notes on things I'm learning
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Lesson 66 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 4): I know how to... or not

Started with Quizlet, first individual since we were 5 in a class... not that Quizlet can't make teams with uneven numbers. But then the last student joined the class before the end and we did the second round in groups of 3.

We finished up the handout (covering the last 3 gramma points), and then started on chapter 2 in the textbook.

For the last grammar point, we played a game of 20 questions (์Šค๋ฌด๊ณ ๊ฐœ, literally "20 hills").

As in the last lesson, which also had many speaking activities with another student and involved breakout rooms, the teachers gave us different partners for each activity.


2. V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค

This is used to expess that the subject knows (์•Œ๋‹ค)/does not know (๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค) how to do something.


  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + -์„ ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค
    • Example:
      • ์ฝ์„ ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค (์ฝ๋‹ค)
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + -ใ„น ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค
    • Examples:
      • ์ˆ˜์˜ํ•  ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค (์ˆ˜์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค)
      • ์Šค์ผ€์ดํŠธ๋ฅผ ํƒˆ ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค (์Šค์ผ€์ดํŠธ๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค)
      • ๋งŒ๋“ค ์ค„ ์•Œ๋‹ค/๋ชจ๋ฅด๋‹ค (๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค)

Pronunciation: ์ค„ ์•Œ์•„์š” sounds like [์ญˆ๋ผ๋ผ์š”].

I wonder if there are any cases where you can't make use of V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค, which has a meaning that is pretty close to this?

3. V-(์œผ)ใ„ด

This is used to modify nouns that indicate a situation or an action that is completed.

Essentially, this is the past noun modifier. (See present tense noun modifier for verbs in Lesson 56.)


  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์€
    • Examples:
      • ๋จน์€ (๋จน๋‹ค)
      • ์ฝ์€ (์ฝ๋‹ค)
      • ๋“ค์€ (๋“ฃ๋‹ค)
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + ใ„ด
    • Examples:
      • ์˜จ (์˜ค๋‹ค) - This should look familiar.
      • ์“ด (์“ฐ๋‹ค)
      • ๋งŒ๋“  (๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค) - Due to the presence of the ใ„ด, ใ„น is omitted.

4. A/V-์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค

This is used to negate an action or the state of the verb or an adjective.

  • ๋ฐฉ์ด ํฌ์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š”. = ๋ฐฉ์ด ์•ˆ ์ปค์š”.

In meaning, it is similar to putting ์•ˆ in front, and in most cases, they are equivalent. (The textbook treats them as interchangeable, but the teacher did point out some differences in certain situations.)

Note that the spelling of ์•Š in V-์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š” is different from ์•ˆ.

The conjugation is very straightforward; simply add -์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค to the verb stem (after removing ๋‹ค).


  • ์ถฅ์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š”. (It's not cold.)
  • ์–ด์ œ ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค ์ง€ ์•Š์•˜์–ด์š”. (It did not rain yesterday.)
  • ๋‚ด์ผ์„ ๋Šฆ์ง€ ์•Š์„ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (Don't be late tomorrow.)


Naturally, because ์•ˆ is shorter, it's used more commonly in speech than A/V-์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค.

A/V-์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค is used mostly in a formal setting, in written language, or when you are delivering a message and want it to come across more gently. The negative meaning is very strong when ์•ˆ is used.

There are 2 spoken situations where you might use A/V-์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค instead.

  1. You want to express something that is more neutral to negative, than really negative. This is related to the point about how the negative meaning comes across very strongly with ์•ˆ. Saying something like ์•ˆ ์–ด๋ ค์›Œ์š” pretty much implies it's easy, while saying ์–ด๋ ต์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š” means that it's not that hard, maybe somewhere halfway on the scale between easy and hard.
  2. You want people to agree with your opinion. It's a kind of rhetorical question. An example is with questions such as "Isn't it delicious?" or "Isn't it hot?", and you expect the person to say yes. You would ask, ๋ง›์ด์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š”? or ๋ฅ์ง€ ์•Š์•„์š”? If you asked something like ์•ˆ ๋”์›Œ์š”? the context would be in a situation where the weather is hot but your friend is wearing a jacket, and you are genuinely curious whether it's hot or not.

The teacher said that there is something similar with ๋ชป. It has an equivalent -์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค.

Since ๋ชป has the meaning of being unable to do something, I think it only applies to verbs. That would also mean that it has the same meaning as V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค.

It didn't occur to me to ask during the lesson, since I was only reminded of this fact when I was writing this post, and searching up the links to my past entries on ๋ชป, which led me to the Lesson 58 post above.


Korean English Notes
๊ณ ์žฅ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to break down; to have a breakdown
์ด์ฃผ ์ „ two weeks ago
์–ด์ง•์–ด squid
๊ณ ๊ฐœ hill
์Šค๋ฌด๊ณ ๊ฐœ 20 questions The game where you can ask up to 20 yes/no questions to guess an object.
๋‘ฅ๊ธ€๋‹ค to be round
์“ฐ๋‹ค to use Third etymology, after "to write" and "to wear (on the head)"
ํ˜•๊ด‘ํŽœ highlighter (pen)

Lesson 65 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 3): Introductions Still

A new student joined the class, but because two were absent, we only had 4 students (including me). Ended up having to introduce myself, which was quite terrible because I'm bad at it.

We finished up chapter 1 and started on chapter 2.

For chapter 1, there was Speaking 2, Listening, Culture Note, Pronunciation, and Self-Check left.

Culture Note

The culture note was about names, specifically Korean names. Usually they are 3 characters, with the first being the family name. It's pretty much the same as with Chinese names.

There was a short passage to read. I forgot that ์˜ was to be pronounced [์—] in ์นœ๊ตฌ๋“ค์˜ ์ด๋ฆ„. ๐Ÿ˜“

We also did discuss a little on common first and last names here. First names no one said anything, but I thought that the new student's name was quite common. For the last names there were a few given for common ones. The teacher said when she first came here she didn't know how to pronounce "Ng", which is a pretty common surname too.


The rule states that when the final consonant sound [ใ…‚] is followed by the initial consonants ใ„ด or ใ…, then [ใ…‚] is prounounced as [ใ…].

Nothing new, it's exactly the same rule from chapter 7 in the SNU 1A book, covered in Lesson 31. (I had compiled a list for my last test, so it was easy to dig out.)

Even by the time that rule was covered back then, it was also mentioned before in at least 2 other lessons:

  1. Lesson 23 on the numbers
  2. Lesson 29 with formal speech

If there's any difference, it's only in the examples. Since we have learnt more words since then and more grammar, there aren't only examples with syllables that end with ใ…‚, but also those that end with the [ใ…‚] sound.


Korean English Notes
์ทจ๋ฏธ hobby
์—ฌํ–‰ travelling
๋…์„œ reading ๋…์„œํ•˜๋‹ค to make it a verb. Also, unlike the Chinese ่ฏปไนฆ, this only means "reading a book", it doesn't have the "study" meaning.
์™ธ๊ตญ์–ด foreign language
๋‚š์‹œ fishing ๋‚š์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค
์š”๋ฆฌ cooking
์šด๋™ exercise
๋™ํ˜ธํšŒ club Social club where people enjoy hobbies together. If in school, it's called ๋™์•„๋ฆฌ, such as ์‚ฌ์ง„ ๋™์•„๋ฆฌ for photography club.
์—ฐ์Šต์‹ค practice room
ํšŒ๋น„ membership fee
์Œ์•… ๊ฐ์ƒ listening to music ๊ฐ์ƒ = ๆฌฃ่ต, appreciation
์—ดํ™” ๊ฐ์ƒ watching a movie
๋ชจ์ž„ gathering
๋ชจ์ด๋‹ค to gather; meet ๋ชจ์—ฌ์š”
๋ชจ์Œ collection
์ธํ˜•์„ ๋ชจ์œผ๋‹ค to collect dolls ๋ชจ์•„์š”
์Œ์•…์„ ๋“ฃ๋‹ค to listen to music
์ถค์„ ์ถ”๋‹ค to dance (a dance)
๊ทธ๋ฆผ์„ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to draw (a drawing)
๊ฟˆ์šธ ๊พธ๋‹ค to dream (a dream)
์•ผ๊ตฌํ•˜๋‹ค to play baseball
์ธํ„ฐ๊ฒŸ์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to browse the Internet
N์— ๊ฐ€์ž…ํ•˜๋‹ค to join a website/club
ํšŒ์›๊ฐ€์ž… Join as member Label on a button ("Sign up" essentially, it's a "Join as member" button)
์•„์ฃผ very
๋ณ„๋กœ (+ ์•ˆ) (not) particularly Always used with negatives. ๋ณ„๋กœ ์•ˆ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ด์š”. ๋ณ„๋กœ ์—†์–ด์š”. ๋ณ„๋Ÿฌ ์ž˜ ๋ชปํ•ด์š”. Exception: ๋ณ„๋กœ์˜ˆ์š”. (= It's not that good.) This last one isn't technically proper Korean but it's commonly used.
์ „ํ˜€ (+ ์•ˆ) (not) at all
์ฝ”๋ฏธ๋”” comedy
๊ณตํฌ horror
์•ก์…˜ action
๋กœ๋งจ์Šค romance
ํŒํƒ€์ง€ fantasy
๊ณต์ƒ ๊ณผํ•™ science fiction or just "SF" works too


1. V-๋Š” ๊ฒƒ

This is used to change a verb phrase into a noun phrase.

In a sentence like "I like drawing", this is what you need to translate the "drawing" part: ์ €๋Š” ๊ทธ๋ฆผ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ด์š”.

The conjugation is very simple, just tack on -๋Š” ๊ฒƒ to any verb stem. Just note that for ใ„น verbs the ใ„น is removed due to ใ„น elimination.


  • ๊ฐ€๋‹ค โ†’ ๊ฐ€๋Š” ๊ฒƒ
  • ๋จน๋‹ค โ†’ ๋จน๋Š” ๊ฒƒ [๋ฉ๋Š”]
  • ๋†€๋‹ค โ†’ ๋…ธ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ

In spoken Korean, recall that you have ์ด๊ฑฐ to say "this one", though the proper form is ์ด๊ฒƒ.

Similarly, over here, frequently ๊ฑฐ is said in place of ๊ฒƒ. (๊ฒƒ is the proper way, and must be used when written.)

You can also do combinations, something like with ๋ญ and ๋ญ˜:

  • ๊ฑฐ + ์„ โ†’ ๊ฑธ
  • ๊ฑฐ + ์ด โ†’ ๊ฒŒ

However, you can also just simply use ๊ฑฐ when speaking.

This solved my Duolingo mystery with when to use ๊ฒŒ. I could guess ๊ฑฐ + ์€ โ†’ ๊ฑด (this is unverified, not covered here), ๊ฑฐ + ์„ โ†’ ๊ฑธ, but didn't know that ๊ฑฐ + ์ด = ๊ฒŒ.

Another thing to note is that in this construction, if the verb has an object before it, the object particle ์„/๋ฅผ is usually omitted:

  • ์ œ ์ทจ๋ฏธ๋Š” ์ฑ… ์ฝ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (์ œ ์ทจ๋ฏธ๋Š” ์ฑ… ์ฝ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด์—์š”.)
  • ์ €๋Š” ๋“œ๋ผ๋งˆ ๋ณด๋Š” ๊ฑธ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ด์š”. (์ €๋Š” ๋“œ๋ผ๋งˆ ๋ณด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ด์š”.)
  • ๊ทธ๋ฆผ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋Š”๊ฒŒ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (๊ทธ๋ฆผ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”.)


Well, still had to introduce myself this lesson, so we weren't done with introductions. Chapter 2 is on hobbies, which is also one of the things you might mention about yourself in a self-introduction. At least we did when the previous student joined (the one who has since transferred to another class).

Lesson 64 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 2): Introductions, Continued

This is a short post, and yet I did not sit down to write it until now, a week after the lesson. (It's the second day of the Lunar New Year, which is a public holiday, so there's no lesson today.)

