notes on things I'm learning. currently: Korean

Lesson 97 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 3)

We started with Quizlet review. It was a real review, where each of us took turns to translate into Korean the words from the chapter 14 Quizlet word set. I had revised that morning, but it was still hard. I am very far behind on Anki, so I have not seen the new cards outside of the Quizlet review that I did.

Then, we finished off the rest of the handout, which had the last three grammar points for the chapter.

For the textbook, we got as far as the Listening section. Reading and Writing is for homework.


2. A/V-았을/었을/했을 때

This is used to indicate a point in time when something took place or existed in the past.

It is important to note that this form is used for a past and completed action.

ㅏ,ㅗ O + -았을 때 ㅏ,ㅗ X + -었을 때 하다 + -했을 때
보다 → 봤을 때 어리다 → 어렸을 때 시작하다 → 시작했을 때
앉다 → 앉았을 때 젊다 → 젊었을 때 반말하다 → 반말했을 때


  1. 한국어 공부를 처음 시작했을 때 좀 어려웠어요.
  2. 밥을 다 먹었을 때 친구가 왔어요.
  3. 젊었을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.

때 (“when”) should be familiar from A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때.

In some cases, there isn’t any difference when using A/V-(으)ㄹ 때 instead of A/V-았을/었을/했을 때. The third sentence above would not have the meaning changed if you wrote 젊을 때는 운동을 많이 했는데 요즘은 거의 못해요.

Both can be used to express something that occurred during a given time period.

However, in other cases, there is a difference:

  • 집에 갈 때 비가 왔어요.
    • This means that while I was on the way home, it started to rain.
    • I would need an umbrella.
  • 집에 갔을 때 비가 왔어요.
    • It only started to rain after I was home.
    • I do not need an umbrella.

A/V-았을/었을/했을 때 is used especially to refer to the point in time just after you have completed the action.

3. V-아도/어도/해도 되다

This is used to ask for permission (if it is a question) or to give permission to do something.

It is the same as “may ~” or ”can ~” (not whether someone has the ability to do something—that is V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다) in English.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
보다 → 보도 되다 마시다→ 마셔도 되다 구경하다 → 구경해도 되다


  1. 사직을 찍어도 돼요?
  2. 카도로 내도 돼요.
  3. 이거 먹어도 돼요? 네, 드세요.

Instead of using 돼요, it is also possible to use 괜찮아요: 가도 괜찮아요.

The negation of this form means that it is okay not to do something, and not that it is not okay to do something.

  • 가도 돼요. (You may go.)
  • 안 가도 돼요. (You don’t have to go.)

For how to say that something is not allowed, see the next grammar point.

4. V-(으)면 안 되다

This is used to express denying permission or approval for an action.

받침 O 받침 X, ㄹ
먹다→ 먹으면 안 되다 가다 → 가면 안 되다


  1. 극장에서 전화하면 안 돼요.
  2. 박물관에서 사진을 찍으시면 안 돼요.
  3. 아침 8시까지 학교에 안가면 안 돼요.
    • = 아침 8시까지 학교에 꼭 가야 돼요.

As seen from the last sentence, the negation of this form (resulting in a double negative) has the same meaning as V-아야/어야/해야 되다.

We have also previously learnt V-(으)면 되다, which was used to express that something is permissible.


Korean English Notes
연애편지 love letter
부서 department 같은 부서에서 일다
봉사 활동을 하다 to do volunteer work
시험에서 떨어지다 to fail a test
원고 script 발표할 때 원고를 보면서 하면 안 돼요? 네, 다 외워서 해야 돼요.
남기다 to leave 약이 너무 쓴데 조금만 남기면 안 돼요?
영혼 soul


  • Rest of Chapter 14 Worksheet
  • Chapter 14 Reading & Writing


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (the newest student was sick)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, rotated

Lesson 96 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 2)

While digging out the chapter 14 notes before the start of the lesson, I realised for this set from chapter 13 to 16 notes, with the revision from 13 to 16... there are no video scripts.

This lesson we finished up with chapter 13, did a Quizlet review of chapter 13 vocab (good thing I revised), and then started on chapter 14. We finished the first grammar point in chapter 14.

Culture Note

The culture note was about traditional Korean houses. I felt it was not too long ago that we talked about Korean housing and Hanok was also mentioned… but it turned out it was 20 lessons ago, which is 5 months ago.


This pronunciation topic is super familiar. In fact, it was covered back in Lesson 44—SNU 1B Chapter 11.

While finding the link to the above, I discovered that in Lesson 72 links to it, because, SNU 2A Chapter 3’s pronunciation topic covers the first half of that rule.

Now, in SNU 2B Chapter 13, the pronunciation topic covers the second half of the rule. Yes, only the second half.

When the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] are followed by the initial consonant ‘ㅎ’, the sounds of ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ’ combine with the initial ‘ㅎ’ and are pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ].1


  1. 예약하세요[예야카세요]
  2. 입학[이팍]
  3. 막혀[마켜]


1. V-(으)ㄴ 적이 있다/없다

This is used to indicate that someone has (있다) or has not (없다) experienced something.

V-(으)ㄴ is the past tense noun modifier.

It is quite common to attach this to ‘아/어/해 보다’, which indicates a trial or attempt. This becomes ‘아/어/해 본 적이 있다’.

받침 X, ㄹ 받침 O
보다 + ㄴ 적이 있다 → 본 적이 있다 입다 + 은 적이 있다 → 입은 적이 있다


  1. 혼자 여행한 적이 있어요.
  2. 저는 한국 음악을 들어 본 있어요.
  3. 저는 한국 드라마를 본 적이 없어요.

Note that for the verb 보다, you do not add an additional 보다 even if trying to convey the meaning of “trying”. So the third sentence is not 봐 본 but simply 본.

Usage Notes

  1. This form is not used to describe ordinary things that you do every day. It would be strange to say: 화장실에 간 적이 있어요.
  2. The difference between this grammar’s 있다 form and -아/어/해 보다 (specifically, the past tense form -아/어/해 봤어요) is that the latter conveys the speaker’s intention to have tried the thing in question. This grammar does not convey any intention, but only whether you have experienced something or not. It is neutral on intention.
  3. Following the above, this grammar is typically used to describe negative experiences that you have experienced, without necessarily wanting to have experienced them. An example could be losing your wallet: 지갑을 잃어버린 적이 있어요.


Chapter 13

Leftovers from last week’s homework and others.

Korean English Notes
계약 contract Rental, or employment as well. 약정 is a synonym, I believe. (약정 was from some time ago when I was talking about mobile phone contracts.)
5월에 계약이 끝나다 the contracts ends in May
미끄럽다 to be slippery
(뭄 이) 탄탄하다 to be fit/strong/healthy
일류 운동 선수 top athlete
보람이 있다 to be effective, worthwhile 이 일은 힘들기는 하지만 보람이 있어요.
배경 background, situation 각기 다른 배경 = individual different backgrounds; 다양한 배경 = diverse backgrounds
민속촌 folk village
입학 entrance/admission into a school

Chapter 14

Korean English Notes
예절 etiquette 礼节
이름을 부르다 to call someone's name
높임말[존댓말]을 하다 to speak in honorific language
반말을 하다 to speak in banmal
자리를 양보하다 to offer one's seat to others 让步
한 손으로 받다 to receive with one hand
두 손으로 드리다 to give with both hands
다리를 꼬고 앉다 to sit with one's leg crossed
고개를 숙여서 인사하다 to greet while bowing one's head
고개를 돌리고 마시다 to drink turning one's head
공중도덕 public etiquette 公众道德
금연 No Smoking 禁烟
주차금지 No Parking 驻车禁止
사진 촬영 금지 No Photographs -撮影禁止
음식물 반입 금지 No Food or Drinks 饮食物 搬入 禁止
휴대 전화 사용 금지 No Cell Phones 使用 禁止
실수하다 to make a mistake
안다 to hold, hug
나이가 들다 to get older
쓰다듬다 to pat
참다 to endure
칭찬하다 to compliment 称赞
비어 있다 to be unoccupied
상관없다 to not matter
머리를 감다 to wash one's hair
저에 대한 이야기 story about me
싱가포르에 대한 뉴스 news about Singapore
들다 to lift
야단을 맞다 to get a scolding
쓰다 to use
물론이다 of course 물론이지요 is more common than 물론이에요.


I kind of zoned out at the end when the homework was announced for Chapter 14, so, I'm guessing for Chapter 14. This just had to be the week that the teacher decided to not post the homework on KakaoTalk after having done so for a few weeks…

  • Chapter 13 Reading & Writing
  • Chapter 14 Worksheet (for the first grammar point)
  • Chapter 14 Quizlet word set


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Just one, for Speaking 2

  1. Why is the pronunciation rule split in the level 2 book, but covered together in the level 1 book? There might be some reason for this. I’m no educator, so I do not know anything about this topic. But I find it interesting nonetheless. Sudden memories of spiral learning (which a colleague of mine, a teacher, has spoken about)…but this is just the same thing right? I decided to pull out the 1B book, and it is interesting that it only mentions that “‘ㅎ’ is pronounced differently according to the consonants that proceed or follow it.” Seems like the explanation here is a bit more detailed? Though it could be because it is dedicated to just one thing, instead of two. 

