터한테): “켈리 씨에게 이 물 좀 주세요.” ⇨ 유진 씨는 켈리 씨에게 물을 주라고 했어요.
Example 2

유진 needs help and asks 켈리 to help her:

  • 유진 (켈리한테): “저를 도와주세요.” ⇨ 유진 씨는 켈리한테 도와 달라고 했어요.

Now, if 유진 doesn’t need help, but sees that 웨슬리 needs help and 켈리 is available, 유진 asks 켈리 to help 웨슬리:

  • 유진 (켈리한테): “웨슬리 씨를 도와주세요.” ⇨ 유진 씨는 켈리한테 웨슬리 씨를 도와주라고 했어요.


3A Chapter 2

Korean English Notes
버릇 bad habit, manners 버릇 refers to only bad habits, 습관 should be used for positive habits. It also means manners/etiquette in the way you would say someone has no manners: 버릇이 없다
습관을 기르다 to develop a habit 습관 can be used for both positive negative habits.
술버릇 drinking habit
잠버릇 sleeping habit
늦는 습관 habit of being late
쉽게 화(를) 내는 습관 habit of being hot tempered
편식하다 to be picky about food 편식하는 습관
손톱을 깨물다 to bite one’s nail
다리를 꼬다 to cross one’s legs
한숨을 쉬다 to sigh
잠꼬대를 하다 to talk in one’s sleep
조언을 하다 to advise 助言
야단을 치다 to give a scolding 惹端
야단을 맞다 to get a scolding
실천하다 to put into practice 实践
포기하다 to give up 抛弃
게다가 moreover
괴롭다 to be distressed
뒤척거리다 to toss and turn
옮기다 to move This is the subject moving an object to another location. 가방을 옮겨요. or 화사를 옮겼어요.
움직이다 to move This is the subject itself moving. 인형이 움직여요. (The doll is moving on its own! Some horror movie stuff.) 움직이지 마! (The equivalent of the police telling you to “Freeze!”—basically, “Don’t move!”)
실은 actually
도망가다 to run away
버릇을 고치다 to fix a habit
머리를 긁다 to scratch one’s head
다리를 떨다 to shake one’s legs
이를 갈다 to grind one’s teeth
코를 골다 to snore
불평을 하다 to complain 不平
잔소리를 하다 to nag
마음먹다 to set one’s mind on something
한숨도 못 자다 to be unable to sleep at all
밤새도록 all night long
음악을 틀다 to turn on music
일인실 a room for one person 一人室
사정이 있다 to have a circumstance 事情
깜빡 in a blink
어쩔 수 없다 to be unavoidable
소방차 fire engine
엉망이다 to be in a mess 내 동생은 긴장을 하면 손톱을 깨물어서 손톱이 항상 엉망이다. / 방이 엉망이네.
불만 dissatisfaction 다들 나한테 불만이 많은 것 같아.
따끔하다 harsh 나중에 한번 따끔하게 아야기를 하자.
귀찮게 annoyingly
전하다 to deliver/hand something over, to tell/inform Context to pass (return) a book to someone: 알리한테 빌린 책인데 만나면 좀 전해 줄래?. Another example with the other meaning (to inform) in the homework instructions: 결석한 친구에게 메모한 내용을 전해 주세요.
기꺼이 다른 사람들을 도와주다 to willingly help others
건강을 증진하다 to improve one’s health
균형 잡힌 식사를 하다 to eat a balanced diet
정신적 강인함을 기르다 to develop mental toughness
시간을 선용하다 make good use of time
평화적으로 해결하다 to resolve (sth) peacefully 분쟁을 평화적으로 해결하다: to resolve conflict peacefully
문화와 전통을 존중하다 to respect culture and traditions


  • 3A Chapter 2 Worksheet p. 32 to 37
  • 3A Chapter 2 Quizlet Word Set
    • I didn’t do this, and I died the next lesson (though if I recall, it also wasn’t added to the class so I did not have access, but I still should have revised the vocab anyway)


  • Date: Feb 12
  • Students: 9 out of 11
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random-ish. For 2 activities it was a group of 3 and one of the persons was the same. And another person for the first activity which was a pair.

Lesson 111 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 9)

We finished up Chapter 1 in the textbook. There was also a video script for Chapter 1 in the new set of notes that I received (along with the revision sheet, and notes for Chapters 2 and 3).

We started with the video script, with the usual practising after. One of the items was a song (we didn’t have to practise that). After that, we moved to the textbook, picking up at the Listening and Speaking portion and finishing Chapter 1. We started on the vocabulary for Chapter 2 but I believe we did not finish all the words, as we continued going through the list in the next lesson.

Culture Note

3A Chapter 1

I have no recollection of going through the culture note in detail. We did talk about the preparation section, where it asks how do you address certain people.

The first was if you have a 선배 (senior in school, higher grade) who is younger than you in age. What I wrote in the book was that it is safer to call them 선배 (rather than by name).


Nothing new, but I’m convinced this is very important and hence it is being repeated time and time again. Even though it seems like it is given in bits and pieces and different chapters have presented some form of information about it.

  1. When the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ is followed by ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ’, they are combined and pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ].
  2. The initial consonant ‘ㅎ’ that follows after the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] is pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ].

Both points are covered in Lesson 44—1B Chapter 11. (In fact, the first rule also includes ㅂ there.)

First point was covered also in Lesson 72—2A Chapter 3. The second point is also identical to what was in Lesson 96—2B Chapter 13.


  • 끊겼어요 [끈켜써요]
  • 어떻대요? [어떠태요]
  • 일이 좀 많지만 재미있어요. [만치만]
  • 밥하고 김치 [바파고]


Since we did not finish going through all the vocabulary for Chapter 2, and I am honestly not sure where we left off (though I have my suspicions), I will include the list in the next lesson’s post.