Given the pace last lesson, I thought we'd finish the chapter this week. But as I mentioned, there was an additional sheet this time.

It turns out that they were dialogues taken from different shows, and related to the first chapter. The longest was only 3 lines. Those on the first page were all related to introductions. On the second page was a longer dialogue to do with the "or" grammar point.

We started with just listening to the audios (without watching the accompanying video) and looking at the transcript. After that, we were split into breakout rooms to practise each of the conversations. Only after returning to the main room did we see the video. Going through all this took almost half an hour.

In the textbook, we completed up to p. 33, stopping just before the second Speaking section.

However, the homework (which I've not completed) is the Reading and Writing from this chapter.


Korean English Notes
๋ง์”€๋“œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to speak (humble) humble form of ๋ง๋‹ค, like how ๋“œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค is the humble form for ์ฃผ๋‹ค
์ตœ์‹ ํ˜• the latest model
๋ณ€ํ˜ธ์‚ฌ lawyer ่พฏ่ญทๅฃซ
์ƒ์‚ฌ superior; boss ไธŠๅธ, at work
ํ•˜์ˆ™ boarding house
ํ•˜์ˆ™์ƒ boarder at a boarding house
์ „ํ•™ transfer (to another school) ่ฝ‰ๅญธ
์„ค๊ฑฐ์ง€๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to do the dishes
์ทจ๋ฏธ hobby
๋  Chinese zodiac sign e.g. ๋‹ญ๋  = year of the Rooster; ๋ผ์ง€๋  = year of the Pig

Lesson 63 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 1): Introducing Oneself, Again

We got back the test via KakaoTalk before the lesson. It's been a week but I've been busy so I've not sat down to look at it. This post is also more than a week late. It's fortunate that there's no class this week due to CNY, so I can get a breather.

The lesson started with going through common mistakes, but it wasn't a lot, so I would conclude that I did much worse on the listening component than the rest.

In this lesson, we started by looking at the topics in the 2A textbook. Then, we covered the entire Chapter 1 handout, and the homework was thus the entire worksheet. I suspect that the next lesson will cover the textbook, but there's also another additional one sheet which seems to be some kind of dialogue.

The teacher said that this is a warm-up chapter that's easier than the last one, which is why we were going so fast.


1. N(์ด)๋ผ๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to introduce yourself in a formal manner (an alternative way of doing so instead of saying "I am..."), or used to indirectly quote something that one has heard from others.

The verb here is translated "to be called". So this is the equivalent of introducing yourself as "I am called (name)" rather than saying "I am (name)".

As you can tell from the form, you would have to add ์ด after words that have Batchim.

It's not only for people's names, but also for things, such as when you are telling people what something is called in another language.


  • ์ €๋Š” ๋‚˜๋‚˜๋ผ๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”.
  • ์ด๊ฒƒ์€ ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด๋กœ '๊ฐ€๋ฐฉ'์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

Some related points is how to include in your introduction where you are from:

  • ์ €๋Š” ๋…์ผ์—์„œ ์˜จ ํ•œ์Šค๋ผ๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”. (I am Hans [who comes] from Germany.)
    • ์˜จ is "from"
    • I translated it using "to be" instead of "to be called" because in English it is awkward to say "I am called Hans from Germany" as it sounds like your name is "Hans from Germany".

The other thing is the verb ๋ถ€๋ฅด๋‹ค (to call), which in the present tense in conjugated to ๋ถˆ๋Ÿฌ์š”. You would use it ask others to call you by a certain name, or to say how your friends call you, for example:

  • ๊ทธ๋ƒฅ ๋ฆฌํ‚ค๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ถ€๋ฅด์„ธ์š”. (Just call me Ricky.)
  • ์นœ๊ตฌ๋“ค์€ ์ €๋ฅผ ๋ฆฌํ‚ค๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๋Ÿฌ์š”. (My friends call me Ricky.)

2. V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ 

Grammar is getting a bit more challenging, less due to conjugation, but the situation and context of use.

This is used to indicate that someone has the intention to do something. It looks very similar to V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค, and it was briefly mentioned when we learnt V-(์œผ)๋Ÿฌ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค/์˜ค๋‹ค in Lesson 59.

When talking about "intention", it means it is for something planned, something done with purpose. You wouldn't use it to give a simple reason or explanation.

If you are giving a simple reason, you would use A/V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ.


  • ๋‚ด์ผ ์•„์นจ์— ๋จน์œผ๋ ค๊ณ  ๋นต์„ ์ƒ€์–ด์š”.
  • ํ•œ๊ตญ ์‚ฌ๋žŒํ•˜๊ณ  ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด๋กœ ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด๋ฅผ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์š”.

3. V-๊ฑฐ๋‚˜

This is used to indicate a series of options. It is essentially "or", used for linking verbs, the way V-๊ณ  links verbs with the meaning of "and". (We will see the version of "or" for linking nouns in the next grammar point.)


  • ์ €๋Š” ์ฃผ๋ง์— ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์„ ๋ณด๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์–ด์š”.
  • ์•„์นจ์— ๋นต์„ ๋จน๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์šฐ์œ ๋ฅผ ๋งˆ์…”์š”.

4. N-(์ด)๋‚˜

This is used to indicate options among a group of similar things. It has to be the same verb.


  • ๋ฌผ์ด๋‚˜ ์ฃผ์Šค๋ฅผ ๋งˆ์…”์š”.
  • ๋”ธ๊ธฐ๋‚˜ ๋ฐ”๋‚˜๋‚˜๋ฅผ ์‚ด ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”.
  • ์šด๋™์ด๋‚˜ ์‡ผํ•‘์„ ํ•ด์š”.

For the last example, it's allowed because it's the same "action" although ์šด๋™ํ•˜๋‹ค and ์‡ผํ•‘ํ•˜๋‹ค are technically two different verbs. But these verbs are formed using nouns (์šด๋™ and ์‡ผํ•‘) and they can also be written as ์šด๋™์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค and ์‡ผํ•‘์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค.


Korean English Notes
์„ฑ๋ช… full name ์„ฑ = surname
์„ฑ๋ณ„ sex; gender
์ƒ๋…„์›”์ผ date of birth
์ง์—… job
๊ตญ์  nationality
์ข…๊ต religion
์ฒœ์ฃผ๊ต Roman Catholic; Roman Catholicism
์„ฑ๋‹น church (Catholic)
๊ธฐ๋…๊ต Christian (Protestant); Christianity
๊ตํšŒ church (Protestant)
๋ถˆ๊ต Buddhist; Buddhism
์ ˆ Buddhist temple
์—ด๋ฝ์ฒ˜ contact information
์ฃผ์†Œ address
์ „ํ™” telephone
์–ธ์–ด language
ํ‰์ผ weekday
์†Œ์„ค์ฑ… novel
๋งค์ผ every day
๋งค๋‹ฌ / ๋งค์›” every month
๋งค๋…„ every year
ํ•ญ์ƒ always
์ž์ฃผ often
๊ฐ€๋” seldom
์ดˆ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›๋‹ค to receive an invitation
(์ด๋ฆ„์„) ๋ถ€๋ฅด๋‹ค to call (a name)
๊ฑฐ์‹ค living room
์‚ด์„ ๋นผ๋‹ค to lose weight
ํ•ด์™ธ์—ฌํ–‰ overseas trip
๊ฐ‘์ž๊ธฐ suddenly
๋ˆ์„ ๋ชจ์œผ๋‹ค to save money (for sth) ๋ชจ์•„์š”
ํ†ต์žฅ bankbook
์‚ฌ์ง„๊ด€ photo studio
์™ธ์‹์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to eat out
์ค„์„ ์„œ๋‹ค to stand in line ์„œ๋‹ค = to stand
์žŠ์–ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to forget
๋›ฐ์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค to run
์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have time ์žˆ๋‹ค is also fine

I accidentally clicked the "email subscribers" button (like I did a few weeks ago) for this post while trying to update it.

Lesson 62 (Beginner 4A Lesson 5): Beginner 4 Test

This was harder than I thought it would be. I'm also very certain this will be the test I do the most poorly on so far.

I'm not looking forward to next week.

Honestly I wasn't happy with myself after the test. Before the test, I finally went through some of the homework for these chapters. Seeing the dumb mistakes I made right before the test probably did affect my confidence too. (My fault for not checking the homework earlier, I'll admit that.)

I was anxious in the days leading up to the test. Part of that was because I had less time to prepare. 2 weeks' notice isn't enough for me, but recall I wasn't expecting this test. For Test 2, I realised 2 weeks wasn't enough, and for Test 3 I had started preparing in advance. (For Test 1, which was long ago and in-person, the teacherโ€”still the other teacher at the timeโ€”told us more than a month in advance I think.)

In terms of the format, it's been similar to the past tests. The test paper was sent via email this time instead of KakaoTalk. The teacher sent the instructions to the chat the day before the test, since the new students wouldn't know.

My printer decided to act up and it took me longer than usual to print. I almost joined the class late. In fact, I might have been the last one.


Listening was scary. There were something like 5 questions thereabout that I was unsure of, because I couldn't catch exactly what was being said and hence couldn't decipher what was going on. I'm not sure where I can find more comprehensible input to practice on, but listening more would be a start.


I wasn't the first person to do the oral test this time, unlike the last 2 times. I noticed the teacher started with the newest student, then the second newest student. Then it was probably 1 or 2 more students before it was my turn. My turn was about 50 mins after the start of the lesson.

This oral test was easier than the last oral test. The sentences were easier to read. The teacher had told us last week that we should prepare the describing people part for the oral test and it was exactly that, there were 2 people we had to describe from the image. The same image.

Then the third part consisted of 4 English words. You have to make sentences in Korean to say whether you could do the activity or not. Meaning you needed to have the vocab to know what the thing was, and the appropriate Korean verb for it. (There were some sports involved.) The 4 things... well, I could do all of them, but the first one was something that I could sort of do, or used to do, so I thought really hard as well. On the last one I also started second-guessing myself because it felt too easy, everything was just (์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์š”... If there was something I could not do at least I could use the ๋ชป construct... which is used more in spoken language than (์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜์—†์–ด์š”.

Finally, the last part, was also similar to something we did in class. You had to talk about what you would do if you had a lot of money. Unfortunately, I overthought this and thought it was the same as the activity in class where after you said you would do X if you had money, then you had to say what else you would do if you had X, etc. So I was hesitating because the last time the questioning went on for 3 more times after the first, but I only managed 2 with my original answer.

I thought really hard, and I was also conflicted because I suddenly had another thought about what I could do with a lot of money, of something else to buy. In the end I went with my original answer. Then the teacher asked me to say something else that isn't something to be bought. That also threw me off, and I took more time to think about some activity. I eventually settled on saying that I would travel.


My head hurt from reading 4 chunks of text. I also felt that I was reading too slowly. It's a lot of text to answer 1-2 questions below. I'm definitely not used to reading so much text in a paragraph.

I've been avoiding finding material to read, since, well, it's not been a very big problem when in the beginner class but... well, it's time to realise that I'm heading to intermediate, it's been a year, so I need to realise that I have to take this more seriously. My Korean is no longer at the beginner level, not really.

I don't know of any simple Korean books or material to read apart from some that I've seen before on


The writing has 2 parts. The first part had some questions where you had to reorder the sentence based on the words and another section for joining 2 sentences with the right connectors. For some reason, I really struggled with the reordering question. And it's not even that hard, or it shouldn't be, because it's not as though any conjugation is required. The words are given exactly as they should be.

Then the second part is the essay. The essay topic, like before, was not that unpredictable as it was something that we'd actually written about before. Unfortunately, it was the one topic that required vocab that I did not really memorise and hence could not use: Name of attractions and places in my country, but in Korean. Well, that's been fixed, I've put in the words I used in my original essay into Anki. Definitely my writing speed can be improved, as usually I take far too long to do my writing assignments. For the test this time, I noted I had 15 minutes thereabout to write. And I think a lot of the time was wasted because I was slow to read.

Additionally, the amount of words we are required to write seem to have increased from last time. There were 2 pages of squares to write on too.

We were given until 20 minutes after the lesson to submit the paper. It's more generous than the last round I think? It was until 15 minutes the last time.