Lesson 95 (Intermediate 4 Lesson 1)

This is the start of a new term. There is also a new student who joined. She’s French, from France… I initially thought she was a student as she did look pretty young, but she said she was working here if I heard her correctly.

The teacher said she had learned Korean back in France before. So I would guess she came over recently? Or only recently decided to pick up Korean again.

Went through the entire handout for chapter 13 and covered all the grammar points. Even had time for the textbook and covered until Speaking 1.


1. A/V-(으)ㄹ지 모르겠다

If you look at the form, it is very similar to V-(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다.1

This is used to express uncertainty over something that the speaker is concerned about.

The key difference here between this and V-(으)ㄹ 줄 모르다 is the concern and worry that the speaker has about not knowing something.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 클지 모르겠어요 작다 → 작을지 모르겠어요
V 오다 → 올지 모르겠어요 먹다 → 먹을지 모르겠어요


  1. 음식이 입에 맞을지 모르겠어요.
  2. 내일 시험을 잘 볼 수 있을지 모르겠어요.
  3. 다음 주에 공부 할 시간이 있을지 모르겠어요.

1.1 Past Tense

You can also express uncertainty about past events.

  1. 나나 씨가 시험을 잘 을지 모르겠어요.
  2. 그 사람이 고향에 잘 돌아갔을지 모르겠어요.

2. A/V-기는 하지만

Naturally, with 지만 there, you would expect some contrast.

This is used when the speaker acknowledges or admits the facts in the first clause (the A/V before -기는), but has a contrasting relationship with the final clause (after 하지만). It is best explained with examples.

In dramas, instead of hearing 기는, you will hear it shortened to 긴. This is common in spoken language.

받침 X 받침 O
크다 → 크기는 하지만 작다 → 작기는 하지만


  1. 이 식당은 음식값이 싸기는 하지만 맛이 없어요.
  2. 다리를 다쳤어요. 아프기는 하지만 괜찮아요.
  3. 커피를 마시기는 하지만 좋아하지는 않아요.

2.1 Comparison with 지만

So, what is the difference between this and 지만?

-지만 -기는 하지만
Subject of preceding clause can be different from the following clause. Both clauses must have the same subject.
Used to express a simple contrast. Used to emphasise a contrast.

2.2 Past Tense

Like how you can put a past tense before -지만, you can do this too for -기는 하지만.

Specifically, you conjugate the 하 that is before the 지만.

  • Past tense: -기는 했지만

The teacher only mentioned the past tense form in class, saying that it will appear in the homework. Well, the past, present, and future forms all appeared. I did not recognise the future form as a future form, and had to look it up.

  • Future Tense: -기는 하겠지만

3. A/V-기 때문에, N(이)기 때문에

This chapter’s full of familiar-looking things.

It looks like N 때문에, right? Well, except the meaning is not the same as N 때문에. (The N(이)기 때문에 should have been a clue.)

It indicates cause or reason.

Meaning, this one has the same meaning as A/V-아서/어서/해서 and N(이)라서, the thing you should not confuse N 때문에 for.

It is mostly used in writing or formal settings.

받침 X 받침 O
A/V 싸다 → 싸기 때문에 먹다 → 먹기 때문에
N 친구 → 친구기 때문에 학생 → 학생이 때문에


  1. 값이 너무 비싸기 때문에 그냉 구경만 할 겁니다.
  2. 학생이기 때문에 공부를 열심히 해야 합니다.
  3. 이번 주말에 고향에 돌아가야 하기 때문에 서둘러서 비행기 표를 샀습니다.

3.1 Past Tense

  • 어제 휴대폰을 잃어버렸기 때문에 친구에게 연락을 못 합니다.

3.2 Usage Notes

Like -아서/어서/해서, -기 때문에 cannot be used in a command or suggestion.

If it is a command or suggestion, usually you would use A/V-(으)니까.

4. V-기(가) A

This is used to express the speaker’s general judgment or evaluation of an action.

The judgment is the adjective. Not all adjectives use this form. The ones that do are: 쉽다, 어렵다, 좋다, 나쁘다, 편하다, 불편하다.

In English, you might say something is “easy to do” or “hard to find”. The 기 part is equivalent to the “to”.

받침 X 받침 O
가다 → 가기(가) 편하다 살다 → 살기(가) 좋다


  1. 지하철역이 가까워서 회사 가기(가) 편해요.
  2. 공기가 맑아서 산책하기(가) 좋습니다.


Korean English Notes
아파트 apartment
빌라 multiplex house (villa)
단독주택 detached house
원룸 studio apartment “one room”
안방 master room
작은방 small room
거실 living room 巨室
부엌/주방 kitchen 부엌 is native Korean. 주방 is Sino-Korean: 厨房
화장실 toilet
욕실 bathroom 浴室
베란다 veranda Compared to a balcony, a veranda is narrower and more “flat”.
발코니 balcony
현관 entrance (at a house) 玄关
마당 garden, yard
대문 front gate 大门
부동산 real estate 不动产. Also refers to a real estate agency
보증금 security deposit 保证金
월세 monthly rent 月贳
전세 long term deposit lease 全贳. This is a unique system in Korea, but is also something that has become rarer these days. How this works is that if a house costs $500k, then you would have to pay a lump sum of (say) $300k to the landlord. However, at the end of the lease, you get the entire sum back. You pay only for the electricity and water. Usually what a landlord would do with the money is to use it to invest.
전화 요금 telephone bill 电话 料金
전기 요금 electric bill 电气 料金
수도 요금 water bill 水道 料金
가스 요금 gas bill
생활비 living expenses 生活费
식비 food expenses 食费
관리비 maintenance fee 管理费
교통비 transportation fee 交通费
고시원 examination preparation housing 考试院. 고시 = exam. This is for students who want to focus on studying without distractions. It is a very small room, usually with shared shower facilities (private bathrooms would cost more). Mostly for students, but there are some people who choose to stay here as the rent is much cheaper than renting a house.
오피스텔 office with kitchen and sleeping facilities office + hotel
방이 넓다 to have a spacious room
시설이 잘 되어 있다 to have good facilities 施设. For facilities, we might think of condo facilities such as gym and swimming pool, etc. but this term also refers to appliances available in the house. A house that comes with a fridge, microwave, etc. would be said to have good facilities too, since someone can just move in without having to buy anything else.
시설 facilities
잘 되어 있다 to be well done
풀옵션 a fully-equipped house/room “full option” means that it has everything, e.g. all appliances
방값이 싸다 to have cheap rent 방값 refers to the price of a room. You can also say 집값이 싸다 for an entire house.
교통이 편리하다 to have convenient transportation
새로 지었다 to be newly built
주변 surroundings
주변이 조용하다 to have quiet surroundings
집주인이 좋다 to have a nice landlord
주인 owner
전망이 좋다 to have a good view 展望
바람이 통하다 to be ventilated
집세 rent
구하다 to find; to seek 집, 직장, 사람
결정하다 to decide 決定
장을 보다 to shop (for groceries) 장 comes from 시장 (market)
회사를 옮기다 to move to another company change job
공기가 맑다 the air is fresh (clear)
그렇지 않아도 as a matter of fact


  • Chapter 13 Worksheet (entire)
  • Quizlet Chapter 13 Word and Sentence Sets


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (girl who went to Korea was sick)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, same groups. Last pair was with one of the persons from the group.

  1. For the -겠다 part, we have seen A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다. Elsewhere, I wrote about when 겠다 is used for the first person, it emphasises a strong intention on the speaker’s part to do something. The link between these was not mentioned, though I vaguely recall reading somewhere about 모르겠다…  

Lesson 94 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 9)

There is no test for Intermediate 3. We found out somewhere in the middle of the lesson, after we had completed Chapter 12 and were moving into the revision paper.

This means that this is the last lesson for Intermediate 3. It also explains why I received the cert for this level together with the next set of notes in this past week.

It turns out that… we have indeed been speeding through the chapters (averaging 2 lessons per chapter instead of 2.5). I certainly noticed it somewhat (quite hard not to notice when I write a post for each lesson) but I thought it was things speeding up as this was the new usual pace, being in the intermediate level.

That was cleared up today.

After the lesson last week, the teacher messaged us to ask if we would be fine with changing our lesson time. While it was not confirmed, it was to do with our teacher having to possibly take over the class of another teacher. If there are changes, it will only come about in December, so it is also not immediate. What the teacher said is that she would update us again if there are changes. However, there was additional context today given. At the start of the class, the teacher did say that all of us were okay with the adjusted timing. But after we finished Chapter 12, the teacher said that there was no test, plus we were going at a faster pace, because the existing class is ahead of us.

So it is not that our class timing is shifting, but rather, it is merging our class with another class. From what I can see on Quizlet (it has the classes, and they are marked by the date/time and also which teacher), that class has 9 members. That is quite a lot, if you take away say 1 that is the teacher, that means there are 8 students? Though usually the school only has a class size that is I think maximum 8 or 9, so I don’t know if it is just that the teacher had not pruned some of the students who have already quit.

Today, we did the textbook, and then covered the video script. Instead of the test, we have slightly more (extra) homework in the form of some “pattern practice” sheet. No wonder the revision sheet was so thick compared to usual.

Culture Note

The culture note was about an expression to say two people look alike. You say that it is exactly like 붕어빵 (“carp bread”). It is very similar to the Japanese snack taiyaki (except that is modelled after the tai fish, not carp).

The point being that these snacks are made using a fish-shaped mold, so each piece looks the same.