Korean English Notes
숨을 쉬다 to breathe
손톱 fingernail
능력 ability
한국 친구와 어울리다 to get along well with Korean friends
노래자랑 singing contest
씨름 대회 wrestling competition 씨름 is traditional wrestling
공부를 시키다 to ask someone to study e.g. parents asking you to study. (I can’t find the fuller context.)
땡땡이 치다 to play truant


  • 3A Chapter 1 Textbook p. 35, answer the 4 questions
    • We did this in class, but I think for the written assignment you should write about your own experience (?)
  • 3A Chapter 1 Textbook p. 36 and 37 (Reading and Writing)
    • Use 첫째, 둘째, 셋째, 마지막으로 to order the points


  • Date: Feb 5
  • Students: 10 out of 11 (One of the students not originally from my class was absent)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random

Lesson 110 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 8)

We covered the rest of the grammar points in the handout, and then started on the book. Not everything was gone through in detail, we skipped the first part which was vocab, and went to grammar review. We covered the two speaking dialogues.

The main thing would probably be the grammar points.


3A Chapter 1

2. V-아야겠다/어야겠다

This is used to show the speaker’s strong determination of doing something which they think should be done.

It is a combination of the 아야/어야/해야 (should do something) and 겠 for the first person subject (to convey strong intention).


ㅏ,ㅗ O + -아야겠다 ㅏ,ㅗ X + -어야겠다 하다 → 해야겠다
사다 → 사야겠다 새우다 → 새워야겠다 예매하다 → 예매해야겠다


  1. 날씨가 추워요. 따뜻한 옷을 사야겠어요. (The weather is cold. I guess I should buy some warm clothes.)
  2. 살이 많이 쪘어요. 운동을 시작해야겠어요. (I have gained a lot of weight. I’ll have to start exercising.)
  3. 숙제가 너무 많아서 오늘은 밤을 새워야겠어요. (I have so much homework so I have to stay up all night tonight.)

3. A-대요, V-는/ㄴ대요, N(이)래요

This is used to deliver other people’s words in an informal setting.

대요 is the short form of 다고 해요 and 래요 is the short form of 라고 해요 that was covered in the last lesson.


-다고 하다/-(이)라고 하다 -대요/-(이)래요 받침 X 받침 O
A -다고 하다 -대요 크다 → 크대요 작다 → 작대요
V -(느)ㄴ다고 하다 -(느)ㄴ대요 가다 → 간대요 먹다 → 먹는대요
N -(이)라고 하다 -(이)래요 친구 → 친구래요 책 → 책이래요


Original Statement Indirect Speech
“시간이 없어요.” 시간이 없대요.
“오늘 야근해요.” 오늘 야근한대요.
“한국에 갈 거예요.” 한국에 갈 거래요.
“친구예요.” 친구래요.


Korean English Notes
대청소를 하다 to spring clean
마중 나가다 to fetch, go and meet 공항으로 마중나갈 거예요.
비타민이 들어 있다 to contain vitamins
회식 staff dinner
언어학을 전공하다 to major in linguistics
북쪽 지방 northern district, latitude I forgot the context this was found in.


  • 3A Chapter 1 Worksheet, p. 23, 26 and 27
  • 3A Chapter 1 Quizlet Sentence set


  • Date: Jan 29
  • Students: 9 out of 11
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random

Lesson 109 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 7)

I started this note the day after the original lesson but never finished it. And I have 6 lessons after this to cover until today. The next lesson is the pre-advanced test. I have decided to include the date for my own sanity. However, I am uncertain about keeping this format in future. I think using Obsidian may be better, but I have been neglecting that too. Once I settle these and make sense of things, I will decide how things will go.

Actually, this post should have been also pretty short (but in the end it is not, because the grammar point has quite a lot of detail). We still have not touched the textbook, but the entire lesson was still in the handout, covering and practising indirect speech.

The invoice for the next term was sent in the week before this lesson, but I had not yet paid. Turned out to be a good thing because there was actually a discount from the last round due to a shorter lesson. I had forgotten as well.


3A Chapter 1. We continue with the first grammar point.

1. Indirect Speech (간접 화법)

A-다고 하다, V-는/ㄴ다고 하다, and N(이)라다고 하다.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 크다고 해요 작다 → 작다고 해요
V 가다 → 간다고 해요 먹다 → 먹는다고 해요
N 친구 → 친구라고 해요 책 → 책이라고 해요

This is very similar to the 서술체 form. It is the same for adjectives and verbs. The only difference is with the nouns, where it is 라고 and not 다고.

다고 is used always for quoting statements, not questions.

There is no big difference between using present tense 해요 and past tense 했어요. It is not as strict as compared to English. Both are fine.

Present Tense: Adjective/있다/없다 + -다고 하다

  • 좋다 → 좋다고 했어요
  • 바쁘지 않다 → 바쁘지 않다고 했어요
  • 있다 → 있다고 했어요
Original Statement Indirect Speech
“지금 기분이 좋아요.” 지금 기분이 좋다고 했어요.
“머리가 아파요.” 머리가 아프다고 했어요.
“핵이 무거워요.” 핵이 무겁다고 했어요.

Present Tense: Verb + -는/ㄴ다고 하다

  • 좋아하다 → 좋아한다고 했어요
  • 읽다 → 읽는다고 했어요
Original Statement Indirect Speech
“점심 때 보통 김밥을 먹어요.” 점심 때 보통 김밥을 먹는다고 했어요.
“주말마다 친구를 만나요.” 주말마다 친구를 만난다고 했어요.
“켈리 씨는 책을 읽지 않아요.” 켈리 씨는 책을 읽지 않***는다고 했어요*.

Present Tense: Noun + (이)라고 하다

Original Statement Indirect Speech
유진: “저는 한국 사람이에요.” 유진 씨는 한국 사람이라고 했어요.
웨슬리: “제 직업은 의사입니다.” 웨슬리 씨는 직업1 의사라고 했어요.
한스: “오늘이 제 새일이에요.” 한스 씨는 오늘이 (한스 씨)2 생일이라고 했어요.

Past Tense: Verb/Adjective + -았/었다고 하다, Noun + -였/이었다고 하다

The past tense is not different to what we have seen before.