Lesson 61 (Beginner 4A Lesson 5): Revision for Beginner 4 Test

We went through the self-check in the textbook, then the revision notes.

The first part was vocab, and we made use of Quizlet Live (individual teams, no groups).

For the exercises, the notable thing to revise is describing different people based on what they wear and some characteristics (height, hair length), perhaps even their actions. The teacher did say this would be in the speaking test. (It was a written exercise in the revision sheet.)

To say that someone has long hair, you can say:

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ธธ์–ด์š”. (O)
  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ธธ๊ณ  ์น˜๋งˆ๋ฅผ ์ž…์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (O)

But not:

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ธด ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (X)

There was no homework this week as we finished all the exercises in the revision sheet.

I guess there really is no Beginner 4B. After the test, we will be starting the new book (2A), which should be considered intermediate.


Korean English
์•„๋ฉ”๋ฆฌ์นด๋…ธ Americano
์‚ฌ์ด์ฃผ size
์ž์ผ“ jacket

Lesson 60 (Beginner 4A Lesson 4): While writing this post...

In this lesson, we finished Chapter 16. I was actually surprised by the speed at which the teacher went through the lesson at the end. When I joined the class, the teacher was having the make-up session with the 2 newest students which did not attend last week. Usually, the make-up session is 30 minutes long and it's before the usual lesson time, but that was when classes were still in person... maybe the other students who missed class just never wanted to take up this offer after we transitioned to online classes.

There was a short review, and we had to each say a sentence of somewhere we went and why (grammar 3 from last week).

Then, we dived right in to the last grammar point for this chapter, which is another ์œผ grammar. Before the teacher pointed it out, I had not realised all the grammar that we covered for this chapter were all ์œผ grammar.

Then, we went to the textbook. We started with grammar point 3 (on p. 181 and not numbered as such in the textbook) and then did grammar point 4 as well (on p. 182). We did the activity as well, which took some time.

It was a game of charades of sorts. There were 6 of us in the class, so we were divided into groups of 3. We were sent into breakout rooms. One person was to do the expression and the other 2 were supposed to guess, so we were supposed to decide who was going to do what. At the point it wasn't clear how many sentences we had to do, and we had thought the person doing the expression had to come up with the sentences.

When we got back to the main room, the 2 people who were going to do the expression did a game of rock-paper-scissors, and the winner (not my team) got to decide whether they wanted to go first or later, and they chose later.

So basically the expresser in each team gets 4 sentences all based on the grammar (V-(์œผ)๋ฉด์„œ, the 4th grammar point) and they had to act it out as best as they could. The teacher also sent the 4 sentences to the opposing team members so they could see what was going on.

There was also an overall timer, so once the expresser is sent the 4 sentences, the timer starts.

In the end, the other team won. It was not too bad given that not every person had to act. I would have hated that.

Then, we did the listening, culture note, and pronunciation. Reading and writing were left for homework. We were running late so we didn't do the self-check.

And at the end... surprise! There is a test in 2 weeks. Next week is the revision lesson, and the following week is the test.

The test will cover Chapters 14-16. That's right, only 3 chapters. So it turns out my guess last year that the next test would only be in February is wrong, because it was based on the wrong assumption that the test would cover at least 4 to 5 chapters.

So if I had to refine my criteria for determining tests, the tests can span chapters across books, but only books that are of the same level. Hard to believe but... the next term after the test means that we're moving on to intermediate level.

When the teacher mentioned that next week would be a revision lesson, I was confused since I knew I did not receive any revision notes or test papers. It turns out that we were to pay for the next term this week, and the revision notes would be sent along with the new textbook.

Now, this term, instead of being 7 lessons, has shrunk to 6. The next term now starts on what was previously the 7th lesson of this term. Because of that, next term we have the balance of 1 class and so the cost of 1 lesson is taken off the total. It's actually pretty similar to what happened last time, except it's being represented somewhat differently.


4. V-(์œผ)๋ฉด์„œ

This is used to express two actions that occur at the same time or period. The actions are performed by the same subject.


  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + -์œผ๋ฉด์„œ
    • Examples: ๋จน์œผ๋ฉด์„œ (๋จน๋‹ค), ์ฝ์œผ๋ฉด์„œ (์ฝ๋‹ค), ...
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + -๋ฉด์„œ
    • Examples: ์šด๋™ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ (์šด๋™ํ•˜๋‹ค), ๋งŒ๋“ค๋ฉด์„œ (๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค), ...


  1. ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์œผ๋ฉด์„œ ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์„ ๋ด์š”. (I watch television while eating.)
  2. ์šด์ „ํ™”๋ฉด์„œ ์ „ํ™”ํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't talk on the phone while you are driving.)
  3. ์–ธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ผ€์ดํฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค๋ฉด์„œ ๋…ธ๋ž˜ํ•ด์š”. (My elder sister sings while making a cake.)

Usage Notes

  1. The subject of both clauses must be the same. If the subjects of both clauses are different, a different grammar is used: -๋Š” ๋™์•ˆ.
    • ๋™์ƒ์ด ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์„ ๋ณด๋Š” ๋™์•ˆ ์ œ๊ฐ€ ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (O)
    • My younger sibling was watching television while I read a book.
  2. Tense is not added to the verb preceding '-(์œผ)๋ฉด์„œ'.
    • ์–ด์ œ ์ค„๋ฆฌ์–‘ ์”จ๋Š” ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ํ–ˆ์œผ๋ฉด์„œ ๊ธฐํƒ€๋ฅผ ์ณค์–ด์š”. (X)
    • ์–ด์ œ ์ค„๋ฆฌ์–‘ ์”จ๋Š” ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๊ธฐํƒ€๋ฅผ ์ณค์–ด์š”. (O)
    • Yesterday, Julian sang while he played the guitar.

Culture Note

The culture note was about housewarming gifts in Korea.

After a person moves in, two common gifts in Korea are toilet paper and laundry detergent.

In the case of toilet paper, that is because the action of unrolling the toilet paper is called ํ’€๋‹ค. This verb also has another meaning, which is "to solve". So, giving a person toilet paper is wishing that they would be able to solve all their problems as easily as they unroll and use the toilet paper.

If this is too "cheap" a gift (especially for the younger generation), then they might gift something else in addition to the paper.

In the case of laundry detergent, it's that it produces a lot of bubbles. And that translates to wishing that they would become rich (become ๋ถ€์ž, ๋ถ€์ž ๋˜๋‹ค), as in, their wealth "bubbles over".


The pronunciation rule for this chapter makes explicit the rule that we have seen as early as when we learnt the future tense, and then again for the first 2 grammar points in this chapter. (Though I didn't point out the pronunciation in the last post due to laziness more than anything.)

When you have '-์„/ใ„น' (i.e. any ใ„น grammar) followed by the initial consonants 'ใ„ฑ, ใ……', then 'ใ„ฑ, ใ……' are pronounced as their respective double consonant counterparts [ใ„ฒ, ใ…†].


  1. ๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” [๊ฐˆ๊บผ์—์š”]1
  2. ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์š” [ํ• ์‘ค์ด์จ์š”]
  3. ๋จน์„๊ฒŒ์š” [๋จธ๊ธ€๊ป˜์š”]


Korean English Notes
๋ฐฐ์›…ํ•˜๋‹ค to see off e.g. when you accompany someone to and see them off at the airport.
๋„ทํ”Œ๋ฆญ์Šค Netflix
์•„๋ฌด any; anyone ์•„๋ฌด ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์•ˆ ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ ธ์–ด์š”. = I didn't do anything while waiting for you.
ํŒ์ฝ˜ popcorn
์ง‘๋“ค์ด housewarming party
์ง์ ‘ directly; on one's own e.g. ์ง์ ‘ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•ด์š” means to speak to someone in-person. Context here is a method of how one might invite someone to a party.

  1. The textbook writes it as [๊ฐˆ๊บผ์˜ˆ์š”], but since the teacher said that it's pronounced as [์—], I'm sticking with that. โ†ฉ

Lesson 59 (Beginner 4A Lesson 3): I will do ~; I am going (in order) to ~

A lesson after a two-week break is always a tiny bit nerve-wrecking for me. There were only 4 of us this lesson; both of the newer students didn't attend. The newest student had informed the teacher, but the other one had not. It seems that the girl is staying in our class since she was in the lesson.

We started out with vocabulary revision using Quizlet Live. The first 2 rounds were in groups (pairs), while the last 2 were individual.

Naturally, that meant that there was some additional revision. The exercise we did last lesson on saying what we can do is taken from the textbook. We sort of did it again. "Sort of" because the teacher did let me off in the end, and I didn't have to come up with something when I was the last, when we went round robin. I only had to answer the question.

The other speaking activities we did were in relation to the grammar that we learnt in the lesson.

For the second grammar point of the chapter, it was the birthday party exercise from the textbook (p. 178). We each had to ask and someone had to volunteer and answer with ... ๊ฒŒ์š”. At the start, no one did, so the person who asked had to do it: ์—†์–ด์š”? ๊ทธ๋Ÿผ ์ œ๊ฐ€ ... ๊ฒŒ์š”.

For the third grammar point of the chapter, we had to come up with what we did, and then after one round of that, it was what we were going to do.

Fortunately the homework for this week was just the workbook, so I'd completed it within the same day.


2. V-(์œผ)ใ„น๊ฒŒ์š”

Translated, this is "I will do ~" or "let me do ~".

It is used to express the speaker's strong intention or promise to the listener to do a certain action, as a result of hearing what the listener has said.

As such, it can only be used with a first person subject (singular or plural), and only for statements (not questions).

For the conjugation:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + -์„๊ฒŒ์š”
    • Examples: ์ฝ์„๊ฒŒ์š” (์ฝ๋‹ค), ๋ฐ›์„๊ฒŒ์š” (๋ฐ›๋‹ค), ...
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + -ใ„น๊ฒŒ์š”
    • Examples: ๊ฐˆ๊ฒŒ์š” (๊ฐ€๋‹ค), ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ฒŒ์š” (๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค), ...


    • ๊ฐ€: ๋‚ด์ผ ์ผ์ฐ ์˜ค์„ธ์š”. (Please come early tomorrow.)
    • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ์ผ์ฐ ์˜ฌ๊ฒŒ์š”. (Yes, I will come early.)
    • ๊ฐ€: ์ „ํ™”๊ฐ€ ์˜ค๋„ค์š”. ์ „ํ™” ์ข€ ๋ฐ›์•„ ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. (There is a call. Please answer the phone.)
    • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐ›์„๊ฒŒ์š”. (I will answer.)
    • ๊ฐ€: ๋ˆ„๊ฐ€ ์ผ€์ดํฌ์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค ๊ฑฐ์—์š”? (Who will make the cake?)
    • ๋‚˜: ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ฒŒ์š”.(I will make it.)

Comparison with Future Tense

How does this compare with the future tense V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”?

For V-(์œผ)ใ„น๊ฒŒ์š”, there is a relationship with the listener and the subject's intention or thought is expressed while taking the listener into consideration.

Let's look at one of the earlier examples.

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋‚ด์ผ ์ผ์ฐ ์˜ค์„ธ์š”. (Please come early tomorrow.)
  • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ์ผ์ฐ ์˜ฌ๊ฒŒ์š”. (Yes, I will come early.)

In this situation, the speaker ๋‚˜ did not intend to come early at first. But after hearing what the other person has said, he decides on the spot to do something. The decision to come early is related to what was said before.

By contrast, say if you had this exchange (which uses the future tense V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”):

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋‚ด์ผ ์ผ์ฐ ์˜ฌ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (I will come early tomorrow.)
  • ๋‚˜: ๊ทธ๋ž˜์š”? ์•Œ์•˜์–ด์š”. (Really? I see.)

Here, there is no relationship with the listener. The subject's intention or plan is expressed unidirectionally. That is, he has already decided that he is going to come early and is sharing this fact to the listener. It is not based on anything the listener said.

Usage Notes

This is a summary of what has been said.