The pronunciation was about words where the final consonant is ‘ㄻ’.

When the final double consonant ‘ㄻ’ is followed by the initial consonant of the next syllable, only [ㅁ] is pronounced.

  • 닮는 [담는]
  • 젊네요 [점네요]

After the final consonant ‘ㄻ’, ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ’ in the intial consonants of the next syllable are pronounced as [ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅆ, ㅉ].

  • 닮고 [담꼬]
  • 젊다 [점따]
  • 젊습니다 [점씁니다]
  • 닮지 [담찌]

Naturally, if you have the next syllable starting with a vowel, the usual applies:

  • 닮았어요 [달마써요]

I went back to review the old pronunciation rules that related to double consonants. It was back in Lesson 55. To my surprise, ㄹ actually comes before ㅁ in the alphabet order, and yet… we pronounce [ㅁ] here. The textbook never said that it is in alphabet order; that came from the teacher then way back in Lesson 11.

For now, I will try to remember this as-is, that this one is prononunced with the [ㅁ] sound.


Korean English Notes
어른 adult 어른스럽다 = mature. 저 동생은 열 살인데 어른처럼 말해요.
자매 sisters 姊妹
피부 관리를 받다 to receive a facial Seems that 피부 관리 might just refer to generic skin care?
파마를 하다 to get a perm, have one’s hair permed
앞머리를 다듬다 to trim bangs
염색을 하다 to dye 검게 머리 염색을 하다
새롭다 to be new
제스처 gesture
속마음 inner thoughts


  • Chapter 12 Reading & Writing
  • Revision Sheet


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (guy wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, with the same person for the 2 rounds. Initially, when only 3 of us were in the class, we remained in the main room for Speaking 1.

Lesson 93 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 8)

We started on Chapter 12, and went through the entire handout. This covered all the grammar points. We also reviewed the Quizlet sentence deck.

Originally, there should be a test after Chapter 12, so I figured the test would be in about 2 weeks from today (i.e. 3 lessons after this one, since I am writing this a week late), but… well, I will talk about that in Lesson 94’s post.


1. A-아/어 보이다

This is used to express one’s guess or judgment about something based on its appearance.

Literally translated, it will be “you look…” or “it looks…”.

This is used with adjectives only.

  • For nouns, that is covered in the next grammar point (처럼/같이 보여요).
    • There is another grammar used for verbs (V-나 봐요), but that is something that we will learn another time.
A-아/어 보이다 -아 -어
Present A-아/어 보여요 작다 → 작아 보여요 넓다 → 넓어 보여요
Past A-아/어 보였어요 작다 → 작아 보였어요 넓다 → 넓어 보였어요
Future A-아/어 보일 거예요 작다 → 작아 보일 거예요 넓다 → 넓어 보일 거예요

So how does this differ from A-(으)ㄴ 것 같다? The key is that A-아/어 보이다 is based on appearance, whereas the conjecture from A-(으)ㄴ 것 같다 might be based on something else.

2. N처럼[같이]

This is used to express that some action or thing appears similar to the noun. It would be translated as “like” in English.

받침 X 받침 O
가수 → 가수처럼 가족 → 가족처럼

The caveat here is that you must follow up with an adjective or verb behind this. You need to specifically mention what it is about the noun that is similar.

  • 가수처럼이에요. (X)
    • An incorrect way to say ”He is like a professional singer.”
  • 가수처럼 노래를 잘 불러요. (O)
    • He sings well like a professional singer.

처럼 and 같이 essentially mean the same thing and are interchangeable. There is no difference in formality.

처럼/같이 are also used to express characteristics metaphorically by comparing them to animals or other things in nature. (English has this too in the form of similes.)

  • 호랑이처럼 부섭다 (fierce like a tiger)
  • 거북이처럼 느리다 (slow like a turtle)
  • 토끼처럼 귀엽다 (cute like a rabbit)
  • 바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (big-hearted like the ocean)

3. A-(으)ㄴ/V-는 편이다

This is used to express something that has a tendency toward a certain condition.

편 literally means “side”. You find it in words such as 건너편 (“opposite side”) but using it in this structure with an adjective or verb is used to say that something/someone is rather (tall) or somewhat (thin) , or that they tend to (be introverted).

This is used when usually there are two words that describe opposite traits (e.g. tall vs short) and you are trying to categorise everyone neatly into 2 groups. Since not everyone can easily be said to be tall or short (is someone who is 1.7m really tall?), but it is a scale, this is where you use this structure to say that they are in one category over another, but it is not as though they would necessarily belong otherwise (if we were not being forced to make do kind of classification into two groups).

Note: You cannot use this if someone falls into a clear category. For example, if the person is over 2m tall, you would not say they are 키가 큰 편이에요 (equivalent to saying they are somewhat tall), but simply that 키가 커요 (they are tall)!

For adjectives, you can simply use them as seen in the example above. For neagive form, there are two ways to do it:

  1. 키가 큰 편이 아니에요.
  2. 키가 큰 편이에요.

Though for negative forms, I have a feeling that it is more used for verbs, since it would be more natural to simply find another adjective e.g. 작다 instead of 크다.

  1. 많이 먹는 편이 아니에요.
  2. 많이 먹는 편이에요.

For verbs, it is usually necessary to add an adverb that modifies the verb, such as 자주, 잘, etc.


  1. 나나 씨는 치마를 자주 입는 편이에요.
  2. 스티븐 씨는 매운 음식을 잘 먹는 편이에요.
  3. 저는 많이 자는 편이에요.

4. A-게

This is used to express some degree or means of an action. Basically, this is how you convert an adjective into an adverb.

Naturally, being an adverb, it is followed by a verb.

받침 X 받침 O
예쁘다 → 예쁘 짧다 → 짧


  1. 마리코 씨는 머리를 짧게 잘랐어요.
  2. 오늘 아침에 늦게 일어났어요.
  3. 크게 쓰세요.

Now, there are some exceptions to this. Not all adjectives have the corresponding adverb formed like this but instead have special forms.

  1. 많다 → 많이 (not 많게)
  2. 이르다 (to be early) → 일찍 (not 이르게)

For the following three, while the special forms are much more common, it is not wrong to also use -게 forms.

  1. 빠르다 → 빨리/빠르게
  2. 적다 → 조금/적게
  3. 느리다 → 천천히/느리게


Korean English Notes
외모 appearance 外貌
성격 personality 性格
눈이 크다 to have big eyes
눈이 작다 to have small eyes
입이 크다 to have a wide mouth
입이 작다 to have a small mouth
키가 크다 to be tall (height)
키가 작다 to be short (height)
쌍꺼풀이 있다 to have double eyelids
쌍꺼풀이 없다 to not have double eyelids
속쌍꺼풀 inner double eyelids The less obvious kind.
겉쌍꺼풀 outer double eyelids
코가 높다 to have a high nose
코가 낮다 to have a flat nose
입술이 두껍다 to have thick lips
입술이 얇다 to have thin lips
이마가 넓다 to have a wide forehead
이마가 좁다 to have a narrow forehead
어깨가 넓다 to have broad shoulders
어깨가 좁다 to have narrow shoulders
어깨깡패 a person with broad shoulders (slang) 깡패 is a gangster, something about being able to win if comparing shoulders with others (?)
눈썹이 진하다 to have thick eyebrows
눈썹이 연하다 to have thin eyebrows
마르다 to be skinny
날씬하다 to be slim
뚱뚱하다 to be fat
활발하다 to be active 活泼
내성적이다 to be introverted 內省的
남성적이다 to be masculine, manly 男性的
여성적이다 to be feminine 女性的
꼼꼼하다 to be meticulous
성격이 급하다 to be hasty
어리다 to be young
닮다 to resemble
시간을 지키다 to keep time
자르다 to cut
생기다 to look like
정확하다 to be accurate 正确
머리 모양 hairstyle 模样
이상형 ideal type 理想型
화장품 cosmetic
비결 secret 나이보다 젊어 보여요. 비결이 뭐예요?
세다 strong 술이 세다 = 술을 잘 마시다 (can hold your liquor). Opposite is 약하다.
이르다 to be early
글자 letter, character 선생님, 글자가 작아서 잘 안 보여요.
글씨 handwriting 선생님, 글씨 좀 크게 써 주세요.
어른스럽다 mature


  • Chapter 12 Worksheet (entire)
  • Quizlet Chapter 12 Word and Sentence Sets


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (newest girl wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, full rotation for 3.

Lesson 92 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 7)

So it turns out that someone else in the class asked about the video script. There isn’t one for Chapter 11 (I searched for it after I wrote the post for the last lesson but before class began). In the end, we covered the video script for Chapter 10.

Then, we finished up with the textbook, including Culture Note and Pronunciation, which I will cover.

Next week, we will start on Chapter 12, which is also the last chapter before the next test. 😱 If that takes 2 weeks and another week for revision, that means the test would be in 4 weeks, in early October.

There was a small thing that came up under Listening & Speaking on p. 58, on how to read the age there.

There are two counters (unit nouns) for age: 살 and 세.

  • 살 is the more common one that we have seen before and is used when speaking.
  • 세 is more common in written form (e.g. news articles, which was what was supposed to be the context in the textbook). Hanja is 歲 (岁).

You make use of the native Korean numbers with 살, but you use the Sino-Korean numbers with 세.