  • 가다 → 갔다고 했어요
  • 먹다 → 먹었다고 했어요
  • 바쁘다 → 바빴다고 했어요
  • 학생이다 → 학생이었다고 했어요
  • 의사다 → 의사였다고 했어요
Original Statement Indirect Speech
유진: “어제 일했어요.” 유진 씨는 어제 일했다고 했어요.
웨슬리: “주말에 집에서 쉬었어요.” 웨슬리 씨는 주말에 집에서 쉬었다고 했어요.
한스: “어제 제 새일이에요.” 한스 씨는 어제 생일이었고 했어요.

Future Tense: Verb/Adjective + -을/ㄹ 거라고 하다, Noun + -일 거라고 하다

Since present tense 이에요/예요 becomes (이)라], when you have the future tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요, the “예요” part is changed in the same way. Hence, you have 거라고 하다.

  • 가다 → 갈 거라고 했어요
  • 먹다 → 먹을 거라고 했어요
Original Statement Indirect Speech
유진: “내일이 친구를 만날 거예요.” 유진 씨는 내일은 친구를 만날 거라고 했어요.
웨슬리: “영화를 볼 거예요.” 웨슬리 씨는 영화를 볼 거라고 했어요.


Korean English Notes
경제학 economics
컴퓨터 공학 computer engineering
휴학 leave of absence; time off from school 休學. Apparently it is quite common for Korean students to take a gap year after their first or second year of studies. The student who return from such a leave are called 복학생. Naturally, they will be older than their new classmates, and those from their original batch might already be graduating.
군대에 가다 to enlist; to enter the military
반응 reaction 反應
설마요. 그럴 리가요. No way!
말도 안 돼요. It’s nonsense.
어쩐지 No wonder.
누가 그래요? Who told you so?


  • 3A Chapter 1 Worksheet, p. 21 to 25, except p. 23
  • 3A Chapter 1 Handout, p. 5 to 7


  • Date: Jan 22
  • Students: 10 out of 11 (1 from the other class originally, and was my breakout room partner the lesson before this)
  • Breakout room activities: Three, random pairs, but were all from my old class

  1. This is changed from 은 to 이 because this is now the inner clause. 은 would be unnatural.  

  2. A classmate asked whether it is possible to use 그. The teacher said that 그 for “he” is rarely used it speech, only in writing. You might write in a journal: 그의 생일이라고 했다

Lesson 108 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 6)

We started the lesson with the guessing game. We were supposed to write 5 sentences using the 서술체 form that we learnt in the last lesson that I did not do.

We finished up the 2B book.

There is not really much to talk about. The culture note was a poem. Then we had to write a poem as homework, which was the task on that page. The teacher sent us 2 other sample poems. I tried my best with this one.

There was no new pronunciation topic. Instead, there was a passage with certain words underlined that we were supposed to pay attention to the pronunciation for—these were pronunciation rules we learnt before.

For the last half an hour of the lesson, we started on the handout for chapter 1. We covered the new vocab, and also the first portion about indirect speech. It is not even the full grammar point, but the summary, and only for the present tense.


This is the very first grammar point in 3A Chapter 1.

1. Indirect Speech (간접 화법)

This builds on the very important ending that was covered in the last chapter (and that we’ll apparently see more of in this level).

A-다고 하다, V-는/ㄴ다고 하다, and N(이)라다.

While it is essentially the same for adjectives and verbs, it is slightly different for nouns. But it should still look familiar.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 크다고 해요 작다 → 작다고 해요
V 가다 → 간다고 해요 먹다 → 먹는다고 해요
N 친구 → 친구라고 해요 책 → 책이라고 해요


Korean English Notes
입학식 entrance ceremony 入学式
전공 major 专攻
강의 lecture 讲义
동아리 club In school.
축제 festival 祝节
일시 date and time 日时
강의실 lecture room; (university) classroom This is the usual “classroom“ (교실) in university.
강당 (lecture) hall 讲堂. Much bigger than the usual classroom.
졸업식 graduation ceremony 卒业式
기회 opportunity 机会
설명회 orientation 说明会
오리엔테이션 orientation English. Also called “OT” for short.
대학에 지원하다 to apply to a university 志愿
대회에 참가하다 to participate in a competition 参加
동아리에 가입하다 to join a club 加入
제공하다 to provide 提供
하늘의 별 따기 do something very difficult to pluck a star from the sky
과목 subject 科目
수강 taking a course 受讲
성적 grade; score 成绩
학점 credit; grade 学点. As in, an A grade = A학점.
학기 term 学期
주차장 car park 驻车场
장학금 scholarship 奖学金
장학생 scholarship student
상금 cash prize 赏金
도움이 되다 to be helpful
장학금을 신청하다 to apply for a scholarship 申请
회의에 참석하다 to attend a meeting 參席
회의에 불참하다 to be absent from a meeting Add 불 to negate. 불참하다 also works for things that are not participated in (참가하다).
수업에 출석하다 to attend class 出席
수업에 결석하다 to be absent from class 缺席
회의에 불참하다 to be absent from a meeting Add 불 to negate. 불참하다 also works for things that are not participated in (참가하다).
시험에 합격하다 to pass an exam 合格. 붙다 is native Korean. Because 붙다 also means “to stick”, hence there is the tradition to eat sticky food in order to pass an exam.
엉망이다 to be a mess
신입생 환영회 welcome party for new students 新入生 欢迎会


  • 2B Textbook: Write a poem about the seasons (p. 220)
  • 3A Chapter 1 Worksheets p. 18 to 20
  • Quizlet 3A word set


  • Date: Jan 15
  • Students: 10 out of 11 (1 from my original class, the girl who joined last)
  • Breakout room activities: Speaking 2 and pronunciation. Same partner for both.

Lesson 107 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 5)

This post is a short one, because there’s no new grammar points (all were covered the previous lesson). What we did was mostly a review of those points by doing the activities in the textbook.