  1. This expression can only be used with verbs that express the will of the subject. It cannot be used with adjectives, or verbs where the subject cannot be the first person (e.g. ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค๋‹ค, where the rain is not due to your intention).
  2. Only subjects in the first person can be used. In other cases, you use the future tense.
  3. The expression cannot be used in questions. You would also use the future tense for questions.

3. V-(์œผ)๋Ÿฌ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค/์˜ค๋‹ค

This is used to express the purpose of going (๊ฐ€๋‹ค) or coming (์˜ค๋‹ค).

For the conjugation:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + -์œผ๋Ÿฌ
    • Examples: ์ฝ์œผ๋Ÿฌ (์ฝ๋‹ค), ๋ฐ›์œผ๋Ÿฌ (๋ฐ›๋‹ค), ...
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + -๋Ÿฌ
    • Examples: ๋ณด๋Ÿฌ (๋ณด๋‹ค), ๋งŒ๋“ค๋Ÿฌ (๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค), ...

My biggest problem with this right now is the pronunciation. ๋Ÿฌ is not a character that appears frequently, and so feels very foreign on my tongue. It's very easy to mispronounce, I guess as ๋ ค? I am honestly not sure.


  1. ๋„์„œ๊ด€์— ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์œผ๋Ÿฌ ๊ฐ€์š”. (I am going to the library to read a book.)
    • The order can be switched: ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์œผ๋Ÿฌ ๋„์„œ๊ด€์— ๊ฐ€์š”.
  2. ์‹ ๋…„ํšŒํ•˜๋Ÿฌ ์นœ๊ตฌ ์ง‘์— ๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (I am going to my friend's house for a new year's party.)
  3. ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์ง‘์— ์ €๋… ๋จน์œผ๋Ÿฌ ์˜ค์„ธ์š”. (Please come to my house for dinner.)

Usage Notes

  1. Only movement verbs can be used after -(์œผ)๋Ÿฌ, so ๊ฐ€๋‹ค, ์˜ค๋‹ค, ๋‹ค๋‹ˆ๋‹ค are acceptable.
    • For non-movement verbs, it uses another grammar -์œผ๋ ค๊ณ  that will be covered in the next chapter.
      • From the first look, it reminds me of V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค... which if I had to take a stab and guess, is a specific form of this other grammar. After all, V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค is used for something planned, that is, it is also for expressing intent or purpose. Wiktionary calls this -์œผ๋ ค๊ณ  connective form "Motive".
  2. This can be used with all the different tenses of the movement verb, so past tense (๊ฐ”์–ด์š”), future tense (๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”), expressing desire (๊ฐ€๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์š”), etc.
  3. Obviously, you cannot use movement verbs before -(์œผ)๋Ÿฌ as it would make no sense. ๊ฐ€๋Ÿฌ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค is like saying "to go to go".


Korean English Notes
๋นŒ๋ ค์ฃผ๋‹ค to lend ๋นŒ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค is to borrow.
๋Š๋‹ค to hang up (the phone) Other meanings: to give up (a habit), to abstain from; to cut, to sever
์•ฝ์† promise Previously, learnt the other meaning, which was appointment.
์†ก๋…„ํšŒ year-end party ้€ๅนดๆœƒ
์‹ ๋…„ํšŒ new year party ๆ–ฐๅนดๆœƒ
์˜ˆ๋ฐฐํ•˜๋‹ค to worship, to attend religious service ็ฆฎๆ‹œ (็คผๆ‹œ)
์•ˆ๊ฒฝ์„ ๋งž์ถ”๋‹ค to get a pair of glasses made to be fitted for glasses
๋‹ฌํŒฝ์ด snail
ํ† ๋ผ rabbit
๋ฐฐ๋‹ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to deliver; to make a delivery
์ฃผ๋ฌธํ•˜๋‹ค to order

Lesson 58 (Beginner 4A Lesson 2): Can or Can't

I have a love-hate relationship with the lessons where we start a new chapter. On one hand, it's positive because it feels like progress, and usually learning vocabulary means there's less speaking. On the other hand, less speaking means I'm allowed to stay within my comfort zone. New vocabulary also means that I have extra work to do that week in importing everything to Anki.

The Quizlet importer Anki extension with audio support makes it easier on me, as I don't need to get the audio from Forvo. I'd actually installed this extension some time ago, but never tried it out until I used it by mistake instead of the usual one the last time, because in the menu both of these have the same name "Import from Quizlet".

Granted, a real person speaking is better, but since it's just a word and not a whole sentence I don't mind. Anyway, having a computer read a whole sentence for the Quizlet sentences decks is also better than not having any before. I guess if I want real native audio it's from listening to more people actually speak...

We started by finishing up the remaining sections of Chapter 15, which included Listening and Speaking (did not really do the Speaking which was "talk about your honeymoon"), Reading and Writing, Culture Note, and Pronunciation.

The Reading of the Reading and Writing section of Chapter 15 was homework for the last lesson, and Writing is the homework for this lesson. But we went through the Reading component in class too.

After covering the first grammar point for Chapter 16, we looked at 3 different sentences from various K-dramas where the actors said different lines that used this grammar.

I realised we had no breakout sessions this lesson. In terms of speaking, we still had some activities.

First, we had to say something we couldn't live without. This was related to the first K-drama sentence where the guy asked the girl if she could live without him. (I've put the sentences below under the grammar point itself.)

The second speaking activity (after watching the K-drama scenes), we had to say one thing we could or couldn't do and ask the next person if they could do that, then the next person would answer and ask another thing (order as decided by the teacher). The teacher gave the example of playing the piano, which is ํ”ผ์•„๋…ธ๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค. The first few students who went stuck with the musical theme and went with guitar and drums (where the verb is still ์น˜๋‹ค, lit. "to hit") until the teacher banned us from using the verb. I went last (I think the teacher was being nice to me) and in the end I mentioned riding again.

Also, I realised that with Chapter 16, we are on the last chapter of the book, not sure why no new materials sent with this term. There aren't any revision notes, and it's too early for a test. There should be a new set of notes sent soon, I think, because it takes about 3 lessons to finish a chapter, and if this is first week, then we should only have enough for 2 more lessons.

Culture Note

The culture note this time is... not really a culture note?

It's about various cities (travel destinations) in Korea, and there's a flow chart. Depending on whether you answer "yes" or "no", you proceed to the next question, and at the end, there is a suggestion on where you should go.

If you answered "no" to everything, the suggestion is a cheeky "rest in your hotel room".


Back in the post for Lesson 56, I did cover a bit on the pronunciation, but said I'd go into more detail when we actually cover the pronunciation topic for the chapter:

The thing to watch out for basically are the pronunciations, particularly the first 3 above. For the last one, remember that there's more than a few final consonants (all coronals) that will give the /d/ sound and undergo the same transformation.

Essentially in all 3 cases, the stops/plosives of the final consonants become their nasal counterparts (still voiced, with place of articulation unchanged).

The rule (as given in the textbook) is: When the final consonant sounds [ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚] are followed by 'ใ„ด', they are pronounced as [ใ…‡, ใ„ด, ใ…].

As I've said, the stops (or plosives) turn into their nasal counterparts.

If you look at the IPA (see this table, under the row final allophones), these are the original sounds:

  1. [ใ„ฑ] is [kฬš]: Voiceless velar stop with no audible release
  2. [ใ„ท] is [tฬš]: Voiceless alveolar stop with no audible release
  3. [ใ…‚] is [pฬš]: Voiceless bilabial stop with no audible release

Note that it is [ใ„ฑ] and not just 'ใ„ฑ', [ใ„ท] and not just 'ใ„ท', and [ใ…‚] and not just 'ใ…‚'. This means it applies to the whole ใ„ฑ-family and ใ…‚-family since they make the same sound in the final consonant position. As for [ใ„ท], well, that includes all the coronals.

All obstruents (stops, affricates, fricatives) become stops with no audible release at the end of a word: all coronals collapse to [tฬš], all labials to [pฬš], and all velars to [kฬš].

If followed by 'ใ„ด', they change into:

  1. [ใ…‡] which is [ล‹]: Voiceless velar nasal
  2. [ใ„ด] which is [n]: Voiceless alveolar nasal
  3. [ใ…] which is [m]: Voiceless bilabial nasal


  1. ๋จน๋Š” [๋ฉ๋Š”]
  2. ์ฝ๋Š” [์ž‰๋Š”]
  3. ๋ง›์žˆ๋Š” [๋งˆ์‹ ๋Š”]
  4. ์ถฅ๋„ค์š” [์ถค๋„ค์š”]

This rule was also (indirectly) mentioned before when learning the grammar A/V-๋„ค์š”.


1. V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค

Literally translated, this is can/be able to (์žˆ๋‹ค) or cannot/be unable to (์—†๋‹ค).

It is used to express ability (disability) or a possibility (impossibility).

V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค is identical in meaning to ๋ชป V.

  • ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์—†์–ด์š” = ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ชป ๋ด์š”

Because ๋ชป V is a much more concise way of expressing the same idea, Koreans usually use it when speaking. You mostly see the V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค form only in formal writing.

However, there is no shorter way to express V-(์œผ)ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค, and so it is used even in speech.

The conjugation is pretty much as you'd expect based on the form:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + -์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X, ใ„น + -ใ„น ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค


  1. ๋™์ƒ์€ ๋งค์šด ์Œ์‹์„ ๋จน์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (My younger sibling can eat spicy food.)
  2. ์ผ๋ณธ์–ด๋ฅผ ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†์–ด์š”. (I can't speak Japanese.)
    • (= ์ผ๋ณธ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋ชป ํ•ด์š”.)
  3. ์ €๋Š” ์ผ€์ดํฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I can make a cake.)

Bonus Examples (from the K-drama scenes):

  1. ๋„ˆ. ๋‚˜ ์—†์ด ์‚ด ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด? (Can you live without me?)
  2. ์‚ฌ๋ž‘ ์—†๋Š” ๊ฒฐํ˜ผ, ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? (Can you accept a marriage without love?)
  3. ๋‚˜ ๋„ˆ๋ฌด ๋ฏฟ ์ง€๋งˆ. ๋‚˜๋Š” ๋‹ˆ ์˜†์— ๊ณ„์† ์žˆ์–ด ์ค„ ์ˆ˜๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด. (Don't trust me too much. I can't always stay by your side.)
    • The ๊ฐ€ after ์ˆ˜ is an emphasis on the "can't".

And yes, they were all said by a guy to a girl. Probably male lead to female lead, I don't know. I don't watch K-dramas so I don't even know what shows they were or who the actors were.