  • 88살 (여든여덟 살)
  • 88세 (팔십팔 세)

Sadly, I didn’t get to ask how to read the “42.195 km” part (specifically the decimal). Context is that it was a “news article” about an 88-year-old man who completed a marathon.

Culture Note

Since this chapter was on health, the culture was on health foods (건강식품). Of course, Korean ginseng (인삼) was mentioned.

Then there was a discussion around red ginseng (홍삼). There is a version for kids (홍삼 키즈) because apparently kids don’t like the taste? And there is also a version for test-takers: 홍삼 수험생 (수험생 = test-taker) and it is called 아이패스. (I did not know in class and had to google after, but… the name is actually from English “I pass”).

Locally, I think people were saying things like bird’s nest, and the cheaper version of frog ovaries. And then there is chicken essense. Though at the start people were saying things like vitamins and omega 3.


The pronunciation topic was about how somtimes the final consonants change to sound like [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] when followed by a syllable that begins with ‘ㅇ’.

Basically, as probably discussed at multiple points such as in Lesson 41, all these final consonants are pronounced as [앋]: 앋, 앝, 앗, 앚, 앛, 앟.

Also, we know that normally, when the next syllable starts with a vowel, the final consonant from the syllable is shifted over to the next syllable. This was covered way back in Lesson 14 (SNU 1A Chapter 3).

However, in some specific cases, instead of sounding like how it is written, it changes to sound like [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] when it is carried over. For example, the final consonant can be ㅅ, but if the rule applies, in the next syllable, it sounds like [ㄷ] rather than [ㅅ].

The one it changes to depends on what is the sound if it were just a standalone syllable, and more accurately, has the same place of articulation as these three. It has been discussed before .

And no, this pronunciation rule is entirely new. It was covered in a note in Lesson 72, though it wasn’t the pronunciation lesson from that chapter.

These are two cases where this change happens:

  1. When two words become one word (compound words)
    • 맛없어요 (맛 + 없어요) → [마써요]
    • 첫인상 (첫 + 인상) → [처상]
  2. When two words are pronounced one after another
    • 부엌 안 → [부어간]
    • 잎 위 → [이뷔]
    • 못 와요 → [모돠요]

Otherwise, if it is followed by a particle, then nothing happens, the final consonant doesn’t change:

  • 옷이 [오시]


Korean English Notes
낮에 during the day 낮에 비빕밥 먹었어요. Context was the person had eaten Bibimbap for lunch, and was saying they wanted to eat something else rather than Bibimbap again for dinner.
약사 pharmacist
자꾸 repeatedly
생활비 living expenses
돈이 들다 to cost money
화해하다 to reconcile
마스크팩 mask as in the kind you put on your face for beauty purposes/nourishing the skin, and when you use it: 마스크팩을 하다
사흘 three days More common to use 삼일. This form is formal and would be heard on the news. This is the equivent type to 하루 and 이틀 for one day and two days respectively, but those are commonly used because the alternative of 일일 and 이일 are harder to distinguish.
나흘 four days Similarly, 사일 is more common.
마라톤 marathon
완주 finish, complete 完走
인삼 ginseng
건강식품 health foods Commonly used as gifts to parents
홍삼 red ginseng
홍삼 키즈 red ginseng for kids 키즈 = kids.
수험생 examinee (test-taker)
인상 impression
첫인상 first impression 첫인상이 좋다 = give a good first impression
오메가 3 omega 3 The “3” is prononuced as in English.
unit noun for pills
나비 butterfly
습관 habit
영양제 nutritional supplement
그러나 however
노력하다 to make an effort
외출하다 to go out 外出
예방하다 to prevent


  • Textbook p. 60–61 (Chapter 11 Reading & Writing)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, was kind of random. The only person I did not encounter was the newest girl to join the class.

Lesson 91 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 6)

Oops, this is overdue, but… I am still writing it before the next lesson.

We went through entire handout for Chapter 11, then we went through the Quizlet sentence deck for this chapter together (with Korean and English on one side, then the second round was to translate from English to Korean). Finally, we covered the first 2 pages of Chapter 11 in the textbook.

For Chapter 10, I think we really missed the video script? I wonder if the next lesson we will begin with the video script for Chapter 11.


1. ‘ㅅ’ 불규칙

This is the ‘ㅅ’ irregular congujation.

This is for some verbs stems that end in the final consonant ‘ㅅ’. When they are followed by a vowel (syllable starting with ‘ㅇ’), the ‘ㅅ’ is dropped.

Irregular verbs include:

  • 붓다 (to swell, to pour)
  • 낫다 (to be better (A), to recover)
  • 젓다 (to stir)
  • 짓다 (to build, to name, to compose)
  • 잇다 (to link, to connect)

It is important to note that this irregular conjugation cannot further combine:

  • 붓다 + 어요 = 부어요 (O)

It does not become 붜요 (X), the way 배우 + 어요 = 배워요.

Similarly, 낫다 + 아요 = 나아요. (O)

For grammar that has the optional 으, you keep it.

  • 붓다 + (으)면 = 부으면 (O)
  • 붓다 + 은데 = 부은데 (O)

This doesn’t apply to the following verbs that end in ㅅ but are regular:

  • 웃다 (to laugh)
  • 씻다 (to wash)

2. N마다

Every or each. This is used to indicate that the action that happens after 마다 happens repeatedly at a certain period of time.

Essentially, it has the same meaning as 매 as in 매일, 매달, 매년, except that 매 is placed before and only works with single syllable words.

You cannot say 매주말 (X), 매일요일 (X).

Instead, you would say 주말마다 (O), 일요일마다 (O).

Something interesting is the use of 마다 with 날 (날마다) to mean “every day” is possible, but 매일 is more common.

English N마다 매N
every day 날마다 매일
every week 일주일마다 매주
every month 달마다 매월/매달
every year 해마다 매년

For the word ‘집’, ‘집집마다’ is used instead of ‘집마다’ to refer to every household.

A final small gotcha is with timing, be careful:

  • 6시마다 = every day at 6am (or 6pm)
  • 6시간마다 = every 6 hours

2.1 -(으)ㄹ 때마다 (“whenever”)

Recall that we learnt A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때, and the 때 meant “when”?

When you add 마다 behind 때, then you get “whenever”.

  • 저는 방학 때마다 고향에 가요.
    • = 저는 방학 때 항상 고향에 가요.

3. V-는 게 어때요?

This is used to advise or recommend someone to do an action.

Normally, we have the structure that is N이/가 어때요?

For example:

  • 날씨가 어때요?
  • 맛이 어때요?
  • 내일이 어때요? (suggestion)

Recall that V-는 것 essentially turns a verb into a noun.

Additionally, 깃 + 이 is contracted to 게 when spoken.

받침 X 받침 O
가다 → 가는 게 어때요? 먹다 → 먹는 게 어때요?


  1. 퇴근 시간이라서 길이 막히니까 지하철을 타는 게 어때요?
  2. 오늘은 바쁘니까 내일 만나는 게 어때요?

4. V-기로 하다

This is used to indicate the making of a decision or a promise to do something.

Even if the action is in the future, the decision usually has been made by the point in time the sentence is said, hence this is conjugated to the past tense (했어요).

받침 X 받침 O
가다 → 가기로 했어요 먹다 → 먹기로 했어요


  1. 내일 친구를 만나기로 했어요.1
  2. 이제 담배를 피우지 않기로 했어요.


Korean English Notes
내과 internal medicine 内科
안과 ophthalmology 眼科
치과 the dentist 齿科
피부과 dermatology 皮肤科
정형외과 orthopaedics 整形外科
이비인후과 ear-nose-and-throat department 耳鼻咽喉科
감기약 cold medicine 感冒药
두통약 headache pill 头疼药
멀미약 motion sickness medicine
안약 eye drops 眼药
소화제 digestive medicine 消化剂
해열제 fever reducer 解热剂
파스 pain relief patch
(파스를) 붙이다 to apply (a pain relief patch)
연고 ointment 软膏
(연고를) 바르다 to apply (an ointment)
몸살이 나다 to have aches and pains due to the flu or fatigue
배탈이 나다 to have an upset stomach
얼굴에 뭐가 나다 to have one's face break out
소화가 안 되다 to have indigestion
속이 안 좋다 to not feel well in one's stomach
멀미를 하다 to have motion sickness
토하다 to vomit
어지럽다 to be dizzy
입맛이 없다 to have no appetite
기운이 없다 to feel feeble /down 气运
잠을 잘 못 자다 to not sleep well
다리를 다치다 to injure one's leg
(약을) 먹다 to take (medicine)
(안약을) 넣다 to put (eye drops)
성형외과 plastic surgery Many of such in Gangnam
차멀미 carsickness
배멀미 seasickness
선크림 sunscreen 선크림을 바르다 = to apply sunscreen
실력 ability, skill 요리 실력 = cooking skill
붓다 to swell; to pour
낫다 to be better (A); to recover (V)
젓다 to stir
짓다 to build, to name, to compose
잇다 to link
모기 mosquito
물다 to bite 모기가 물다 = mosquito bite
좋아지다 to improve, to get better
늘니다 to improve, to increase
식후 after a meal 이 감기약을 하루에 세번, 식후에 드세요.
발목 ankle
줄이다 to reduce 커피를 줄이다
휴가를 내다 to take time off
충분히 자다 to get enough sleep
충분히 못 자다 to have insufficient sleep


  • Chapter 11 Worksheet (entire)
  • Quizlet Chapter 11 Word Set


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, was kind of random.