We started with Quizlet, 2 rounds. I had checked after that lesson but there was no new deck. However, it was added by some point. (There was a 3 week break between Lesson 106 and Lesson 107, just that I procrastinated on that post until Lesson 107, and then a week after that.)

We finished up the handout (which I had thought was part of the homework for some reason), and then it was going through the textbook. We got up to just before Speaking 2.


Korean English Notes
프로젝트팀 project team
반친구 classmate
학기 semester, term 學期
휴식 break, rest 休息. 휴식하다 = to take a rest, break
계산원 cashier
홈스테이를 하다 to stay with a local family home stay


  • Chapter 18 Reading & Writing
    • I… just saw the topic and… it makes me want to give up entirely. “The most memoriable person you have met in Korea.”—when I have only been there twice and the last trip was > 10 years ago.
  • Textbook p. 210, writing sentences about yourself using 서술체 and send via KakaoTalk to the teacher for our classmates to guess.
    • I totally forgot about this, I have not seen anything in the chat so I guess maybe during the lesson, which only makes it 10x worse. And speaking of, I have not gotten back the homework I submitted last week before the lesson (which I had 3 weeks to do…). Maybe the teacher had too much work because everyone submitted at the last minute?


  • Students: 9 out of 11 (2 from my original class, the guy and the slightly older lady, were not around)
  • Breakout room activities: Three, random pairs

Lesson 106 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 4)

Super long overdue post from last year. I decided I better get this in before my next lesson (108). Fortunately, the next lesson does not have much new content but was a lot of revision out of the textbook. Which was necessary given the 3 weeks break between lessons 106 and 107.

Started with the Self Check for Chapter 17 before starting on Chapter 18. Covered all 3 grammar points for the chapter. The third is the most important, in fact, the main grammatical concept that we will see again in this level (pre-advance, or if you follow the textbook, then it's the level 3 textbook).


1. V-(으)ㄴ 지

In the handout, it was written as V-(으)ㄴ 지 (기간)이/가 되다.

This is used to indicate how much time has passed after something is done.

받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄴ 지 받침 O + -은 지
배우다 → 배운 지 먹다 → 먹은 지


    • 가: 수영한 지 얼마나 됐어요? (How long has it been since you swam?)
    • 나: 얼마 안 됐어요. (Not long ago.)
  1. 고향에 간 지 오래 됐어요. (It has been a long time since I went to my hometown.)
  2. 한국에 산 지 2년이 됐어요. (It has been 2 years since I started to live in Korea.)


What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences?

  1. 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.
  2. 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.

You can translate the first as: “I have not gone on vacation for 2 years.”

The second can mean (as per the examples earlier): “It has been 2 years since I went on vacation.”

The second sentence in this case also refers to your last trip; it was 2 years ago. Effectively, this has the same meaning as the first sentence.

However, it is also possible for the second sentence to mean: “It has been 2 years since I started travelling (and I am still travelling).”

Hence, it is actually clearer if you want to convey the first meaning to use the negative form: 여행을 한 지 2년 됐어요.

The third example sentence (“한국에 산 지 2년이 됐어요.”) also has this ambiguity. It could mean that you lived in Korea since 2 years ago and are still living there, or you last lived there 2 years ago. If you mean the latter, probably it would be clearer to use the negative form.

2. N(이)나 (2)

We first saw N(이)나 with the meaning of “or”.

When ‘(이)나’ is used with numbers or quantities, it expresses that the number or amount is larger than what the speaker considers to be typical.

This is something that is subjective and depends on the speaker. Someone might add N(이)나 for a quantity that someone else finds normal and would not add N(이)나.

This is another one of those grammars that that have no special translation in English.

받침 X + -나 받침 O + -이나
네 마리 → 네 마리 열 번 → 열 번이나


  1. 제 친구는 고양이를 네 마리 키워요. (My friend raises 4 cats!)
  2. 동생이 30분이나 늦었어요. (My brother was late for 30 minutes!)
  3. 이 책은 열 번이나 봤어요. (He read this book 10 times!)

3. A-다, V-ㄴ다/는다, N(이)다

This form is the sentence ending form for written language: 서술체.

These forms are used in newspapers or journals to express objective statements. It is also used when writing dairies or reports to describe the situation and events objectively.

This is very important grammar point for SNU 3, the way A-(으)ㄴ, V-는, and N인 is very important for SNU 2. Meaning, it will appear in a lot of the grammar that will be covered in level 3, the way A-(으)ㄴ, V-는, and N인 have appeared in a variety of grammar points (which I am not going to link here).

받침 X 받침 O
A (Present) -다 (basic form) 크다 → 크 작다 → 작
A (Past) -았/었다 크다 → 컸다 작다 → 작았다
V (Present) -는/ㄴ다 가다 → 간다 먹다 → 먹은다
V (Past) -았/었다 가다 → 갔다 먹다 → 먹었다
V (Future) -(으)ㄹ 것이다 가다 → 갈 것이다 먹다 → 먹을 것이다
N (Present) (이)다 친구 → 친구 선생님 → 선생님이다
N (Past) 였다/이었다 친구 → 친구였다 선생님 → 선생님이었다


  1. 오늘은 친구들과 함께 시내에 갔다. (Today, I went with my friends to the city.)
  2. 휴일이라서 길이 많이 복잡하. (The road is congested because it's a holiday.)
  3. 나는 학생이다. (I am a student.)

Usage Notes

  1. 않다: When it follows a verb, it is conjugated as a verb (-지 않는다), but when it follows an adjective, it is conjugated as an adjective (-지 않다).
  2. -고 싶다, 필요하다, 같다, 좋다, and 싫다 are adjectives. 있다/없다 also are considered adjectives as they describe a state. 좋아하다, 싫어하다, 알다, 모르다 are verbs.
  3. The humble form of the first person pronoun is not used. 나/우리 are used in place of 저/저회 to express I/we.
  4. Questions in the narrative form are rare, but to write a question in the narrative form, you use A-은/ㄴ 가?, V-는가?, N인가?