Korean English Notes
๋ˆˆ์‚ฌ๋žŒ snowman
๋ชจ์ž„ gathering
๊ณ„ํšํ•˜๋‹ค to plan
์—ฐ๋ฝํ•˜๋‹ค [์—ด๋ผ์นด๋‹ค] to contact Whenever you have ใ„ด and ใ„น, [ใ„ด] changes to [ใ„น]. This is even if the order is reversed, such as in ์„ค๋‚  [์„ค๋ž„].
์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๋‹ค to prepare
์ถ•ํ•˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to celebrate
์ดˆ๋Œ€ํ•˜๋‹ค to invite
์‹์‚ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to have a meal For ์‹์‚ฌ, you always use ํ•˜๋‹ค, never ๋จน๋‹ค.
์„ ๋ฌผํ•˜๋‹ค to give a present
๋“ค์–ด์˜ค๋‹ค to come in; to enter Not to be confused with ๋“ค์•„์˜ค๋‹ค (to return)
์‹œ๊ฐ„์„ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to spend time
์‚ฌ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to buy and bring The grammar is actually ์‚ฌ(์„œ) ๊ฐ€๋‹ค. You can also have something like ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด(์„œ) ๊ฐ€๋‹ค.
๋ˆ์„ ์ฐพ๋‹ค to withdraw money
์ถค์„ ์ถ”๋‹ค to dance ์ถค can be replaced to indicate a different type of dance.
์ด์‚ฌ(๋ฅผ) ํ•˜๋‹ค to move (house)
๋ณ„์ผ [๋ณ„๋ฆด] something special ๋ณ„ is from ๅˆซ in ็‰นๅˆซ. ์ผ is "matter" as we previously saw. ๋ณ„์ผ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? = This is asking if there's any "news" in the person's life such as a new house, job, etc.
ํœด์ผ holiday One day. Otherwise it's ํœด๊ฐ€.
๋‹ต์žฅ reply
์Œ๋ฃŒ์ˆ˜ [์Œ๋‡จ์ˆ˜] beverage
๋ถ€์ž the rich ๅฏŒ่€…
์ ์ˆ˜ score
์„ธ์ œ laundry detergent ์„ธ is something clean, like ์„ธ์ˆ˜ is to wash your face.
์—ด์‹ฌํžˆ hard, diligently1
์ผ์ฐ early1
๋Šฆ๊ฒŒ late1 ๋Šฆ๋‹ค can be either a verb ("I'm late" as in "I arrive late") or adjective ("the hour is late"). Depending on which, then you either have ๋Šฆ๋Š” or ๋Šฆ์€ for verb and adjective respectively when it's a noun modifier.
์กฐ๊ธˆ a little1
๋งŽ์ด a lot1 ๋งŽ์€ + N (as noun modifier)
๋นจ๋ฆฌ quickly1 ๋น ๋ฅธ + N (as noun modifier)
์ฒœ์ฒœํžˆ slowly 1
๊ณง soon1
์ฐธ by the way
์ธ์–ด๊ณต์ฃผ The Little Mermaid This came from an example sentence where the kids were saying they can watch this movie, and the accompanying picture had a movie poster which included this movie they could watch. (They couldn't watch 007, ๊ณต๊ณต์น .)
๊ธฐ์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค to crawl
๋ฏฟ๋‹ค to believe in something; to trust someone
์œ„ํ—˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to be dangerous

Note: This was originally published on December 24, but something weird happened and this post got replaced with the Mindshift Week 3 post, which had become privately published. (I had previously re-published the Mindshift post as I'd noticed a typo in it, or more accurately, I think it was a ' instead of a " to close something I'd quoted. Maybe I mis-clicked.) Once I re-published the old Mindshift Week 3 post to the blog (publicly), that was fixed and the post could be accessed from the old URL (it's handy to have an archive to check). Essentially, the blog had 2 copies of the Mindshift Week 3 post, one published on the original date back in April, and another on December 24. Then, I naturally deleted the copy that was published on December 24. This note ended up looking like it was never published before (as I had the option of publishing it to another Listed blog). I republished it and it got a new URL. But hey, it's Christmas, so blessed Christmas. :D

  1. All these are adverbs. Adverbs are placed right before the verb. They should not be separated from the verb by a noun. Only noun modifiers come before nouns. ๋งŽ์ด ์Œ์‹์„ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š” is wrong. It's ์Œ์‹์„ ๋งŽ์ด ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. Or you can say ๋งŽ์€ ์Œ์‹์„ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. ๋งŽ์ด is an adverb; ๋งŽ์€ is a noun modifier. Also, yay, footnotes are fixed. โ†ฉ

Lesson 57 (Beginner 4A Lesson 1): I wish I had written this earlier

This is one week overdue. Unfortunately. I think quite a fair bit of my spare time has been eaten by Advent of Code. This year it seems my colleagues are more on the ball about it and I'm compelled to keep up, though I've already fallen behind somewhat. At any rate, I do not have any Korean class this coming week (after Christmas). I think last year I was also having some kind of backlog of posts around this time of year. It's strange because I don't think I'm particularly busy... but somehow time just slips away.

In this lesson, we started with the song ํฌ๋ง์‚ฌํ•ญ (Wish List). There's quite a bit of new vocabulary related to the song, which I've put in the vocab table at the end.

Second week that the youngest girl didn't attend, and the teacher said she is going to the Wednesday class. I am not sure if she will continue attending the Saturday class, because she did attend this past lesson (Lesson 58). However, it might have been one-off because of the gift exchange too.

Because we had an odd number of students, for the last activity which was based on the textbook p.162 I was paired with the teacher. Man, that didn't end well. I told myself I should write out and script it the way I want it to go but I've not gotten around to it, and now this week I have the writing assignment as homework... but then again it's school break next week because of Christmas so maybe I should squeeze out the time to do it.


3. V-๊ณ  ์‹ถ๋‹ค

This is used when the speaker expresses a hope or desire, or when the speaker asks about the listener's hope or desire.

Essentially, only used in the first and second person. Third person will use the form in the next grammar point.

The conjugation is very straightforward; you simply add the verb stem to ๊ณ  ์‹ถ๋‹ค.


  1. ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•ด์„œ ์ž๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์š”. (I am tired so I want to sleep.)
  2. ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณด๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์š”? (Do you want to watch this movie?)
  3. ์ด ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์š”. (I want to listen to this song.)

One important thing to note is that this expression -๊ณ  ์‹ถ๋‹ค is considered an adjective, not a verb, so when you use the present tense noun modifier, you use the one for adjectives, not verbs.

So, you would say ๋จน๊ณ  ์‹ถ์€ ์Œ์‹ (the food I want to eat), using ์€ and not ๋Š”.

4. V-๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to express a third person's hope or desire.

In terms of meaning, it's exactly the same as point 3 above, just that you would use this when discussing a third person.


  1. ์—”๋”” ์”จ๋Š” ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•ด์„œ ์ž๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•ด์š”. (Andy is tired so he wants to sleep.)
  2. ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณด๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (Nana wants to watch this movie. [formal])
  3. ์นœ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ์ด ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•ด์š”. (My friend wants to listen to this song.)

Unlike -๊ณ  ์‹ถ๋‹ค, -๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•˜๋‹ค is a verb. With the present tense noun modifier, you use the verb version.

As we saw earlier:

  • (์ œ๊ฐ€) ๋จน๊ณ  ์‹ถ์€ ์Œ์‹ (the food I want to eat)


  • ์นœ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋จน๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด ํ•˜๋Š” ์Œ์‹ (the food my friend wants to eat)


Korean English Notes
๋‚˜์ดํŠธํด๋Ÿฝ nightclub; disco
ํ•ด๋ณ€ beach
๊ฐ• river
๋ง‰๊ตญ์ˆ˜ buckwheat noodle
ํฌ๋ง์‚ฌํ•ญ wish list The words following this are from the song.
์–ด์šธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to suit, to fit nicely, to match e.g. clothes, as in ์ฒญ๋ฐ”์ง€๊ฐ€ ์ž˜ ์–ด์šธ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ์—ฌ์ž. Another meaning is "to hang out, to get along (with other people)"
๋‚˜์˜ค๋‹ค to come out; to become apparent
๋ฐ”๋ฅด๋‹ค (โ€ฆ์— โ€ฆ์„) to apply, spread, rub, put on
ํ๋ฅด๋‹ค to flow
์œค๊ธฐ gloss, shine ์œค๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ํ๋ฅด๋Š” ๋จธ๋ฆฌ = hair with a glossy shine (lustrous hair)
๊ณ ์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค to be still, tranquil
๋ˆˆ๋น› the expression in one's eyes; the glitter in one's eyes
์‹œ๋ ฅ sight; vision Sino-Korean word from ่ง†ๅŠ› (shรฌlรฌ).
๋งž์ถ”๋‹ค to set, to adjust; to adapt
๋ฉ‹์„ ๋‚ด๋‹ค to dress up
๋ชฉ์ – uvula
๊ปŒ gum
์†Œ๋ฆฌ sound, noise, volume
์šธ์ ํ•˜๋‹ค to be gloomy; to be moody, melancholy, depressed
์†์ด ์ƒํ•˜๋‹ค to feel bad; to be upset, distressed, depressed
์œ„๋กœ comfort, consolation
๋ฐ”๋ผ๋ณด๋‹ค to stare at
๊ฑฐ์ฐฝํ•˜๋‹ค to be grandoise


After writing this... I have no idea why I put it off because there really wasn't much to do. During the class there was more speaking practice, so there's nothing additional to write. (It also kind of explains the title...)

There's more for this past week's lesson, since we finished up Chapter 15 and started Chapter 16.

Lesson 56 (Beginner 3B Lesson 8): If I had a dollar for every post I write...

It's been one year since I first started posting on this blog. ๐ŸŽ‰ I cannot believe how fast time flies. I didn't expect to keep going week after week (not exactly, but close enough I guess) for a year. I might eventually try to tidy up my notes for my own sanity and better organise things (or organise them another way) and bring back my original blog that was less informal, but it's still too early to say.

This is late (by my standards, after the weekend means its late) because I was still clearing my other things over the weekend. At the very least, I finished the Korean homework for both this and last lesson. Yep, for the first time, I didn't hand in my homework by the lesson.

Now, for the last lesson, we did the first 2 grammar points of Chapter 15. The youngest girl in the class didn't attend, and it seems like she didn't inform the teacher as well, since at the end the teacher mentioned that she'd check in with her to see what's going on.

We stated revising the new chapter's vocabulary that we went through last week in the handout by looking at the textbook.


1. A/V-(์œผ)๋ฉด

This is the conditional, translated to English usually as "if" or "when". It is used to express a condition or assumption that is uncertain or has not occured.

From the form, it's clear that the verb stem is used (simply remove ๋‹ค, without conjugating) and you add ์œผ when the adjective or verb has a final consonant that is not ใ„น. (It's nothing different from what we have already seen.)


  1. ๋ˆ์ด ๋งŽ์œผ๋ฉด ์ง‘์„ ์‚ด ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (If I have a lot of money, I will buy a house.)
  2. ์ง‘์— ๋„์ฐฉํ•˜๋ฉด ์ „ํ™”ํ•˜์„ธ์š”. (When you reach home, please call me.)
  3. ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์ถ”์šฐ๋ฉด ๋‘๊บผ์šด ์˜ท์„ ์ž…์œผ์„ธ์š”. (If the weather is cold, wear thick clothes.)

2. V-๋Š”

This is a noun modifier that is added to verbs. It provides state information on the nouns that come after it.

We saw the present tense noun modifier for adjectives in Chapter 14, specifically Lesson 53.

The grammar itself is straightforward; just add ๋Š” to everything. Actually, we did see this form exactly with the adjectives that end in ์žˆ๋‹ค, where you have ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋‹ค โ†’ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋Š”.

Regardless, some more examples:

  1. ๋จน๋‹ค โ†’ ๋จน๋Š” [๋ฉ๋Š”]
  2. ์ฝ๋‹ค โ†’ ์ฝ๋Š” [์ž‰๋Š”]
  3. ๋“ฃ๋‹ค โ†’ ๋“ฃ๋Š” [๋“ ๋Š”]
  4. ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค โ†’ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š”

The thing to watch out for basically are the pronunciations, particularly the first 3 above. For the last one, remember that there's more than a few final consonants (all coronals) that will give the /d/ sound and undergo the same transformation.

Essentially in all 3 cases, the stops/plosives of the final consonants become their nasal counterparts (still voiced, with place of articulation unchanged).

I won't go into more detail here, because I took a peek at the pronunciation topic of this chapter, and basically it's covering this, so I'll reserve it for then.

For the last one, the ใ„น disappears because of the ใ„น elimination. Remember "snooby"?

Let's see some example sentences.


  1. ์ œ๊ฐ€ ์ง€๊ธˆ ๋จน๋Š” ์Œ์‹์€ ๊น€๋ฐฅ์ด์—์š”. (The food that I am eating now is Gimbap.)
  2. ๋™์ƒ์ด ์ฝ๋Š” ์ฑ…์€ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”? (Is the book that your brother is reading interesting?)
  3. ์ œ๊ฐ€ ์ž์ฃผ ๋“ฃ๋Š” ์Œ์•…์€ ์ผ€์ดํŒ์˜ˆ์š”. (The music that I often listen to is K-pop.)
  4. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ง€๊ธˆ ๋งŒ๋“œ์‹œ๋Š” ์Œ์‹์€ ๋ถˆ๊ณ ๊ธฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (The food that my mother is making [honorific] now is Bulgogi.)