  1. A small note about 만나기로 했어요. As used here, where it is clearly referring to a point in time (내일), then it means what it says, that you are meeting your friend. However, it has a second meaning, where it means that you are going out (dating) someone. 

Lesson 90 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 5)

This will be a short post since we spent almost the entire lesson in the textbook.

There was one last page in the handout but it appears to be a speaking activity; we finished all the grammar last week. I wonder if the teacher forgot about the video script sheet since usually that comes after the handout.

But today, we started with Quizlet sentence set (the usual, which is each one of us takes turns to translate one sentence). Then, we started with the textbook from the beginning all the way to the end.

We skipped the culture note, so the only really noteworthy thing in today’s post is the pronunciation.

However, I do have some mini culture notes from the activity on p. 29 of the textbook, which was banmal speaking practice.

  1. When a senior (선배) talks to a junior (후배), and they are close, they will use banmal. But the senior will call the junior by name, while the junior will refer to the senior as 선배 (not by name).
  2. “언제 한번 밥 먹자!” (literally “Let’s have a meal sometime!”) is a common expression used as a greeting, not really an invitation to a meal. I missed the exact context when it would be used, so I am not sure if it is just to imply that we have not met for a long time and we should hang out some time without committing to anything. The point is that if someone says this to you, do not misunderstand that there is a going to be a meal invitation soon.


This one is about intonation.

  1. Yes-no questions have rising intonation.
  2. Questions that contain interrogative words (e.g. 뭐, 무슨, 누구, …) generally have falling intonation. However, many people slightly raise the intonation at the sentence ending too.

The first one is quite obvious. If you do not have a rising intonation, it is practically impossible to distinguisth whether it is a statement or question, since the sentence would be identical.

  • 요즘도 바빠요?
  • 요즘도 바빠요.

For the second, the teacher mentioned that the general falling intonation is common in the Busan area. However, in Seoul, people tend to raise the intonation a bit, and she included herself in this group.

If the first way of pronunciation is used (without rising intonation), the teacher mentioned that there will be an emphasis on the interrogative words in the sentence.

  • 무슨 운동 좋아해요?

For this, instead of having us read it, she read out the questions and asked us to repeat. We practised both ways (with/without the rising intonation) for the questions with interrogatives.


There are almost no new words, most come from SNU 2A Chapter 9 as I finished up the homework.

Korean English Notes
간장 soy sauce 간장 also means “liver”
소금 salt
고춧가루 chilli powder red pepper powder
고추장 red chilli paste gochujang
심하다 severe In the context of the class, it was used to describe the Covid-19 situation.
운동을 심하게 하다 to exercise hard
배민 Baemin Short for: 배달의 미족. It is a food delivery startup in South Korea.
케밥 kebab


  • Textbook p. 38–39 (Reading & Writing)
    • Unfortunately, this will be hard for me because the writing about my favourite restaurant. I do not have one; my mind draws a blank. This is unfortunately not helped by the fact that I have not gone out to eat in a long time thanks to Covid-19.


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (girl who went to Korea not too long ago was sick)
  • Breakout room activities: First activity was one person, but the others were with another.

Lesson 89 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 4)

We started the lesson doing Quizlet Live. At the start of the lesson, there were only 3 of us in the class. After the first round, the girl who went to Korea not too long ago joined the class, but did not join the second (and last) round.

The first round was to pick the Korean word from the English definition, and the second was the opposite. I had difficulty in the first round since I did not revise Quizlet separately before the lesson (I was rushing 3 weeks’ worth of homework… don’t ask). I managed to somehow win the second round. Considering that the other two are also the usual ones who study… well, I am just glad I did not get anything wrong in the first round despite being super slow.

Right after that, we picked up with the handout, and covered the grammar. The guy joined the class during the first breakout room activity.

There was a lot of speaking practice this time because the first grammar point was about 반말 (banmal), casual speech. It really did feel very foreign.


2. 반말

This is the introduction to casual speech. It is used:

  1. Among family members (it is okay to use with your parents, if your parents are okay with it… in most families that is the case)
  2. Between friends of the same age or close friends of a similar age
  3. To people younger or of lower social status than you
  4. To children
  5. To animals

2.1 Statements or Questions

  1. Remove ‘요’ from the ‘아/어 요’ form (informal polite speech)
    • 먹어요 → 먹어
    • 갔어요 → 갔어
  2. ‘이다’ is changed to ‘이야’ and ‘아니다’ is changed to ‘아니야’
    • 친구예요 → 친구
    • 학생이에요 → 학생이야
    • 아니에요 → 아니
  3. Future tense ‘-(으)ㄹ 거예요’ is changed to ‘-(으)ㄹ 거야’
    • 갈 거예요 → 갈 거
    • 먹을 거예요 → 먹을 거
  4. Yes is ‘응/어’, No is ‘아니’

2.2 Commands

  1. Remove ‘요’ from the ‘아/어 요’ form (informal polite speech)
    • 오세요 → 와
  2. For negative form, use ’-지 마’ instead of ’-지 마세요
    • 먹지 마세요 → 먹지 마

2.3 Suggestions

  1. Add ’-자’ to verb stems
  2. Use ’-지 말자’ for negative form
    • 나가지 말자

2.4 Word Variation

  1. 저 → 나
  2. 제 → 내
  3. Can refer to the listener directly (second person): 너

2.5 Calling Others by Name

아/야 is attached to the name if it is a Korean name. 아 is added when there is batchim; otherwise 야 is added.

받침 X + 야 받침 O + 아
수미 → 수미 민전 → 민전
  • 수미, 지금 뭐해?
  • 민전, 빨리 와!

For foreign names, it is a bit strange to add 아/야, so it is simply omitted. But in either case, you will not add 씨.

  • 앤디, 이 책 봤어?
  • 스티븐, 지금 어디야?

A side note here is that if it is like a Korean name with two syllables, then some people may still add the 아/야.

2.6 Referring to a Person by Name

This is when you are talking about a third person, whereas the section before was about talking to someone directly.

If the person is close to you, and the name has batchim, then you will add 이. Again, this is only added to Korean names, not foreign names.

  • 민지는 무슨 음식을 좋아해?
    • Speaker is asking someone else—not talking to Minji—about what food Minji likes.
    • Having the 이 implies the speaker is close to Minji.

3. V-(으)ㄹ래요

This is used:

  1. As a statement, to indicate the speaker’s intention or will.
  2. As a question, to ask the listener’s intention or recommend an option.

Therefore, it is not used to refer to a third person. It is only used in the first person, or in the second (when asking a question).

I am not sure if I caught it correctly, but I think at one point the teacher said that it has the idea of both wanting to do something (V-고 싶다) and actually doing it (V-(으)ㄹ 게요)

받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄹ래요 받침 O + -을래요
V 가다 → 갈래요 먹다 → 먹을래요


  1. 지금 그냥 집에 갈래요.
  2. 먹을래요?

4. A-(으)ㄴ데, V-는데, N인데

No, you are not seeing things. There was exactly a grammar point that was exactly the same back in Lesson 68: A-(으)ㄴ데, V-는데, N인데.

Not to mention that recently (3 lessons ago), we covered the sentence ending form A-(으)ㄴ데요, V-는데요, N인데요.

But in this case, this is not a sentence ending, it really is just like the first time we saw it. Instead of providing contextual information, here, it means exactly “but”.

It is used to express unexpected outcomes or contrast between two clauses.

It is exactly the same as 지만—from way back in SNU 1A.

The reason why we were taught 지만 first is because it’s much easier to conjugate. You simply just attach the basic form and you are done.

In daily life, especially in spoken language, 지만 is not used as often as this A-(으)ㄴ데요, V-는데요, N인데요 form.

지만 comes from 하지만, which means “however”. Like in English, you use “but” more than “however”.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 큰데 작다 → 작은데
V 가다 → 가는데 읽다 → 읽는데
N 친구 → 친구인데 학생 → 학생인데

The same things apply, as before:

  • Adjectives that end in -있다 and -없다 follow the verb pattern (재미있는데, 맛없는데)
  • Past tense forms as well, even for adjectives (갔는데, 많았는데)


There are almost no new words, most come from SNU 2A Chapter 9 as I finished up the homework.

Korean English Notes
생강차 ginger tea
장구 double-headed Korean traditional drum with a narrow middle Just call it a Janggu. That English term was provided in the workbook.
물론이다 to be sure Given by the workbook, but in that context of it being used as 물론이지요, it means “of course”, similar to 당연하지요.
관광 tourism
관광객 tourist 觀光客
안내 guidance 案內
연중무휴 open year-round 年中無休
운영하다 to manage, operate, run 運營
서비스를 제공하다 to provide a service 외국인을 위한 통역 서비스를 제공하다 = to provide interpreting service for foreigners
생명을 위협하는 응급 상황 life-threatening emergency
위협 threat
응급 상황 emergency situation
비응급 상황 non-emergency situation
병원 수송 차량 non-emergency medical transportation
차량 vehicle
다치다 to be hurt
중상을 입다 to be seriously hurt
부상 injury
생명에 지장이 없는 부상 non life-threatening injuries
사설 구급차 private ambulance
성격 character; personality It has appeared in a sentence in Chapter 6’s Quizlet sets before, but I’ve not added this before.
반모 banmal mode (slang) 반말 모드
관리비 maintenance fee


  • Worksheet chapter 10, p. 20–27 (end)
  • Quizlet Chapter 10 sentence set


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. First in pairs, then later when the other student joined, another of the group of 3 was same person + 1 more.