Korean English Notes
감정 emotions
계절의 변화 changes of seasons
N이/가 그립다 to miss (adj.) 그립다 can be used for places (e.g. your hometown), things (e.g. food), and people. 보고 싶다 is more for missing, say, people (and that you want to see them). It would be strange to use 보고 싶다 for things.
후회가 되다 to feel regret
아쉽다 to feel sorry
기억에 남다 to remain in memory
정(이) 들다 to become emotionally attached
눈물을 흘리다 to shed tears 흘리다 can be used also for other things, e.g. 땀을 흘리다, 콧물을 흘리다
꽃이 피다 to have flowers bloom
바람이 불다 to have the wind blow
건조하다 to be dry
습도가 높다 to have high humidity
장마 rainy season
장마가 시작되다 to have the start of the rainy season 6월~7월 (June to July) in Kore
태풍이 오다 to have a typhoon come 태풍이 불다 can be used as well, since it is wind.
단풍이 들다 to have leaves change colour
나뭇잎이 떨어지다 to have leaves fall [나문닙]. 나뭇잎 = 나무 (tree) + 잎 (leaf)
쌀쌀하다 to be chilly
기온이 영화로 내려가다 to have temperature drop below zero
열하십도 -10 degrees
얼음이 얼다 to freeze
눈이 내리다 to have snow fall 오다 also works, as we saw before.
시간이 지나가다 time goes by
내내 all the time 이 사람 내내 + V. Not quite sure of the difference between this and 항상 (always)
사정이 있다 to have a reason
담그다 to soak 담가요
김치를 담그다 to make kimchi Need to soak the cabbage.
대하다 to treat As in, to treat like family, or as a sister. 동생처럼 대하다, 편하게 대해다
실력이 늘다 to improve oneself OO 실력이 늘다
배가 부르다 to have a full stomach
말없이 without saying anything 동생이 말없이 ... 하고 있어요.
넘다 to cross, exceed, go over 저는 결혼한 지 7년이 넘었어요. = I have been married for over 7 years.
까먹다 to forget 잊어버리다 is one of the meanings. 잘 까먹다 means to forget easily. 내용이 까먹었어요. 그 책을 읽은 지 3년이 넘었어요.
성공적 successful 성공적으로 = successfully
개최하다 to hold, host
경기장 stadium 국립 경기장 = national stadium. 운동장 is also previously used for “stadium”, but Naver dictionary says “sports field”, “playground”, or “track”
관객 audience
방콕 Bangkok
사정이 있다 to have a reason/situation 다음 주에 우리 반 친구들이 같이 여행을 가는데 저는 사정이 있어서 못 가게 됐어요.
마르다 to dry


  • Chapter 18 Worksheet
  • Handout p. 9 (but there is also a p. 10, the last page. I did both.)
    • I checked the message she sent on KakaoTalk, it doesn't mention this at all. I think this is just something she mentioned in class, though there is the possibility I misheard and maybe she meant that we will go through p. 9 next time. Or she meant only the first exercise of p. 9, which is not written, but just speaking practice.
    • In the next lesson, we went through the last 2 pages so… clearly I misheard.
  • Quizlet (but I checked, we do not have access yet for Chapter 18—this was a week after the lesson when I checked, but it was added at some point, which made me realise I have not been getting emails for sets added to the new class…)


  • Students: 11 out of 11
  • Breakout room activities: Just one

Lesson 105 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 3)

This lesson does not have a lot to write for the post. It feels strange to have so much speaking activities again and slowing down the pace to what was normal in the past.

My wifi was acting up at the start of this lesson. Fortunately, it was just the wifi and not the internet, and plugging in a LAN cable worked. If not, I kept having things freeze on me every minute at the start of the lesson.

In the textbook, we started with p. 232 which was an activity to describe the picture, serving as a revision for the last grammar point that we covered last week. Then, we did Speaking 2, the activity after that, then the Listening.

Next week, I guess we might do the self-check and then start on the next Chapter. But for the two weeks after that lesson, there will be no lesson due to the Christmas and New Year break. The next lesson after that will be in the new year.

Culture Note

This was the second last thing covered. We did not read the passage. The topic was about preferred colours in traditional costumes.

In Korea, the children wear top (called 저고리) which is multi-coloured. Boys would wear pants while girls would wear a skirt with it.


This is nothing new, but this is the first time the rule is stated in the textbook.

In most cases, when the final consonant ‘ㄴ’ is followed by ‘ㄹ’, ‘ㄴ’ is pronounced as [ㄹ].

We had the closely-related (with ㄹ + ㄴ instead of ㄴ + ㄹ) version covered in Lesson 100, and I noted that I could not find this version. (And today as well, the teacher did mention that the rule applies to the opposite order.)


  1. 한라산 [할라산]
  2. 편리하다 [펼리하다]
  3. 연락처 [열락처]


Korean English Notes
책종이 page of a book
접다 to fold
접히다 to be folded 책종이가 접혀 있어요.
달리다 to be hung, to be hooked This is usually hung on a string, where it is not so easily detached, e.g. a kind of doll on a bag. 걸리다 would be hanging something like a picture on the wall, where it can be easily removed. (Note that 달리다 also means “to run”.)
손잡이 handle In this context, it was one of the handles on the subway that someone was holding on to
잡다 to hold 손잡이를 잡고 있어요.
열쇠고리 key ring 키체인 and 키링 are also understandable.
점원 clerk, shop assisstant 店員. In the context, it was a waiter. Also can be called 직원 (職員, employee) or 웨이터.
유실물 센터 lost and found (centre) 분실물 센터
분실물 lost article
strap, string
추억 memory
소중하다 to be precious
돌려주다 to return
신고 report
돌잔치 first birthday party
무지개 rainbow
색동저고리 multicoloured Korean top 저고리 is a traditional Korean top


  • Textbook Chapter 17 Reading & Writing
  • Textbook Task on p.196 (write the stories for the cards on p. 234 and p.235; p. 233 was a demo in class)


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (Same as last week, turned out that girl was attending a wedding last week, and another this week)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs

Lesson 104 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 2)

This lesson, we covered the last two grammar points in Chapter 17.