An important note on the verb that goes before the ๋Š”: the subject of the verb has to be marked with the subject marker ๊ฐ€/์ด. You cannot use the topic marker ์€/๋Š”. This is why above you see ์ œ๊ฐ€ instead of ์ €๋Š”, though normally ์ €๋Š” is more common in the example sentences that we've seen previously.


Korean English Notes
์‹œ์ฒญ city hall
์žฅ๋ฏธ rose
๊ธฐ๋ถ„ feeling, mood
ํ‚ค์šฐ๋‹ค to rear, raise, cultive e.g. a pet
์ž…์–‘ํ•˜๋‹ค to adopt e.g. a pet, a baby
์„ธ์ผ sale As in, the mall is having a sale.

Double Post?

On 12 December 2020, I saw there were 2 posts of Lesson 56, one based on an earlier version of this note. I've since deleted that older one, since it seems that this note links to the newer post.

Not quite sure what happened to result in that. If it happens again I'd file a bug report.

Lesson 55 (Beginner 3B Lesson 7): Start Chapter 15

This is way overdue, but due to last week being a busy week at work and things spilling over into the weekend (personal work as well as work at work), this was pushed back... and things are a bit better this week but still... Even up until now I've not done the homework for this week, which isn't great at all, given that the lesson is in 2 days and my personal deadline is usually Thursday... so... I'd have to get to it, but writing assignments take longer.

I thought to get this post out first because it's been causing me some mental clutter, seeing it every day on the task list. I'd already gotten the "hard part" done, which was listing all the vocabulary. It's tedious because when I add them here, I also have to add the new words to Anki and find audio for them on Forvo. I try to do these together, otherwise I'd need to track what progress I've made. There's the added complication also of the vocab words from the handout that usually are in the Quizlet deck which I can just import into Anki, and those I have to make sure to include in the list I keep here.

Yesterday, we got the notice to start preparing the gifts for the gift exchange. This year the names have been drawn and we've been given the instructions on how to send the parccel (the cost paid for by the school). I got the new student (not the one that joined in this last lesson - later in this post I'll mention it) but the previous one.

Also sometime last week (before this lesson) I got the invoice to pay for the next term. Interestingly, the next term is only 7 lessons long. Or rather, the first lesson of that term seems to be next week, the last lesson of the previous term I paid for. So this time, I paid for 7 lessons. No idea why there's this change.

So this lesson... wow, it's been almost a full week. I went out in the morning to buy something and was almost late for class. It did not help that I ended up not using the usual computer I use because of panic (which resulted in I think the wrong password) and I resorted to my other laptop. Fortunately the battery lasted, but I had to log in to Zoom again (since I'd not used that computer for Zoom for so long, it logged me out, even though it's a different account). The computer is also... beginning to show signs of... breaking down. The trackpad has started to become less responsive since yesterday, but that's not really relevant.

We covered the rest of Chapter 14 in the textbook and even started on the vocabulary for Chapter 15. (Chapter 15 is mood, it's titled "I want to go on a trip"... and right now I do want to go on a trip since it has been some time.)

As I mentioned, there was another new student in the class. I thought I was late (I was, by 5 minutes), but about 2-3 minutes later, this new student joined the call, and so we had a short digression for an introduction. This time we had to additionally say that we liked (not just name and occupation, which for most of us was just ํšŒ์‚ฌ์›). I really couldn't think of anything so I said what has been on my mind these days: horse riding.1

As it turns out, my friend was later (around 20 minutes late) - and so there was another round of introductions. He was also late the lesson the other new student joined 2 lessons ago.

We went through the textbook and it took actually quite a while to finish up because there were quite a few things to discuss. Both the reading and writing sections were homework.

Culture Note

The culture note was about gifts to your significant other, and about taboo gifts. The example had a text where a guy gave his (Korean) girlfriend shoes, and in the culture you shouldn't do that because it means something like the girlfriend wear the shoes and leave you for another guy. Because we were short on time, the teacher read the whole passage (to my surprise).

However, we did discuss various holidays where we typically send gifts under the Listening and Speaking section. I've added these to the vocabulary section below, along with the relevant notes.


The pronunciation has to do with how to pronounce syllables with two final consonants.

In order to find the symbols of the double consonants because typing ใ„นใ„ฑ is ugly and I wanted it to be ใ„บ, I had to hunt for a site with the symbols. I found this site, which is pretty cool.

I know this topic is also not exactly new, so I went in search of old posts. While searching for the posts where I've mentioned this, I chanced upon Lesson 25 and realised that was the lesson that we started with this current teacher. I did not even realise that I've had more lessons with her than with the teacher I started with. Actually, it's coming very close to a year since I started this practice of posting my own summaries after each lesson. Time flies! ๐Ÿ˜ฑ

I found something related way back in Lesson 11 I addressed this briefly. We'll take a look at that later.

The textbook gave two rules:

  1. Only one of the double final consonants is pronounced as the representative sound for the pair.
  2. When the final double consonant 'ใ„บ' is followed by 'ใ„ฑ', 'ใ„บ' is pronounced as [ใ„น] instead of [ใ„ฑ].

For the first rule, well, that's... obvious isn't it?

The teacher mentioned (following the examples given in the textbook) that in most cases you read the first consonant of the two, as in:

  • ใ„ต: ์•‰๋‹ค [์•ˆ๋”ฐ]
  • ใ„ผ: ์งง๋‹ค [์งค๋”ฐ]
  • ใ…„: ์—†๋‹ค [์—…ห๋”ฐ]

However, for 'ใ„บ', you normally pronounce the 'ใ„ฑ':

  • ์ฝ๋‹ค [์ต๋”ฐ]

Rule 2 says that if it's the next syllable is 'ใ„ฑ', then you don't pronounce it as [ใ„ฑ], but [ใ„น]:

  • ์ฝ๊ณ  [์ผ๊ผฌ]

Rule 2 isn't all that new; I saw some weeks ago because of one of the example sentences in the handout for Chapter 12. (It's lesson 45, since the example in the handout belongs under the V-๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค grammar point, though I don't mention pronunciation at all in my post.)

Now, going back to my post from lesson 11, the general rule given was:

The consonant to pronounce on the bottom is the one first in alphabet order

For reference, here is the alphabet order:

ใ„ฑ ใ„ฒ ใ„ด ใ„ท ใ„ธ ใ„น ใ… ใ…‚ ใ…ƒ ใ…… ใ…† ใ…‡ ใ…ˆ ใ…‰ ใ…Š ใ…‹ ใ…Œ ใ… ใ…Ž

In all the cases above, you'll notice that the consonant that is pronounced is the first one in the alphabet order.

Of course, the point is that the general rule isn't very useful to people learning Korean as a foreign language because we don't have to know the Korean alphabet order. I didn't memorise it, for sure.

Even for the English alphabet, it's not as though I know (without running through the sequence for most letters in the middle) whether a given letter goes before another letter. This is even though I know the order of the entire alphabet.

Though in the time since the lesson and doing all the vocab, I have a question: What about ๋‹ญ๊ฐˆ๋น„ (one of the new vocab words from Chapter 15)? It's pronounced as [๋‹ฅ๊น”๋น„].

Why does it not follow Rule 2? Is it because the word is a kind of compound of ๋‹ญ (chicken) + ๊ฐˆ๋น„? Does Rule 2 only apply to syllables that belong to the same "word", meaning they stick to syllable with the double consonant because they are grammar particles, or are another syllable that make the same word? I don't know.


Chapter 14

Korean English Notes
์Šน๋ง horseback riding
ํŠนํžˆ in particular; especially ๊ทธ๋Š” ๋™๋ฌผ ํŠนํžˆ ๊ฐ•์•„์ง€๋ฅผ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. = He likes animals, epecially puppies. (Not sure if it's the most natural way to put things as such, but essentially this was the context that the new student was trying to use it in.) ์ด ํŒŒ์Šคํƒ€๋Š” ํŠนํžˆ ๋ง›์—†์–ด์š”. = This pasta is especially tasteless. (Sentence courtesy of Duolingo.)
์น˜ํ‚จ๋ผ์ด์Šค chicken rice Don't call it ๋ฐฅ since it's not Korean food.
ํƒ€์ด๊ฑฐ ๋งฅ์ฃผ Tiger beer
์—ฌํ–‰์ง€ travel destination Basically, tourist attractions I guess?
๊ฐ€๋“ ์Šค ๋ฐ”์ด ๋” ๋ฒ ์ด Gardens by the Bay
์„ผํ† ์‚ฌ Sentosa
์นด๋ฐ”์•ผ kabaya
์–ด๋ฒ„์ด๋‚  Parents' Day This is on 8 May. (Children's Day, ์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋‚ , is on 5 May in Korea.)
์Šค์Šน์˜ ๋‚  Teachers' Day 15 May. It is King Sejong's birthday.
๋นผ๋นผ๋กœ ๋ฐ์ด Pepero Day Single's Day? It's 11 Nov
๋ฐธ๋Ÿฐํƒ€์ธ๋ฐ์ด Valentine's Day 14 Feb, when the girls give their boyfriends chocolate.
ํ™”์ดํŠธ๋ฐ์ด White Day 14 Mar, when the boys give their girlfriends candy.
์‚ฌํƒ• candy
๋ธ”๋ž™๋ฐ์ด Black Day 14 Apr, when if you didn't receive anything on Valentine's Day or White Day, you would wear black and go eat Jajangmyeon on your own.
์‚ผ๊ฒน์‚ด ๋ฐ์ด Pork Belly Day 3 Mar. Some marketing tactic, probably, since it sounds like that. (์‚ผ = 3) I
์ฒซ์งธ first Ordinal number.
10์›” ์ฒซ์งธ์ฃผ ๊ธˆ์š”์ผ the first Friday in October I think this is the new Children's Day here, but this year it's actually the second Friday. When I was young, as in, when I was still in school and this was a holiday (it's not a public holiday unlike Korea), it was fixed on 1 Oct. Like how Teachers' Day was fixed on 1 Sep, but that has also changed.
์ˆ˜๋ฃŒ์‹ completion ceremony Not a graduation ceremony as in school. But completion of course. You would wear a gown and be presented a certificate of completion.
์ˆ˜๋ฃŒ์ฆ certificate of completion
๊ฐ€์šด gown
๋ชฉ๋„๋ฆฌ scarf; muffler
๊ท€๊ฑธ์ด earring; earmuffs
๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค to have, possess; to take ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค is from ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค + ์˜ค๋‹ค.
๊ธฐํƒ€ others Sino-Korean word from ๅ…ถไป–, such as an "others" or "etc." category. Yes, it is also the word for "guitar", but different etymology.
์ถ•ํ•˜ celebration
๋†€๋ผ๋‹ค to be surprised
๋จผ์ € first First in time or sequence.
๋ฌผ์–ด๋ณด๋‹ค to ask

Chapter 15

Korean English Notes
๊ฒฝ์น˜๊ฐ€ ์•„๋ฆ„๋‹ต๋‹ค to have beautiful scenery
๊ตฌ๊ฒฝ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ๋‹ค to have many sightseeing attractions
๋‹ญ๊ฐˆ๋น„ spicy chicken stir-fry
๋‚  day
๊ณณ place
๋‚จ์ด์„ฌ Nami Island An island in Chuncheon.
ํ•ด์šด๋Œ€ Haeundae A beach in Busan.
๋„์ฐฉํ•˜๋‹ค to arrive Sino-Korean word from ๅˆฐ็€, from ๅˆฐ (โ€œarriveโ€) + ็€ (โ€œmake a moveโ€)
์ถœ๋ฐœํ•˜๋‹ค to depart Sino-Korean word from ๅ‡บ็™ผ (โ€œdepartureโ€)
๋ˆ์„ ๋ฐ”๊พธ๋‹ค to exchange money
๋Œ์•„์˜ค๋‹ค to come back
๋– ๋‚˜๋‹ค to leave
์˜ฌ๋ผ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go up
๋ฌผ๊ฑด๊ฐ’์ด ์‹ธ๋‹ค to have the price of items be cheap ๋ฌผ๊ฑด = items; ๊ฐ’ = price
๋ฏธ์ˆ ๊ด€ art museum
๋ฐ˜์ง€ ring
๋ณด์ด๋‹ค to be seen Passive, without intentionally seeing something.
์˜ˆ๋งคํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve (a ticket) movie, train, plane ticket.
๋น„ํ–‰๊ธฐ ํ‘œ๋ฅผ ์˜ˆ๋งคํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve a flight ticket
์˜ˆ์•ฝํ•˜๋‹ค to make a reservation; to book
ํ˜ธํ…”์„ ์˜ˆ์•ฝํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve a hotel
์กฐ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be silent, quiet, still, calm
์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋„ ์—†๊ณ  ์กฐ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be uncrowded and quiet
์‹ ํ˜ผ์—ฌํ–‰ honeymoon
์‹ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to quarrel, fight
๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ a sporting or athletic competition or match
์•ผ๊ตฌ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ baseball match
์•ผ๊ตฌ์žฅ baseball stadium
์—ฌ๊ถŒ์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค to make a passport
์—ฌํ–‰ํ•˜๋‹ค to travel
์ฆ๊ฒ๋‹ค to be enjoyable
ํœด๊ฐ€ vacation

Duolingo Bonus Vocab

Since I've been doing more Duolingo again I've got more vocab that I want to add to Anki to aid my efforts. (I have a love-hate relationship with that app, the newest way it has succeeded in its gamification efforts and suck me in is to provide a 2x XP boost each time I complete a level which makes me use the app longer than the 10 minutes I normally would.)