Lesson 88 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 3)

We finished up Chapter 9 (and the 2A book), and started on Chapter 10.

Culture Note

This was about the special phone numbers in Korea.

  • 120 is the one you call in Seoul when you want to know what are the other numbers to call
  • 119 is for the fire department/ambulance
  • 112 is for the police
  • 114 is to find out the phone number of a particular business/shop
  • 131 is for the weather
  • 1330 is a travel hotline, and is what the short write-up covers


We went through this very quickly, probably because it is nothing new.

When the final consonant sound [ㄷ] is followed by ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, [ㄷ] is pronounced as [ㄴ].


  1. 듣는 [든는]
  2. 옛날 [연날]
  3. 못 만나요 [몬만나요]

Related rules were covered in:

  • Lesson 31 (SNU 1A, Chapter 7)
    • When the final consonant sound [ㅂ] is followed by a syllable that begins with ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㅂ] is prounounced as [ㅁ].
  • Lesson 47 (SNU 1B, Chapter 12)
    • One of the pronunciation rules for 못: 못[몯] + ㄴ,ㅁ → [몬] + [ㄴ],[ㅁ].
  • Lesson 58 (SNU 1B, Chapter 15)
    • When the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] are followed by ‘ㄴ’ , they are pronounced as [ㅇ, ㄴ, ㅁ].
  • Lesson 65 (SNU 2A, Chapter 1)
    • When the final consonant sound [ㅂ] is followed by the initial consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㅂ] is prounounced as [ㅁ].
  • Lesson 81 (SNU 2A, Chapter 8)
    • When the final consonant sound [ㄱ] is followed by the initial consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㄱ] is prounounced as [ㅇ].

Overview of SNU 2B

As per tradition, we also did an overview of the chapters in the 2B book before going into the grammar in the handout.

  • 10 – food, 반말 (casual speech)
  • 11 – symptoms
  • 12 – appearance and personality
  • 13 – house and home living
  • 14 – etiquette and manners
  • 15 – life events and how to talk about changes
  • 16 – festivals
  • 17 – accidents, colours, patterns
  • 18 – emotions and seasons


1. N 중에(서)

This is used to indicate a selection of one item among two or more.

N is (generally?) a category of item.


  1. 저는 한국 음식 중에서 불고기를 가장 좋아해요.
  2. 운동 중에서 뭘 제일 잘해요?
  3. 가족 중에서 누가 제일 키가 커요?

Observation is that it is used with 가장 or 제일 to indicate the superlative.

If it is not a category, but a place (the teacher mentioned 장소), you would not use 중:

  1. 세계에서 에베레스트 산이 제일 높아요.
  2. 이 근처에서 이 식당이 제일 맛있어요.

As of now, I do not yet know:

  1. If N must always be a category.
  2. If it is possible to use this construction without 가장/제일.


Chapter 9

Korean English Notes
숨쉬기 breathing If someone asks you what exercise you do, and you do not do any, you can say 숨쉬기밖에 안 해요.
1회 (일 회) one time Same meaning as 한 번. 충4회 in the given context meant that there were in total 4 lessons.
정보를 얻다 to get information From Culture Note.
상담원 operator This one and the following are from the reading, which is actually last week’s homework, but I have not done the homework nor added it to the last post, so here they are.
치료를 받다 to get treatment

Chapter 10

Korean English Notes
taste; flavour
맵다 to be spicy
달다 to be sweet
짜다 to be salty
깅겁다 to be bland
쓰다 to be bitter
시다 to be sour
입에 맞다 to be to one's taste
야채/채소 vegetable 野菜
후식 dessert 后食, 디저트
한정식 Korean multi course meal 韩定食
맛집 restaurant for renowned delicious food
1인분 1 serving 1人份
교통 traffic 交通
서비스 service
분위기 atmosphere 雰围气
선배 senior 先輩
후배 junior 后辈
동기 same batch school/office, 同期
동갑 the same age (同甲)
오랜만에 after a long time
미리 in advance
막판 at the last moment
자유 여행 self-guided tour 自助旅行
시키다 to order same as 주문하다
이상 more than 以上
이하 less than 以下
추천 recommendation 推荐
강추 strongly recommend
비추 don’t recommend
돈이 아깝다 It’s a waste of money.
배달되다 to be delivered 配达
갖다 주다 to bring
높임말 polite speech
반말 casual speech
말을 놓다 to speak in a casual way 반말하다
설탕 sugar 커피가 너무 쓰니까 우유하고 설탕을 넣었어요.
다이어트 diet 제가 요즘 다이어트 중이에요. 그래서 단 것을 안 먹어요.
식초 vinegar 식초를 많이 넣어서 좀 셔요.
에베레스트 산 Mt. Everest


  • Worksheet chapter 10, p. 16–19
  • Quizlet Chapter 10 word set


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the slightly older lady was unwell)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, pairs, same partner.

Lesson 87 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 2)

We went through the Quizlet word set for Chapter 9 as a group.

Then, we finished up the last grammar point in the handout, did the video script, and then went to the textbook (p. 204–209)

The video script for this chapter had 2 songs apart from just having regular dialogues.

Not a long post, because most of the time was spent doing the speaking exercises in the textbook.


4. N밖에

This is used to express the only thing or option available, with no possibility of anything else. It means “only N” or “nothing but N”.

N밖에 is always used with a negative form (e.g. 몰라, 없어, 못 = 지 못하다, 안 = 지 않다).

However, it cannot be followed by 아니다 or -지 마세요 (suggestion or request), even though they are negative forms.


  1. 사과가 한 개밖에 암았어요.
    • (= 사과가 한 개만 남았어요.)
  2. 한국어는 ‘안년하세요’밖에 몰라요.
    • (= 한국어는 ‘안년하세요’만 알아요.)
  3. 교실에 나나 씨밖에 없어요.
    • (= 교실에 나나 씨만 있어요.)

As you can see from the examples above, it is possible to rewrite the sentences using N만, but the verb is inverted in order to keep the same meaning.

With N만 it is also possible to write (as in the last example) 교실에 나나 씨만 없어요, but that would be the opposite in meaning to 교실에 나나 씨밖에 없어요.


Korean English Notes
읽고 씹다 to read a message and ignore it (slang) Equivalent of saying someone “blue-ticked” you on WhatsApp
씹다 to chew
아프리카 Africa
전시 exhibit
애니메이션 animation
만화 영화 animation, cartoon film


  • Worksheet chapter 9, p. 168–169 (end)
  • Textbook chapter 8, Reading & Writing
  • Quizlet Chapter 9 sentence set


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the girl who went to Korea last time did not attend as she had just gone for vaccination)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random

Lesson 86 (Intermediate 3 Lesson 1)

Started the lesson going through the common mistakes for the test. This time, it was going through only the oral components.

I checked my score after the lesson (even though the teacher had sent the report earlier in the day), and it turned out that I scored full marks for listening, which was surprising. I had guessed at least 1–2 of them.

We started on Chapter 9, which is the last chapter of the SNU 2A textbook. We covered the vocabulary and first 3 grammar points in the handout. Then, we went through the Quizlet word set (not the entire set, I think only up to 17 or 19), and then we did textbook p.202–203.


1. A-(으)ㄴ데요, V-는데요, N인데요

There are two main uses for this:

  1. To convey information about a certain situation and wait for the listener’s response.
  2. To reject/disagree politely because it has the effect of making a phrase sound softer than the present tense form -아/어요.

The first is used a lot in telephone conversations, which ties nicely with this chapter which has to do with communications.

Basically, when you use this form in the first case, the conversation is not over, and you expect the listener to say something else in response to what you had just said.

받침 X 받침 O
A 크다 → 큰데요 작다 → 작은데요
V 가다 → 가는데요 읽다 → 읽는데요
N 친구 → 친구인데요 학생 → 학생인데요

For past tense forms, you add -는데요:

  • 친절했는데요 (친절하다 = adjective)
  • 편했는데요 (편하다 = adjective)
  • 받았는데요
  • 찾았는데요

Example (Usage 1):

  • 가: 이 우산 좀 빌려 주세요.
  • 나: 이거 제 우산이 아닌데요.

Example (Usage 2):

  • 가: 시간 있으면 커피 한 잔 할까요?
  • 나: 미안해요. 오늘은 일이 많은데요.

2. V-는 중이다, N중이다

This is used to indicate something is in progress.

받침 X 받침 O
V 가다 → 가는 중이다 읽다 → 읽는 중이다
N 회의 → 회의중이다 수업 → 수업중이다

If you have a 하다 verb (formed by N + 하다), then you can use either:

  • 공사 중이다
  • = 공사하는 중이다

How is this different from V-고 있다? They are used in similar ways.

V-고 있다 has no restrictions on which subjects it can be used with, but V-는 중이다 cannot be used with subjects representing natural phenomena such as snow (눈) or rain (비). (This is why V-고 있다 was taught first; it has no restrictions on its use.)

  • 비가 오고 있어요. (O)
  • 비가 오는 중이에요. (X)

3. A-(으)ㄴ가요?, V-나요?, N인가요?

This is used to ask questions. These are gentler than using the present tense -아/어요 forms.