We started with Quizlet, then covered the textbook, skipping p. 184 (the first grammar point) and going to the second on p. 185.1) Then we did Speaking 1, before going to the handout to cover the grammar points.


3. ‘ㅎ’ 불규칙

Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This applies to some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’. Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This irregular conjugation applies to the following:

  • 빨갛다 (to be red)
  • 파랗다 (to be blue)
  • 노랗다 (to be yellow)
  • 하얗다 (to be white)
  • 까맣다 (to be black)
  • 이렇다 (to be like this)
  • 그렇다 (to be like that)
  • 저렇다 (to be like that)
  • 어떻다 ([to be] how)

It does not apply to: 놓다, 넣다 (both are verbs); 좋다 (adjective, but regular).

Irregular Conjugation Rule

When the adjective is one of the irregular adjectives that have an adjective stem that ends in ‘ㅎ’.

  1. When endings beginning in vowels other than ‘아/어’ are added (usually this is 으), ‘ㅎ’ is dropped.
    • 빨갛다 + -(으)ㄴ → 빨
    • 파랗다 + -(으)니까→ 파라니까
  2. When endings beginning in ‘아/어’ are added, ‘ㅎ’ is dropped and ‘l’ is added.
    • 까맣다 + -아서 → 까마 + ㅣ + 아서 → 까매서
    • 하얗다 + -아요 → 하야 + ㅣ + -아요 → 하얘요
    • 이렇다 + -아요 → 이러 + ㅣ + -요 → 이래요[2]
  3. There is no change when the endings begin with consonants.
    • 노랗다 + -고 → 노랗고
    • 그렇다 + -습니다 → 그렇습니다

4. V-아/어 있다

This is used to indicate a continuing state of a completed action. It is often used with passive verbs. (The formation of passive verbs from their active counterparts is the topic of a future grammar point. For now, we learn the passive forms as they are.)

Previously, we learnt V-고 있다, which is the progressive form. When that form is used, it indicates that the action is in progress. However, for V-아/어 있다, the action is completed, but the state continues.

While it did not occur to me during the lesson (or even the lesson after), I am now wondering about the relationship between this and V-아/어/해 놓다. In both cases, the action is completed, but the state continues.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
앉다 → 앉아 있어요 붙다 → 붙어 있어요 하다 → 해 있어요


  1. 선생님이 서 있어요. (The teacher is standing.)
  2. 학생들이 교실에 앉아 있어요. (The students are sitting in the classroom.)
  3. 불이 켜져 있어요. (The light is on.)
  4. 꽃이 피어 있어요. (The flowers have bloomed.)
  5. 어 있어요. (It is dead.)


Korean English Notes
백설 공주 Snow White
구름 cloud
까매지다 to get suntanned
닫히다 to be closed
쓰이다 to be written
놓이다 to be placed
쌓이다 to be piled up e.g. work, laundry
켜지다 to be turned on
피다 to bloom 꽃이 피어 있어요. The flowers have bloomed. (Note that it is 피어 and not combined as per usual into 펴.)
촛불 candlelight, candle flame 케이크에 촛불이 켜져 있어요.
서랍 drawer


  • Rest of Chapter 17 Worksheet (p. 158–161)
  • Handout p. 11–12
    • 11 was the one we did as the last activity so I did not know if she meant to do page 13 (the last page). Turned out it did not have to be done, but I was not the only one who submitted. We did p. 13 in the next lesson.
  • Quizlet V아/어 있어요 set


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (the girl who went to Kr from my original class was not there)
  • Breakout room activities: First was with one person, last 3 with another

  1. Since I am writing this after the next lesson is over, we also ended up skipping p. 188–189, where the next two grammar points were covered in the textbook. 

Lesson 103 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 1)

This is two weeks overdue.

This was the first lesson at the new timing and the class size effectively. It started with self-intro (as I expected). Seems like even on the other side, most people did not prepare anything. I had a few sentences that I wrote but I ended up not using most of it, but instead kept it simple.

We went through the first two grammar points in Chapter 17, then did textbook for the vocab. It is such a leisurely pace, I am shocked, but even then, I think it is exactly what I need too. I barely got the homework done in time, and this post is obviously late.


1. V-아다/어다 주다

This is used when the subject does something for others.

We have seen something similar with V-아/어 주다.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
사다 → 사다 줘요 빌리다 → 빌려다 줘요 하다 → 해다 줘요

There are some fixed expressions that you would use with this:

  1. (object)을/를 사다 주다 (드리다)
  2. (object)을/를 빌려다 주다 (드리다)
  3. (person)을/를 (place)에/까지 데려다 주다 (모셔다 드리다1)

In brackets are the forms you use to respect the person. 드리다 is used instead of 주다.

What is the difference between 사 주다 and 사다 주다?

  • 사 주다 means that you are asking someone to buy something for you, and they pay for it.
  • 사다 주다 means someone else is someplace else2 (e.g. café) and you request that they help you buy something, but you pay them later for helping you with the purchase.

For 빌려 주다 and 빌려다 주다:

  • 빌려 주다 is to request someone lend you something of theirs; you want to borrow something from them.
  • 빌려다 주다 is a request for someone to help you borrow something (e.g. a book from the library).


  1. 집에 올 때 빵 좀 사다 주세요. (When you come home, please help me buy bread.)
  2. 도서관에 가면 책 좀 빌려다 줄 수 있어요? (If you go to the library, can you help me borrow a book?)
  3. 민수 야, 물 좀 갖다 줄래? 네, 갖다 드릴게요. (Minsu, can you bring me some water? Yes, I’ll get you some.)
  4. 아이를 학교에 데려다 줬어요. (I brought/fetched my child to school.)
  5. 할머니를 댁까지 모셔다 드렸어요. (I brought/fetched grandmother home.)

2. V-(으)ㄹ 뻔하다

This is used to indicate a close call or an action that almost occurred. In most cases, it is used to express the speaker’s relief that the event or action did not happen.

Since it usually describes something in the past, it is often used in the past tense.