The translations in bold are what Duolingo accepts, the others are from Wiktionary. In any case, I suspect the usage of the adverbs require more context to figure out what is the most appropriate.

Korean English Notes
์˜๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to be clever
๋„“๋‹ค to be wide
๋‚ ์”ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to be thin (slim)
๋šฑ๋šฑํ•˜๋‹ค to be fat
๋ฉ€๋ฆฌ far away ๋ฉ€๋ฆฌ์—์„œ ์˜ค๋‹ค = to come from far away. ๋ฉ€๋‹ค is "to be far".
๊ฑด๋„ˆํŽธ the opposite side ๋‚จ์ž์•„์ด๊ฐ€ ์—ฌ์ž ๊ฑด๋„ˆํŽธ์—์„œ ๋จน์–ด์š”. = The boy eats across from the woman. ๊ฑด๋„ˆ๋‹ค is "to cross" (e.g. the road).
์™ผ์ชฝ์— ์žˆ๋Š” N N on the left ์™ผ์ชฝ์— ์žˆ๋Š” ์ฑ…์€ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”. = The book on the left is interesting.
์ƒ๋‹นํžˆ fairly; suitably; to an appropriate degree ์ด ์™€์ธ์€ ์ƒ๋‹น์ด ์‹ธ์š”. = This wine is fairly cheap.
๊ฝค quite; rather, fairly; to more than an ordinary degree ์‚ฐ์ด ๊ฝค ๋†’์•„์š”. = The mountain is quite high.
์ฐธ really; truly ๊ทธ ํ•™์ƒ์€ ์ฐธ ์ฐฉํ•ด์š”. = That student is really kind.
์ฐฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be kind; to be good, pleasing Apparently "to be kind" is from the 19th century, from the 2000s onwards the colloquial usage means for example to be good in the sense of a cheap (reasonable) price. See Wiktionary. Anyway, there is ์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๋‹ค that means "to be kind".
์—„์ฒญ overly; very (much), really, terribly Additonally consulted Naver for this translations. ์‹ผ ์ง‘์€ ์—„์ฒญ ์ž‘์•„์š”. = The cheap house is overly small.
ํ›จ์”ฌ by far; much more or less (than normal); a lot; long (before or after); far more ์ €์˜ ์ง‘์€ ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ์ปค์š”. = My house is bigger by far. (Note that I think you should be using ์šฐ๋ฆฌ when describing your own house. But this is the sentence that Duolingo had. ๐Ÿคทโ€โ™€๏ธ)
๊ต‰์žฅํžˆ exceedingly; very, greatly ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๊ต‰์žฅํžˆ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•ด์š”. = I am very tired.
๋ณ„๋กœ very; really It's used in a negative context as "very", as in: ์˜ํ™”๊ฐ€ ๋ณ„๋กœ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์—†์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. = The movie is not very interesting. As "really" it's sometimes used with a negative.


For some random, completely unrelated reason, I decided to click on the Duolingo Help Center today and found out that Tinycards was shut down on 1 September 2020. I've never really used it for vocab, but I did enjoy the country mapping, 50 US states, Russian alphabet, and Egyptian hieroglyphics official decks for a while. I think at some point just before they released, they let me test one build on Testflight... that was really a long time ago.

Listed Subscription Function

I accidentally hit the email subscribers button while trying to update the post... this is the first time it's happened. I did subscribe with my own email before, so I finally get to see what happens when that button is pressed. I wasn't quite expecting the full post in the email. (And the footnote link in that is the same, and is just as brokenโ€”or moreโ€”depending on how you look at it.)

That aside, the button changes to "Subscribers Emailed" with a tick, and it seems that pressing it again doesn't send another email too. I do wish there was a way to test all these out more easily, but anyway, I'm not really using that feature. It was a misclick.

  1. This is actually another topic that I should be consolidating my thoughts and writing about, but my usual own debrief after the lesson on the way home since Standard Note's upgrade to 3.5 has resulted in the mobile app crashing a lot, and creating many conflicted copies of the notes to the point of it being annoying. But even without that, usually I am pretty tired and I'd feel obligated to review all the past notes... regardless I've started to note down some interesting facts as I learn them (started to read some books on the topic and seeing how I can apply them)... though for now I've just dumped them on Notion. Also, yes, footnotes are still broken on the Listed site, but this warrants being a footnote, so I'm making it one regardless.  โ†ฉ

Lesson 54 (Beginner 3B Lesson 6)

The youngest girl in our class was 30 minutes late for this lesson. I don't know if she is the youngest anymore, with the new male student who said he was a university student. It depends on which year he was in.

We started with Quizlet, a deck that I'd not added to Anki because I didn't know it existed and I'd not thought to check the decks when they were added. Actually, I don't recall seeing an email about them being added. I know Quizlet changed their UI a bit too. So the deck was basically on the second grammar point from the previous lesson, the present tense modifier.

But before that I think the teacher had also asked us what we did last week, since it was a public holiday and we had no class. I honestly couldn't remember. Sigh.

Also I noticed it at least twice during the lesson some German came out because I had a German lesson on Thursday for the first time in 3 months.

Anyway, this week is a busy week for me at work, and so was the weekend, which is why this is late. In fact, I am doing this as a form of procrastination instead of doing a presentation I should be preparing for. Ah, well. But this is also overdue in my own books to (I try to finish the post over the weekend), so... it's not really that either.

This week is also Black Friday... uh, Thanksgiving Week, if I'm not mistaken, from the marketing emails I've been getting. I'm wondering whether to get some language courses but I doubt I'd actually use them now, given how my schedule is and I probably won't fit them in.

We finished up the last 2 grammar points. I can only breathe a sigh of relief that the next writing assignment is next week and not this week.


3. Nํ•œํ…Œ[๊ป˜]

This is, basically, the indirect object marker. Like how ์„/๋ฅผ is the direct object marker.

The notes say that Nํ•œํ…Œ:

indicates that the preceding noun is affected by the action of the verb

That is really not helpful to me, but I know this is the indirect object marker and so that is okay for me.

Some usage notes:

  1. You use ๊ป˜ instead of ํ•œํ…Œ when you want to show that the receiver of the verb's action is respected (e.g. grandparents, parents, boss,...).
    • When the verb is "to give" (์ฃผ๋‹ค) and the situation calls for using ๊ป˜, you use ๋“œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค instead of ์ฃผ๋‹ค. It's like the honorific speech, but... not really. At least not as we have seen it. Notice the difference:
      1. ์ œ๊ฐ€ ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ป˜ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ๋“œ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (I gave a present to my grandmother.)
      2. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ €ํ•œํ…Œ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์ฃผ์…จ์–ด์š”. (My grandmother gave a present to me.)
    • The second sentence is where the subject of the sentence is respected, which is what was previously covered.
  2. You use ์—๊ฒŒ instead of ํ•œํ…Œ in formal speech or in written language.
    • ์นœ๊ตฌ์—๊ฒŒ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์คฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (I gave a present to my friend.)
  3. You use ํ•œํ…Œ(์„œ) or ์—๊ฒŒ(์„œ) when the noun is the source or starting point of the action.
    • Example would be a verb like "to hear" (๋“ฃ๋‹ค) and "to receive" (๋ฐ›๋‹ค), where you hear something from someone or receive something from someone.
    • ์นœ๊ตฌํ•œํ…Œ(์„œ) ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ๋ฐ›์•˜์–ด์š”. (I received a present from my friend.)
    • It's easy (but not entirely correct) to translate ํ•œํ…Œ/์—๊ฒŒ as "to" and ํ•œํ…Œ์„œ/์—๊ฒŒ์„œ as "from". As we have seen, depending on the verb, ํ•œํ…Œ/์—๊ฒŒ can also mean "from" since ์„œ is optional.
    • The teacher said that she rarely adds the ์„œ.

4. V-์•„/์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”

This is used to suggest or recommend that someone try a certain action.

In terms of how it's conjugated, it's very similar to V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ๋‹ค, in particular with V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” which requests that someone does something for you.

To "soften" the request, instead of using ์ข€ (it seems), you use ํ•œ๋ฒˆ, which literally means "one time".


  1. ์ด ์ฑ…์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ ์ฝ์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try reading this book.)
  2. ๋“ค์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try to listen.)
    • This is a very familiar instruction I hear for many of the audio tracks. I've wondered what the grammar was (but was not curious enough to try to find out before this).
  3. ์ œ์ฃผ๋„์— ํ•œ๋ฒˆ ๊ฐ€ ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try to go to Jeju island.)
    • Context could be someone asking what is a nice place to visit in Korea, for example.

I'm honestly not sure about the nuance between this and making requests with V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”.

In the example sentences that I've seen that are translated (in the Quizlet deck), they all have the "try" there, but it doesn't really tell me much about the distinction.


Korean English Notes
์ˆ˜๊ฑด towel
์„ ๊ธ€๋ผ์Šค sunglasses
์‹ ์šฉ์นด๋“œ credit card ์‹ ์šฉ = Sino-Korean word from ไฟก็”จ ("credit").
๊ณ„์† continuously ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ณ„์† ์•„ํŒŒ์š”. = My head keeps hurting.
์ธ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค to be popular
์ž ์ด ์˜ค๋‹ค to be sleepy ์ž ์ด ์™€์š”. = I am sleepy. ์ž ์ด ์•ˆ ์™€์š”. = I cannot sleep.
์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค stress
์•„๋ฆ„๋‹ต๋‹ค to be beautiful
๋ฌด์„ญ๋‹ค to be scary
์ง์› staff; employee
์ œ์ผ the most Forms superlatives of adjectives, e.g. ์ œ์ผ ๋†’์€ ์‚ฐ = the highest mountain
์ฒด๊ฒฉ์ด ์ข‹๋‹ค to be well-built
๋งˆ์Œ heart; mind
๋งˆ์Œ์ด ๋”ฐ๋œปํ•˜๋‹ค to be warm-hearted
๋ฏธ๋‹ˆ์Šค์ปคํŠธ miniskirt


I forgot to title this and I'm too tired to think of anything.

Lesson 53 (Beginner 3B Lesson 5): A Longer Post than Usual

We went through the mistakes for the test at the start. This was significantly shorter than in the past, so I take it to mean that everyone else did very well. I did better than expected again. There was one question which I thought I had gotten wrong but it turned out that my answer was correct... so it's a bit scary but now it's 3 tests where I've only been penalised for the essay/oral components and I'm just going to keep pressuring myself...

But that's for another time to worry about. I think the next test will be in February at the earliest, since this test was 3 months from the last one. However, next week is a public holiday, so there's no class. There's bound to be a break during Christmas as well, like last year. So I think it's more likely that the test is in mid-February, at the earliest.