받침 X 받침 O
A 비싸다 → 비싼가요? 좋다 → 좋은가요?
V 가다 → 가나요? 읽다 → 읽나요?
N 친구 → 친구인가요? 학생 → 학생인가요?

Of note is that the adjectives that end with -있다/없다 and also the past tense -았/었- essentially act like verbs and combine with 나요? instead.

  • 이 영화가 재미없나요?
  • 어제 시험이 어려웠나요?


Korean English Notes
문의하다 to inquire
접수 receipt (application) 接受
신청하다 to apply
외국인을 위한 수업 a class for foreigners
저를 위한 선물 a present for me
걸다 to hang
다도 체험 tea ceremony experience
끊다 to cut off
게임을 끊다 to quit playing games
술을 끊다 to quit drinking
통역하다 to interpret (spoken)
번역하다 to translate (written document)
궁금하다 to be curious
새로 이사한 집 new house (that we moved to)
전화를 걸다 to make a call
통화를 하다 to talk on the phone
전화가 오다 to have a phone call
전화를 끊다 to hang up the phone
전화를 받다 to answer the phone
문자를 보내다 to send a text message
전화를 바꾸다 to give the phone to someone else
문자를 받다 to receive a text message
문자를 지우다 to delete a text message
대상 target 对象
참가비 entry fee 参加费
장소 place 场所
문의 inquiry 问议
기간 period 期间
공사 construction 工事
외국인 foreigner 外国人
여자 친구를 위한 선물 gift for my girlfriend
국악 Korean classical music 国乐
동양화 Oriental painting 东洋畵
전시하다 to exhibit 展示
상영 screening 上映
남다 to be left 10분(이) 남았어요
말씀하시다 to say (honorific expression)
무료 no charge 无料
태권도복 Taekwondo uniform
다도 tea ceremony 茶道
악기 musical instrument 乐器
체험 (firsthand) experience 体验
재료비 material fee 材料费
참가하다 to participate 参加
정보 information


  • Worksheet chapter 9, p. 160–167
  • Quizlet Chapter 9 word set


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, for the revision sheet only. Same group for both exercises (split 3/2).

Lesson 85 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 12): Intermediate 2 Test

Test week, so this will just be my ramblings about my thoughts about the test. Made stupid mistakes again, but I do not think I will do too badly. But we shall know for sure next week.


I think one student came in after the first question, so the teacher replayed it. Then from then on, each question was played twice before moving on to the next question.

This was different from before, where we would hear everything once through and then the second time would be another round through all the questions again.

I think I don’t mind this, but it was a bit of having hope crushed immediately if you missed something since the second chance expires almost immediately.

The first two questions were image questions, where you had to choose the correct image out of 4. However, when I initially saw the paper, I had thought it was 4 questions, and you had to pick out of 2 options. It has to do with the layout of the page, since the separation between questions is not much more when the options belong to the same question or not. (I guess it is somewhat of an occupational hazard that I am commenting on this now.)

So initially for the first question, I had selected the wrong option, as I picked the second, but the actual answer is the third, which is on the second row. I only noticed when we went to the second question, and I was looking at the second row of pictures, when I should have been looking at the third and fourth.

For the second question, in the first round, I wrote down some key word I heard. In the second, I wrote down something else. I thought it meant product (상품), but after I looked at what I had written, they were 소포 and then 포장 from the two rounds, so I changed my answer.

The next section had the usual 4 questions and answers, and you had to pick the correct answer. There was one I wasn't sure, but I ended up guessing.

There was also the section where there is a conversation going on, and then you had to pick the topic they were talking about. That had two questions.

Then, there was a section where there is a conversation, and you pick the right option. However, the first set actually had two questions and they were from two different conversations. Initially, I got confused as I thought the second question had to be answered as well.

Lastly, there were indeed two more conversations where there were two questions asked about each conversation. The teacher did mention for these that the questions had to be answered together.

Vocabulary & Grammar

I found this very easy, and it did not take long. Or at least, it felt that way.


I also found this relatively easy. Reading long passages don’t cause my brain to hurt. And I was also okay with kind of skimming and reading fast (because I wanted more time for writing) instead of reading every. single. word. as I did last time.


I think I was maybe the 4th person to do the oral. By the time it was time to do the oral, I was pretty much at the Writing section.

The oral was pretty easy honestly, in terms of how it was actually possible to prepare for with what we have. Plus, there was no conversation part, which really helped.

There were 3 main sections.

The first was, as usual, reading the sentences out loud. In fact, they made it easy in that the ones where you actually had to watch out for the pronunciation? The words were underlined.

The first one had a date, which was August 15. 15 is 십오, but I was so focused on the 5, that I actually said 오십 (50). The teacher kind of gave me a look and asked me to read it again.

I realised that was a very… German thing to do. In German the ones and tens are backwards. 15 is “fünfzehn”, and 5 is “fünf” and 10 is “zehn”. In the numbers bigger than 20, there is an “and” between them, but the logic remains.

The second one was actually the activity from Chapter 6, p. 144. The one where you had to use V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다 to say what you think happened in the aftermath of the party. You had to say 3 things.

The first thing I said was that they ate cake, then I said they danced, and then I decided for some strange reason, in a bid to cancel the dance thing, to say that they listened to music, because the only thing they had there was a music player (stereo system?) with the CD tray open.

So, “to listen” is 듣다, which irregularly conjugates. But I was thinking in my mind of 놀다 for some strange reason. So in my mind, 논 appeared, and so I said 든 or maybe even 돈, when it should be 들은. This is hilarious if not so sad.

My takeaway from this is that I need to add the conjugation cards to review them in Anki as a sanity check. The old style conjugation cards I had were bad because they required me to think of the endings and after a while it becomes very detached from what I had to do and I hated them whenever they came up for review. Thus, I decided not to create new ones for the new grammar anymore.

At the time, I thought the solution was to have Cloze cards, but those serve a different purpose (and I did not add enough of them, anyway). So I should have the conjugation cards, but I state what I want it to be conjugated to in Korean (instead of trying to do some translation). So the cards should be easy, and ideally, that means that the SRS algo does what it is supposed to and then I also do not see them too often.

The third activity was actually sort of within my calculations. I predicted there would be something that is about directions, and I was right. I had also sort of prepared for driving directions, but this one was exactly the activity we did before, on p.168, which is for walking.

The starting point is the subway station, and then I had to navigate to 대한은행, and then after that, the second place I was told to navigate to was 서울빌딩.

For some reason, I had a brain freeze after the first one. I struggled to say the very first sentence which was to get out of the station at Exit 1. Now that I reflect, I think I said 1번 출구로 when that made no sense, and my brain was tripping on that, because I think I was wondering if it should be 에서, since you are coming out of the station. 😓 But wait, the assumption is you are inside, so I guess you head towards the exit and so it is correct to use 로? 🥴

I think part of that was also that I was not sure if I missed any instructions, specifically, that the starting point had changed.


Again, in two parts. The first was to write the answers to some questions. There was also a selection of grammar that you had to use in your answers.

The grammar actually made it easy, because I realised that there was exactly the same number of grammars and number of questions. I had some trouble with two, but that soon became one and then none. For the last one I changed it a bit, but it works.

For the essay itself, well. I only checked the essay topic after I got to writing, so it was after my oral.

The topic was the one for the writing assignment in Chapter 8, which was the homework for two lessons before. However, because I was busy, I ended up only finishing the homework the night before the test and submitted it then. It was also to my surprise that the teacher marked it and returned it to me shortly (~2 hours) before the lesson the next day. And even more fortunately, I opened up the file to check my mistakes.

I did not memorise what I had written so there were some key differences, but I still had a pretty good grasp of what I had written there. (In fact, I did review the past essays from the other chapters too, since I suspected the topic will come from there, so I did have a good idea of those as well.)

I did make some mistakes, like forgetting the word for deadline (미감일). I wrote it as 감미일 in my draft, but then I thought, hmm, probably wrong, and even noted to flip it around. But then I stared at it a bit more, then thought 감미일 was right, and wrote it as 감미일 in the actual essay.

There was also some extra conditions, such as having to use some grammar (notably N(으)ㄹ때 and A/V-아/어 버리다) and emotion words. I sort of had some trouble with A/V-아/어 버리다. I think I did write 잊어버리다 (which was also in the homework essay I had submitted) but I thought it was kind of cheating, so I ended up adding one at the end of the essay, which I think might be the wrong use of it.


  • None, this is text week


  • Students: 5 out of 5

Lesson 84 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 11)

We completed the outstanding items in the textbook, then the rest of the lesson was focused on revision.

Class also ended 6 minutes early. This is the first time this has ever happened. I thought the teacher was going to use the time to ask us extra oral questions and I was kind of relieved that was not the case… but depending on how you look at it, it may actually be worse.

The revision sheet had vocab on the first page. After the vocab, we did Quizlet Live revision on the word sets (individual teams). After that, we reviewed the grammar. Then, the last two pages were exercises which I will go into a bit more detail later.

Culture Note

We actually read the culture note this time! It was about what you would say if you brought a gift to someone when you visited their house (in this context, visiting a Korean person’s house in Korea). Then what would they say?