It is often used with 하마터면, which means “almost” or “nearly”.

받침 X, ㄹ + ㄹ 뻔했어요 받침 O + 을 뻔했어요
다치다 → 다칠 뻔했어요 죽다 → 죽을 뻔했어요


  1. (하마터면) 버스에서 가방을 놓고 내릴 뻔했어요. (I almost left my bag on the bus.)
  2. 요리하다가 손가락을 다칠 뻔했어요. (I almost hurt my finger while cooking.)
  3. 기차를 놓칠 뻔했는데 타서 다행이에요. (I almost missed the train, so it’s a relief that I managed to get on.)


Korean English Notes
사고가 나다 to have an accident 事故
이 나다 to have a fire break out
고장이 나다 to break down 故障
큰일이 나다 to have a big problem
잃어버리다 to lose sth
떨어뜨리다 to drop sth
부딪히다 to bump into
넘어지다 to fall over
놓치다 to miss
정신이 없다 to be out of one’s senses 精神
열리다 to be open
깜빡 졸다 to nod off
서다 to stand
걸리다 to be hung
하얀색 (흰색) white
까만색 (검은색) black
회색 grey 灰色
빨간색 red
홍색 red Used by older generation, do not use it unless you want people to say that you learnt Korean from a grandmother (할머니).
노란색 yellow
파란색 blue
청색 blue Used by older generation
초록색(녹색 green 草綠色
연두색 yellow-green 軟豆色
주황색 orange 朱黃色
오렌지색 orange alternative to 주황색 that young people use today
분홍색 pink 粉紅色
핑크색 pink alternative to 분홍색 that people use today
보라색 purple
자주색 purple Used by older generation, do not use it unless you.
갈색 brown
하늘색 sky blue
와인색 maroon colour of (red) wine
줄무늬 striped pattern
가로 줄무늬 horizontal striped pattern
세로 줄무늬 vertical striped pattern
체크무늬 checkered pattern
꽃무늬 flowered pattern
물방울무늬 polka dots
하얀색에 파란색 물방울무늬 blue polka dots on a white background
(장소)에 데려다 주다 to fetch (accompany) someone to a place 아이를 학교에 데려다 줬어요.
(장소)에 모셔다 드리다 to fetch (accompany) someone to a place (honorific) 할머니를 병원에 모셔다 드렸어요.
손가락 finger
골목 alley 골목에서 갑자기 차가 나와서 부딪힐 뻔했어요.
놓고 내리다 to leave and alight To forget something on some form of transportation. 버스에서 가방을 놓고 내릴 뻔했어요.
떨다 to shiver (due to cold)
마감 deadline 보고서 마감


Realised when checking the homework that I am not in the KakaoTalk group for this new lesson. Not sure if the rest were added.

  • Chapter 17 Worksheet for Grammar points 1–2 (p. 152–157)


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (one from the original class did not attend, no idea who)

  1. Not 데려다 드리다 

  2. The difference in location was not explicitly mentioned in class, but while doing the homework, I searched up more information and I found out that this difference in location is another differentiating factor. V-아다/어다 주다 implies that there is a different location where the action takes place. But it ties in with the examples and fixed expressions. 

Lesson 102 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 8): Intermediate 4 Test

Test week. Wow, is this only Lesson 8? This is insane, it is twice the usual speed. Normally each level has 2 terms of 8 lessons each.

Next week, we have lesson at the new timing, joining another class. Not sure if the meeting ID will change. Also, I hope I receive the materials this week because I don’t have any materials for the upcoming chapters. I realised that the teacher did not mark or return the homework I sent the previous week just before class. She did mark the one I did this past week, though. (I also discovered while revising that I forgot to save one of the worksheets that she marked, and so the file is now gone…)

What I think is worth mentioning about the test:


We started with this and I was the last one to join because somehow I messed up, and the first time I tried to join, I got the message that the meeting ID was invalid. I think I might have somehow pressed backspace or something, because I selected the meeting from the history in the dropdown, so it is not as though I typed it.

Like the last test (Intermediate 2), it was not once through all questions, and then a second time, but we heard each question twice before moving on to the next.

I thought the speed of speech was generally okay. But still, I strugged at portions. There were a few I were uncertain about. I also did not have time to read any of the more wordy options later on in advance before the test started.

My printer had no more red ink so the printed test paper… well, I had some issues looking at the image for listening, which the first two questions had. Fortunately, the teacher (as usual) did screen share that page, so I had that to refer to.


The oral component was given on the second page. In the past, we have never been shown the oral questions in advance.

It is somewhat similar to before, the first section was on reading some sentences (with the notable part bolded), and then some questions to talk about and requirement to use the grammar we learnt.

I noticed the teacher skipped asking me one question, which was about my experiences in Korea. Maybe she remembered that I haven’t been there in years. (More than 10 years, actually.)

I did probably as well (badly) I usually do. I think this time the reading of the sentences was easier and I was okay with it. They were also short, so those were fine.

It was a bit scary to me that she repeated what I said.


The topic this time was not one of the writing activities, but it was also based on something that was in the textbook: To write about your important life events. I really struggled to cough out 300 words (the limit is 300–400) in around 30 minutes. I actually think that I did not meet the word limit; the paper does have a word count, and while I exceeded the line for the 300 word mark, due to the blank spaces, I do not think I might have met the word limit. I did make sure to squeeze in the required grammar.


  • Students: 5 out of 5

Lesson 101 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 7)

This will be a short post. Nothing new to cover today as it was a pure revision lesson. We even ended early, and the teacher said we will be given a discount on the next invoice (which will be sometime next year, since we—or at least I—just paid for a new term this past week, which lasts until the end of January).

We covered the Self-Check section in the textbook.

Next, we covered the first page of the revision sheet (which is vocab), and did Quizlet Live on the word sets. For Chapters 13 and 14, we did 2 rounds (one was EN to KR and the other KR to EN), while for Chapters 15 and 15 we only did 1 round. If you ask me which was it, I… really cannot remember, even after just playing that round, I find it hard to recall.