We had a new student join the class. He's still a university student, so I guess he might be the youngest? I'm not certain... the previously youngest student in the class was... well, it depends on which year he is in, I guess. It's possible due to national service that he is older than she is... I think he had learnt Korean elsewhere and took a placement test.

We spent the lesson going through the handout for this chapter, which was the vocabulary and then the first 2 grammar points. That meant there is quite a fair bit of homework in the homework sheet, and the teacher also gave us another 2 pages to do in the handout itself.

Chapter 14 is about clothes.

With the vocab she made us make sentences with the adjectives. She spared me though, near the end. Not sure if it was intentional or not, but I'm grateful. For the first two sentences I was used as an example... for the adjectives "cute" and "smart"... For the "cute" one that came from the youngest student, I guess she can't call any of the guys in the class "cute", and since I'm the younger of the remaining two students... Then my friend continued and said I was smart. That kind of adds pressure, I don't really think I'm that smart (seriously, work with my colleagues and some of them are the definition of smart), just... I guess for some things I put more effort into it, and then it pays off in the end.

We only had one breakout room for this session, and it was in a group of 3. The new student and the other girl (the younger one) was in the main room with the teacher.

I'm in quite a dilemma about how to tag my Anki cards... I realised I have nothing tagged in Beginner 3B. That's because we started chapter 13 while it was still Beginner 3A. The thing is, 3B is technically this term, but at the same time, we are really doing Beginner 4A since the test is over. The teacher has called the Zoom room Beginner 4... I'm probably going to continue labelling the lessons here following 8 lessons = 1 term (A or B). But in my cards... I tagged chapter 14 as Beginner 4A.

One day the inconsistency will be so great, I bet it will come back to bite me. Or I'd just be missing a tag somewhere maybe, like how I'm already missing the Beginner 3B tag.

As for why the Zoom room is numbered 4 and not 4A, maybe she decided to schedule more meetings upfront? I have no idea, in the past the room was 2B, then 3A, then 3B...

Anyway, the breakdown seems to be like this:

  1. Beginner 1: Chapters 1-5
  2. Beginner 2: Chapters 6-9
  3. Beginner 3: Chapters 10-13
  4. Beginner 4: Chapters 14-16?

I'm basing Beginner 4 based on the fact that Chapter 16 is the last for the book, and I... assume we won't be touching the 2A book. However, if we do end at Chapter 16, then the test may come even earlier, since there would only be 3 chapters. I can't tell since the lastest set of notes I've received is only up to Chapter 16. There's a chance that we might just continue to Chapter 1 for the level 2 books.


Korean English Notes
์˜๋ณต clothes Sino-Korean word from ่กฃๆœ, from ่กฃ (โ€œclothingโ€) + ๆœ (โ€œclothingโ€). Synonym of ์˜ท.
๋ชจ์ž hat
์–‘๋ณต suit
์ •์žฅ formal clothing bigger category that includes ์–‘๋ณต
์…”์ธ  shirt with buttons
ํ‹ฐ์…”์ธ  T-shirt
๋ธ”๋ผ์šฐ์Šค blouse
์›ํ”ผ์Šค dress "one piece"
์ฝ”ํŠธ coat
๋ฐ”์ง€ pants
๋ฐ˜๋ฐ”์ง€ shorts lit. "half pants"
์‹ ๋ฐœ shoes; footwear This term refers to all kinds of shoes, including ์šด๋™ํ™”, ๊ตฌ๋‘, ์Šฌ๋ฆฌํผ, ์ƒŒ๋“ค, ...
์Šค์ปคํŠธ/์น˜๋งˆ skirt
๊ตฌ๋‘ (formal) shoes
์šด๋™ํ™” sneakers sports shoes
์Šฌ๋ฆฌํผ slippers
์ƒŒ๋“ค sandals
์ž…๋‹ค to wear (clothes)
์‹ ๋‹ค to wear (footwear)
์“ฐ๋‹ค to wear (hat, eyeglasses)
๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ voice
ํŒ”๋‹ค to sell
๋†€๋‹ค to play
์šธ๋‹ค to cry
๊ท€์—ฝ๋‹ค to be cute
๊ธฐ์˜๋‹ค to be happy
๊ธธ๋‹ค to be long
์งง๋‹ค to be short Describing length.
ํฌ๋‹ค to be big
์ž‘๋‹ค to be small
ํ‚ค๊ฐ€ ํฌ๋‹ค to be tall
ํ‚ค๊ฐ€ ์ž‘๋‹ค to be short Describing height.
๋‚ฎ๋‹ค to be low Describing value/height of something.
๋†’๋‹ค to be high Can also mean "to be tall" or "to be lofty".
๋‘๊ป๋‹ค to be thick For something flat, e.g. books or clothes. Cannot be used to refer to, say, drinks, such as "a thick coffee"
์–‡๋‹ค to be thin Applies to the same things as ๋‘๊ป๋‹ค
๋‹จ์ˆœํ•˜๋‹ค to be simple The antonym is ๋ณต์žกํ•˜๋‹ค ("to be complex", but it also means "to be crowded").
๋ˆˆ์ด ๋†’๋‹ค to have high standards Idiom. Literally, "eyes are high".
๋ˆˆ์ด ๋‚ฎ๋‹ค to have low standards Idiom. Literally, "eyes are low".
์–ผ๊ตด์ด ๋‘๊ป๋‹ค to be thick-skinned Idiom. Literally, "face is thick".
๊ท€๊ฐ€ ์–‡๋‹ค to be easily influenced by others' words Idiom. Literally, "ears are thin".
๋˜‘๋˜‘ํ•˜๋‹ค to be smart
๋ฉ‹์žˆ๋‹ค to be stylish
ํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be comfortable
๋ถˆํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be uncomfortable
๋‹ฌ๋‹ค to be sweet
ํž˜๋“ค๋‹ค to be hard/tough
๊ฑด๊ฐ•์— ์ข‹๋‹ค to be good for health
์ด์‚ฌ(๋ฅผ) ํ•˜๋‹ค to move house
๋ฐ๋‹ค to be bright; to be light e.g. in colour
์–ด๋‘ก๋‹ค to be dark; to be gloomy
๋ฒ—๋‹ค to take off; to remove (from oneself) e.g. clothes, shoes
๋‘๋‹ค to put
๋“ค์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go in; to enter ๋ฐฉ์— ๋“ค์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค. Other meanings include: (1) to go to; to attend (a school); (2) to begin
๋ฆฌ๋ณธ ribbon ๋ฆฌ๋ณธ์ด ์žˆ๋Š” ์‹ ๋ฐœ = the shoe with a ribbon
์ด๋ถˆ blanket; duvet
์Šฌํ”„๋‹ค to be sad
๋ฌธ์ œ problem; question


1. 'ใ„น' ํƒˆ๋ฝ

Back in Lesson 42 we learned 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ, which was the elimination of ใ…ก for verb stems that end with that vowel when conjugated with ์•„/์–ด.

This is something similar, in that it is also an elimination, but the rules are somewhat different.

When the verb or adjective stem ends in ใ„น:

  1. Do not insert '์œผ'.
  2. 'ใ„น' is omitted when followed by a suffix that begins with ใ……, ใ„ด, or ใ…‚.

1. Do not insert '์œผ'.

This applies to certain grammar forms with an optional ์œผ such as A/V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”, A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”, and V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. Most recently, we also learnt V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค.

Actually, this is much like with N(์œผ)๋กœ, where if the noun's final consonant is 'ใ„น', we do not add '์œผ' but simply add ๋กœ to it.


  1. ์‚ด๋‹ค + -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” โ†’ ์‚ด ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”.
  2. ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค + -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”? โ†’ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊นŒ์š”?
  3. ๋†€๋‹ค + -(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค โ†’ ๋†€๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”.

2. 'ใ„น' is omitted when followed by a suffix that begins with ใ……, ใ„ด, or ใ…‚.


  1. ์‚ด๋‹ค + -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์‚ฌ์„ธ์š”.
    • Yes, this is identical to the honorific form/imperative form for ์‚ฌ๋‹ค ("to buy").
    • Here Rule #1 comes into play as well.
  2. ํŒ”๋‹ค + ๋„ค์š” โ†’ ํŒŒ๋„ค์š”.
  3. ๊ธธ๋‹ค + -์Šต/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค โ†’ ๊น๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The teacher actually gave a very helpful mnemonic device for this section. It's definitely better than the text description I'm going to give here because she actually drew it out and told it like a story. I'm not going to draw it out... and I'm not going to include the screenshots I took here, so here's the text description.

First, you imagine you have... Snoopy. Yeah, Snoopy. But this isn't really Snoopy. It's a "pirated version", so its name is actually "Snooby". Unlike the actual Snoopy, Snooby is very fierce. He likes to chase snakes. When the snake sees Snooby, it runs away. So the image is of a snake (which basically was drawn so it curls around like the letter ใ„น) running away from Snooby (ใ……, ใ„ด, ใ…‚).

That image is so effective, I don't think it's going to be easy to forget this.

2. A-(์œผ)ใ„ด

This is the present tense modifier for adjectives, which actually modifies the noun that comes after the adjective. The adjective is always before the noun.

(This is amazing because I've been wondering how to do this for quite some time, to add an adjective to a noun to describe it. I can't wait for chapter 15 when we learn how to add verbs to nouns, though I already rougly know how to do it from chancing across the Quizlet deck...)

The rules are:

  1. If there is batchim, add ์€.
  2. If there is no batchim, or if the batchim is ใ„น, add ใ„ด.
    • Recall from the above section, the ใ„ด sound causes the omission of ใ„น
  3. If the adjective ends in ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค, add ๋Š”.

(I think the last one is actually just a more specific case of how you do it for verbs. Adding ๋Š” is a special case for these kind of adjectives that look even more like verbs than other adjectives do... but I'm just rambling and these are hypotheses that are unverified.)


  1. ์ž‘๋‹ค: ์ž‘์€
  2. ํฌ๋‹ค: ํฐ
  3. ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋‹ค: ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋Š”
  4. ๋ง›์—†๋‹ค: ๋ง›์—†๋Š” [๋งˆ๋ค๋Š”]

Lesson 52 (Beginner 3B Lesson 4): Test 3

I really, really don't want to write about the test. For various reasons I definitely don't think I am proud of how I did this, regardless of the actual result. It's very likely that it'll still be a relatively high score. I should be happy in terms of my studying efforts, in that I actually studied from an earlier date, but still. I don't feel good right now about myself.

I didn't have enough time to check through my answers, let alone review the essay at the end. Except it wasn't an essay, it was actually 2 topics which made it harder to write. The second topic was... well, it was from the textbook, the homework, which now that I think about it, the teacher hinted at it last week too...


For oral, I was the first to go again. I was a nervous wreck (the phrase "bundle of nerves" went through my mind a lot) who couldn't even read the sentences properly. But since the oral is the only component that I don't have the paper for, I should write what I recall.

  1. Read 5 sentences. I freaked out over the instructions which had tons of unfamiliar words, due to the formatting I thought that the instructions was the first sentence to read. Mostly involved the pronunciation from the relevant chapters, but man, one sentence had like 2 of them together... ugh. I don't want to talk about it.
  2. The train directions thing. Same as in the textbook, you are at a station and you have to say how to get to another station.
  3. Plans for today (after the lesson) and tomorrow.
  4. Pretend that you are a doctor and the teacher is the patient. And it took me a while to realise I had to start the conversation... This was the giving advice part.

The order was, as far as I could tell, me, my friend, the youngest girl, then the other lady. The good thing about going first is that you don't have to context switch since it's right after the listening test.


The youngest girl in the class who wasn't here for the last lesson of the previous term asked after the test if our class only has 4 students. (She finished early too, which only added to my stress. Then my friend finished. Before the class ended.)

The teacher confirmed that the other 2 students both transfererd to the Wednesday class, but then she said that next week we would have a new student and should prepare an introduction. (I think... it is sort of serious, so I should have something to say. Lol.)

Then she also mentioned that she made some corrections to the notes and will send it to us (next week?), so yay for getting the original so I can print them in colour.... oh wait, I just received a notification for a parcel, so maybe she's resending them as physical copies.