So it turns out in the text, the mother of the Korean friend that the author (based on the pictures, the fictional author is probably Steven) visited said (in Korean, but I will just translate): “Why did you buy and bring such a gift?”

Then, the person was taken aback and did not know how to respond. Later on, the friend told the author that it is simply the way Koreans would say thank you for the gift.

The teacher said this is common in Asian cultures, and yes, the entire class already knew that the question was not really a Why-question in need of an answer.


This one is kind of related to the pronunciation topic back in SNU 1B, Chapter 13 that was covered in Lesson 50.

Over there, it was just discussing how to pronounce the station names, but this rule here gives a bit more detail.

When the final consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ’ are followed by ‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’, the initial consonant ‘ㅇ’ in ‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’ becomes [ㄴ], resulting in the sounds [니, 냐, 녀, 뇨, 뉴, 냬, 녜].

‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’ are basically the sounds that either is [i], or have the j semivowel sound. Which is actually the same sound as [i].1


  1. 배낭여행 [배낭여행]
  2. 무슨 일[무슨 닐]
  3. 한 약속[한 냑속]


Korean English
대답하다 to answer
표현하다 to express


The revision sheet had two main exercises. Basically, they were to identify if the sentences were correct in the usage of the two grammar being compared. If not, they should be corrected.

1. A/V-아서/어서 vs A/V-(으)니까


  • The second clause cannot be a suggestion.


  • The second clause should not be a polite excuse.

Links to the posts that introduce the grammar:

2. N(이)라서 vs N 때문에

  • N(이)라서 means “because (it is) N”
  • N 때문에 means “because of N”

Links to the posts that introduce the grammar:


  • None
  • However, I have not cleared last week’s homework yet. 😬 (Worse, I am not the only one, judging by what the teacher said at the end of the class.)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, for the revision sheet only. Same group for both exercises (split 3/2).

  1. See Wikipedia’s Semivowel article for an explanation, if it matters. I did not cover this in any of my posts since when this was taught I had not started writing these posts, but in the foundation course, we were taught that 야 = 이 + 아 for example. Now that I think about it, maybe one of the Korean Alphabet posts (based on the First Step Korean course) might have this. Anyway, Wikipedia also says that what would be called “semivowels” are transcribed as vowels anyway in Hangeul orthography. 

Lesson 83 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 10)

We started this lesson with reviewing the Quizlet set for Chapter 8 (sentence). At the start of the class, it was just 3 of us who were present. Each one of us took turns to answer.

After that, it was to the video script sheet, and then to the textbook. For the video script, we only went through the dialogue, did not do any speaking for that portion.

We also listened to part of a song, 너 그럴 때면. While trying to find that video, I discovered it is a really old song, released in 1998.

I guess one reason for that is because we had the entire Chapter 8 in the textbook to cover, and that included both Speaking 1 and Speaking 2.

For the textbook, we went from p.180–p.191. Yes, we even did the Listening. For p. 191, which was given as a written assignment (to write answers to the interview questions), we went through the questions.

I don’t think there is anything else to add for this lesson, since usually I would not cover everything we do in the textbook, if at all. I just feel kind of sad that this was delayed a week simply because the post before this was incomplete. Anyway, onwards to the post for this week, which should also be a short one.


Korean English Notes
옆집 the house next door i.e. your neighbour
N에 놓고 내리다 to put something somewhere; to leave something behind somewhere 가방을 지하철에 놓고 내렸어요.
계단 stairs 계단에서 넘어져 버렸어요.


  • Textbook Chapter 8, p. 191–193 (Writing for the Speaking part + Reading and Writing)


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the girl who went to Korea wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, mixed.

Lesson 82 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 9)

This is now two weeks overdue, since I got caught up with work and being on course the last two weeks.

We finished up the rest of the vocabulary for Chapter 8 (last week, we stopped at number 20), and then completed the entire handout. That’s right, we went through all 4 grammar points.


1. A/V-겠-

It is used to indicate the speaker’s supposition or conjecture based on the current situation or condition that the speaker is in.

This is frequently used when you sympathise with another person’s situation. If you think something sounds good, you would say 좋겠어요.

This grammar corresponds to “must”, “looks like”, “sounds“, or “appears”. The exact translation would probably be different depending on the context in which the reply was given.

Examples (with possible situations where such a reply could be warranted):

  1. 좋겠어요! (That sounds good!)
    • Friend says that they are going on vacation next week.
  2. 재미있겠어요. (That looks fun.)
    • You observe some people doing something and they are laughing.
  3. 힘들겠어요. (It must be hard.)
    • Someone tells you that they have to study after work every day.

1.1 Past Tense: A/V-았겠/었겠-

If you are speculating about past events or completed events by the subject, you need to use ‘-았겠/었겠-’:

  • 어제 손님이 많이 오셔서 정말 힘들었겠어요.

1.2 First Person Subject

In most of the examples, the speaker is speaking about the experience of someone else. If the speaking is talking about themselves, then ‘V-겠’ conveys a strong intention to do something soon.

  • 늦어서 죄송합니다. 내일 꼭 일찍 오겠습니다.

V-겠습니다 is the formal. For casual, you would use V-(으)ㄹ 게요, which we have already seen.

2. N 때문에

This is used to express a cause or reason.

It is translated as “because of N”.

That is how it differs from N(이)라서, which means “because (it is) N”. This is a potential pitfall to watch out for.

N 때문에 is used more commonly with negative situations. You could still use N 때문에 in a positive situation, but usually, you would use N 덕분에 (“thanks to N”) for something positive.1

덕분에 can also be used without the noun, for example, when someone asks if you are well. Then, you can reply: 네, 덕분에.


  1. 아이들 때문에 피곤해요.
  2. 일 때문에 바빠요.
  3. 감기 때문에 학교에 못 갔어요.

3. V-아/어 버리다

This one is fun. 버리다 by itself means “to throw away”, but this expression has two distinct feelings associated with it.

One is the feeling of relief from a burden by completing an action, while the other is a feeling of dissatisfation with the result of an action.

Important to note that in either case, the feeling comes from something happening, so you do not use 안 or 못 with this.2

Examples (dissatisfied with result):

  1. 표가 팔려 버렸어요.
  2. 자전거가 고장 나 버려서 자전거를 탈 수 없어요.
  3. 나나 씨가 아무 말도 없이 그냥 가 버렸어요.
  4. 친구의 전화번호를 잊어버렸어요.
  5. 시장에서 지갑을 잃어버렸어요.

For 4 and 5, they are a bit special in that there isn’t a space between the verb and the 버리다. Kind of like how 도와주다 is special for V-아/어 주다.

Previously, we have already learnt these verbs as one unit (잊어버리다 and 잃어버리다). This is the grammr behind them, and I guess also explains why 잊다 on its own also means “to forget”.

It was only when I saw the example sentences did I realise that the words were actually formed with this grammar.

Examples (relieved from burden):

  1. 숙제를 다 끝내 버렸어요.
  2. 필요 없는 옷들을 정리해 버렸어요.
  3. 집을 청수해 버렸어요.

4. A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때

This is used to express the time when an action or state occurs, or its duration.

For nouns, it is actually N일 때, but it is much more common to leave out the 일.

I won’t go into the conjugation because it is essentially the same as the future tense noun modifier and slapping on 때 at the end. Plus, by this time, conjugation is not hard; it is when to use the grammar that is hard.


  1. 혼자 있을 때 뭐 해요?
  2. 친구하고 이야기할 때 기분이 좋아요.
  3. 한국어 공부가 어려울 때 스트레스를 받아요.
  4. 학생 때 공부를 못해요.

4.1 Comparison with 면

This question came to my mind some time in the last two weeks, not during the lesson itself: What is the difference between A/V-(으)ㄹ 때 (when) and A/V-(으)면 (when/if)?

Is it that 면 is also conditional (“if”) and not just “when”?

I did some Googling and this video came up. In essence:

  • 면 is used to refer to hypothetical situations
  • 때 is used to refer to an actual event. It means “time” (literally, “the time when…”)


Korean English Notes
운이 없다 to be unlucky
이사를 가다 to move out
졸다 to doze
잠(이) 들다 to fall asleep
놓치다 to miss (e.g. bus)
지나가다 to pass by
외우다 to memorise
넘어지다 to fall
방속국 broadcasting station
잘못 + V wrongly
종점 the last stop
미녀와 야수 Beauty and the Beast
버리다 to throw away
정리하다 to tidy up, organise 整理
용돈 pocket money, allowance
발표 presentation
거짓말을 하다 to tell a lie
장학금 scholarship
평소 usual day 버스 때문에 늦었어요. 버스가 평소보다 늦게 왔어요.
결석하다 to be absent (from school) 缺席
어젯밤 last night
참석하다 attend e.g. a wedding, 결혼식에 참석할 때
정장 suit, formal dress 正裝. 정장을 하다 = to dress up/formally
하루 종일 the entire day
프로젝트 마감일 project deadline


  • Worksheet Chapter 8, 전부 (all)
  • Quizlet Chapter 8 sentence set


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. Mixed groups.

  1. I realised as I write this two weeks later (and not at the time of learning this) that it reminds me of à cause de and grâce à in French. The former is very much often used to assign blame, and hence for negative situations, while the latter is used for positive situations. On further reflection, it is not too different from English either. 

  2. I am too lazy to link to the post where 못 is discussed. 안 was probably introducted in the first few lessons where I had not started regularly posting yet, I think.