Then we covered the grammar revision (second page of the revision sheet).

Finally, there was the Pattern Practice section, also part of the revision sheet. We covered the first two sections in the main session, but then we were supposed to do 2 questions from each of the subsequent sections in the breakout room and alternate between the person asking and responding (as a pair). As my room had 3 people, we just took turns even though it was just 2 questions. Each section has 4 questions, so the rest of that is homework.

Next week is the test, and the following week we will be joining another class at a different timeslot. And that also starts the next level, which is Pre-Advance. While there are two more chapters in the 2B book, they are covered under the Pre-Advance level. The teacher mentioned that there are some important grammar inside these last two chapters that would be important to know before we start on the 3A book.


  • Rest of Pattern Practice exercises
  • Whatever other Homework debts (I have one, the last writing assignment)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
    • I did not catch everything the teacher said in Korean, but essentially the newest French student is stopping classes (and seems to be even leaving the country and going back to France)
  • Breakout room activities: One

Lesson 100 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 6)

Test is in two weeks. We finished Chapter 16 this lesson, and next lesson will be revision. After the test, the lesson time will change, which means we are merging with the other class. I hope the class does not end up becoming too big…

We started this lesson with Quizlet Live. This was really fortunate for me (because that means I can guess as it is MCQ) rather than having to answer individually. Of course this was the word deck (this is never done with the sentence deck). The winner was not surprising; it was first the older lady (cos she actually studies), then later when the other newer girl (not the newest) joined the class, then she finished first. Then that other lady got second. I got second and third with some care since I could eliminate some answers.

We finished up with the worksheet (the last grammar point). There was also a review after that of the Quizlet sentence deck, if I recall correctly, mostly to go through the new grammar? I cannot remember.

Anyway, after that, we looked at the textbook, from the beginning. Not everything was covered. We skipped going through the grammar points again, but did some of the activities below. One of the speaking activities we did, I just have this feeling it is going to come out on the test…

We did not do the culture note either, and finished with pronunciation. We did not cover the self-check in class since there wasn’t time. I suspect we might not do it next week but go straight to the revision sheet. If we do have the entire lesson for revision, I wonder if we will be using Quizlet like we did a very long time ago… probably the first or second test I had…


4. A/V-(으)ㄹ 테니까

Apparently, just like how the noun modifiers would be a form that we would see frequently in other grammar forms, we will also be seeing more of 테 in other grammar forms.

This particular grammar is used to indicate a speaker’s strong supposition or intention before giving orders or making a suggestion.

Essentially, it is one of:

  1. -(으)ㄹ 거예요 (supposition that thing will happen) + 그러니까
  2. -(으)ㄹ게요 (strong intention) + 그러니까

And so, usually it is followed by a suggestion, order, or request.

받침 X, ㄹ + ㄹ 테니까 받침 O + 을 테니까
A 크다 → 클 테니까 작다 → 작을 테니까
V 가다 → 갈 테니까 먹다 → 먹을 테니까


  1. 청소를 제가 할 테니까 설거지 좀 해 주세요. (I will clean up, so please do the dishes.)
  2. 주말에는 사람이 많을 테니까 미리 예악하세요. (There will be a lot of people on the weekend, so please book in advance.)
  3. 내가 도와줄 테니까 걱정하지 마. (I will help you, so don’t worry.)


It feels like I just wrote about pronunciation very recently… oh, I actually did in the last post. This just shows how fast we are going.

For Chapter 16, the pronunciation is about what happens when ‘ㄴ’ meets ‘ㄹ’.

When the initial consonant ‘ㄴ’ is preceded by the final consonant ‘ㄹ’, ‘ㄴ’ is pronounced as [ㄹ].

The teacher said it is also the same when the final consonant is ‘ㄴ’ and initial consonant is ‘ㄹ’, like we saw in 연락 [열락]. I tried to search, but I think we learnt this one without it being covered in a pronunciation section in the textbook. (It is in Lesson 58’s vocabulary section.)


  1. 실내 [실래]
  2. 물냉면 [물랭면]
  3. 사진이 잘 나왔네요 [잘라완네요]


Korean English Notes
침구 bedding pillows, blankets… the stuff on your bed (침대)
침구를 정리하다 to make the bed 침구를 정돈하다 as well, and maybe this latter one is more precise (from Naver).
쓰레기통을 비우다 to empty the dustbin 쓰레기통을 비워 놓았어요.
메모 memo (short note) 메모하다 = to jot down, to write a memo. 냉장고에 메모를 붙여 놓았어요. = He stuck a memo on the fridge.
우렁각시 Snail bride (Korean traditional fairy tale) 각시 is an old word for bride. Basically the snail a guy rescued and brought home and forgot about cleans up the house for him, and even prepared food. This is used to describe when someone helps you clean up the house while you are not around. On seeing the clean room upon your return, you exclaim: 우렁각시가 왔다 갔어요!
끓이다 to boil 국을 끓이다 = to boil soup
보여 주다 to show 여권을 보여 줘야 돼요. = You have to show your passport.
(명절) 선물세트 gift set Can buy from the 마트 (mart) to give to others (family?) during the holidays. There is a huge variety, some have Spam (the meat) and olive oil, others have shampoo.
상경하다 to go to Seoul 上京. 언제 (서올에) 상경했어요? = When did you come to Seoul (from your hometown)? Has to do with the fact that Seoul is in the north, and why people usually say 고향에 내려가다 (to go down to the hometown) and 서울에 올라가다 (to go up to Seoul)
재료 material, ingredient 材料
곤란하다 to be difficult; embarrassing, awkward 困難
부탁 request, favour 곤란한 부탁 = difficult request.
부탁을 거절하다 to refuse a request
곡식 crops 곡식을 추수하다
강강술래 traditional Korean circle dance
보름달 full moon
실내 interior, indoor 실내 수영장 is an indoor swimming pool


  • Rest of Chapter 16 Worksheet (last Grammar)
  • Chapter 16 Reading & Writing


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated