notes on things I'm learning
85900 words

Lesson 55 (Beginner 3B Lesson 7): Start Chapter 15

This is way overdue, but due to last week being a busy week at work and things spilling over into the weekend (personal work as well as work at work), this was pushed back... and things are a bit better this week but still... Even up until now I've not done the homework for this week, which isn't great at all, given that the lesson is in 2 days and my personal deadline is usually Thursday... so... I'd have to get to it, but writing assignments take longer.

I thought to get this post out first because it's been causing me some mental clutter, seeing it every day on the task list. I'd already gotten the "hard part" done, which was listing all the vocabulary. It's tedious because when I add them here, I also have to add the new words to Anki and find audio for them on Forvo. I try to do these together, otherwise I'd need to track what progress I've made. There's the added complication also of the vocab words from the handout that usually are in the Quizlet deck which I can just import into Anki, and those I have to make sure to include in the list I keep here.

Yesterday, we got the notice to start preparing the gifts for the gift exchange. This year the names have been drawn and we've been given the instructions on how to send the parccel (the cost paid for by the school). I got the new student (not the one that joined in this last lesson - later in this post I'll mention it) but the previous one.

Also sometime last week (before this lesson) I got the invoice to pay for the next term. Interestingly, the next term is only 7 lessons long. Or rather, the first lesson of that term seems to be next week, the last lesson of the previous term I paid for. So this time, I paid for 7 lessons. No idea why there's this change.

So this lesson... wow, it's been almost a full week. I went out in the morning to buy something and was almost late for class. It did not help that I ended up not using the usual computer I use because of panic (which resulted in I think the wrong password) and I resorted to my other laptop. Fortunately the battery lasted, but I had to log in to Zoom again (since I'd not used that computer for Zoom for so long, it logged me out, even though it's a different account). The computer is also... beginning to show signs of... breaking down. The trackpad has started to become less responsive since yesterday, but that's not really relevant.

We covered the rest of Chapter 14 in the textbook and even started on the vocabulary for Chapter 15. (Chapter 15 is mood, it's titled "I want to go on a trip"... and right now I do want to go on a trip since it has been some time.)

As I mentioned, there was another new student in the class. I thought I was late (I was, by 5 minutes), but about 2-3 minutes later, this new student joined the call, and so we had a short digression for an introduction. This time we had to additionally say that we liked (not just name and occupation, which for most of us was just ํšŒ์‚ฌ์›). I really couldn't think of anything so I said what has been on my mind these days: horse riding.1

As it turns out, my friend was later (around 20 minutes late) - and so there was another round of introductions. He was also late the lesson the other new student joined 2 lessons ago.

We went through the textbook and it took actually quite a while to finish up because there were quite a few things to discuss. Both the reading and writing sections were homework.

Culture Note

The culture note was about gifts to your significant other, and about taboo gifts. The example had a text where a guy gave his (Korean) girlfriend shoes, and in the culture you shouldn't do that because it means something like the girlfriend wear the shoes and leave you for another guy. Because we were short on time, the teacher read the whole passage (to my surprise).

However, we did discuss various holidays where we typically send gifts under the Listening and Speaking section. I've added these to the vocabulary section below, along with the relevant notes.


The pronunciation has to do with how to pronounce syllabes with two final consonants.

In order to find the symbols of the double consonants because typing ใ„นใ„ฑ is ugly and I wanted it to be ใ„บ, I had to hunt for a site with the symbols. I found this site, which is pretty cool.

I know this topic is also not exactly new, so I went in search of old posts. While searching for the posts where I've mentioned this, I chanced upon Lesson 25 and realised that was the lesson that we started with this current teacher. I did not even realise that I've had more lessons with her than with the teacher I started with. Actually, it's coming very close to a year since I started this practice of posting my own summaries after each lesson. Time flies! ๐Ÿ˜ฑ

I found something related way back in Lesson 11 I addressed this briefly. We'll take a look at that later.

The textbook gave two rules:

  1. Only one of the double final consonants is pronounced as the representative sound for the pair.
  2. When the final double consonant 'ใ„บ' is followed by 'ใ„ฑ', 'ใ„บ' is pronounced as [ใ„น] instead of [ใ„ฑ].

For the first rule, well, that's... obvious isn't it?

The teacher mentioned (following the examples given in the textbook) that in most cases you read the first consonant of the two, as in:

  • ใ„ต: ์•‰๋‹ค [์•ˆ๋”ฐ]
  • ใ„ผ: ์งง๋‹ค [์งค๋”ฐ]
  • ใ…„: ์—†๋‹ค [์—…ห๋”ฐ]

However, for 'ใ„บ', you normally pronounce the 'ใ„ฑ':

  • ์ฝ๋‹ค [์ต๋”ฐ]

Rule 2 says that if it's the next syllable is 'ใ„ฑ', then you don't pronounce it as [ใ„ฑ], but [ใ„น]:

  • ์ฝ๊ณ  [์ผ๊ผฌ]

Rule 2 isn't all that new; I saw some weeks ago because of one of the example sentences in the handout for Chapter 12. (It's lesson 45, since the example in the handout belongs under the V-๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค grammar point, though I don't mention pronunciation at all in my post.)

Now, going back to my post from lesson 11, the general rule given was:

The consonant to pronounce on the bottom is the one first in alphabet order

For reference, here is the alphabet order:

ใ„ฑ ใ„ฒ ใ„ด ใ„ท ใ„ธ ใ„น ใ… ใ…‚ ใ…ƒ ใ…… ใ…† ใ…‡ ใ…ˆ ใ…‰ ใ…Š ใ…‹ ใ…Œ ใ… ใ…Ž

In all the cases above, you'll notice that the consonant that is pronounced is the first one in the alphabet order.

Of course, the point is that the general rule isn't very useful to people learning Korean as a foreign language because we don't have to know the Korean alphabet order. I didn't memorise it, for sure.

Though in the time since the lesson and doing all the vocab, I have a question: What about ๋‹ญ๊ฐˆ๋น„ (one of the new vocab words from Chapter 15)? It's pronounced as [๋‹ฅ๊น”๋น„].

Why does it not follow Rule 2? Is it because the word is a kind of compound of ๋‹ญ (chicken) + ๊ฐˆ๋น„? Does Rule 2 only apply to syllables that belong to the same "word", meaning they stick to syllable with the double consonant because they are grammar particles, or are another syllable that make the same word? I don't know.


Chapter 14

Korean English Notes
์Šน๋ง horseback riding
ํŠนํžˆ in particular; especially ๊ทธ๋Š” ๋™๋ฌผ ํŠนํžˆ ๊ฐ•์•„์ง€๋ฅผ ์ข‹์•„ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. = He likes animals, epecially puppies. (Not sure if it's the most natural way to put things as such, but essentially this was the context that the new student was trying to use it in.) ์ด ํŒŒ์Šคํƒ€๋Š” ํŠนํžˆ ๋ง›์—†์–ด์š”. = This pasta is especially tasteless. (Sentence courtesy of Duolingo.)
์น˜ํ‚จ๋ผ์ด์Šค chicken rice Don't call it ๋ฐฅ since it's not Korean food.
ํƒ€์ด๊ฑฐ ๋งฅ์ฃผ Tiger beer
์—ฌํ–‰์ง€ travel destination Basically, tourist attractions I guess?
๊ฐ€๋“ ์Šค ๋ฐ”์ด ๋” ๋ฒ ์ด Gardens by the Bay
์„ผํ† ์‚ฌ Sentosa
์นด๋ฐ”์•ผ kabaya
์–ด๋ฒ„์ด๋‚  Parents' Day This is on 8 May. (Children's Day, ์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋‚ , is on 5 May in Korea.)
์Šค์Šน์˜ ๋‚  Teachers' Day 15 May. It is King Sejong's birthday.
๋นผ๋นผ๋กœ ๋ฐ์ด Pepero Day Single's Day? It's 11 Nov
๋ฐธ๋Ÿฐํƒ€์ธ๋ฐ์ด Valentine's Day 14 Feb, when the girls give their boyfriends chocolate.
ํ™”์ดํŠธ๋ฐ์ด White Day 14 Mar, when the boys give their girlfriends candy.
์‚ฌํƒ• candy
๋ธ”๋ž™๋ฐ์ด Black Day 14 Apr, when if you didn't receive anything on Valentine's Day or White Day, you would wear black and go eat Jajangmyeon on your own.
์‚ผ๊ฒน์‚ด ๋ฐ์ด Pork Belly Day 3 Mar. Some marketing tactic, probably, since it sounds like that. (์‚ผ = 3) I
์ฒซ์งธ first Ordinal number.
10์›” ์ฒซ์งธ์ฃผ ๊ธˆ์š”์ผ the first Friday in October I think this is the new Children's Day here, but this year it's actually the second Friday. When I was young, as in, when I was still in school and this was a holiday (it's not a public holiday unlike Korea), it was fixed on 1 Oct. Like how Teachers' Day was fixed on 1 Sep, but that has also changed.
์ˆ˜๋ฃŒ์‹ completion ceremony Not a graduation ceremony as in school. But completion of course. You would wear a gown and be presented a certificate of completion.
์ˆ˜๋ฃŒ์ฆ certificate of completion
๊ฐ€์šด gown
๋ชฉ๋„๋ฆฌ scarf; muffler
๊ท€๊ฑธ์ด earring; earmuffs
๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค to have, possess; to take ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค is from ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค + ์˜ค๋‹ค.
๊ธฐํƒ€ others Sino-Korean word from ๅ…ถไป–, such as an "others" or "etc." category. Yes, it is also the word for "guitar", but different etymology.
์ถ•ํ•˜ celebration
๋†€๋ผ๋‹ค to be surprised
๋จผ์ € first First in time or sequence.
๋ฌผ์–ด๋ณด๋‹ค to ask

Chapter 15

Korean English Notes
๊ฒฝ์น˜๊ฐ€ ์•„๋ฆ„๋‹ต๋‹ค to have beautiful scenery
๊ตฌ๊ฒฝ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ๋‹ค to have many sightseeing attractions
๋‹ญ๊ฐˆ๋น„ spicy chicken stir-fry
๋‚  day
๊ณณ place
๋‚จ์ด์„ฌ Nami Island An island in Chuncheon.
ํ•ด์šด๋Œ€ Haeundae A beach in Busan.
๋„์ฐฉํ•˜๋‹ค to arrive Sino-Korean word from ๅˆฐ็€, from ๅˆฐ (โ€œarriveโ€) + ็€ (โ€œmake a moveโ€)
์ถœ๋ฐœํ•˜๋‹ค to depart Sino-Korean word from ๅ‡บ็™ผ (โ€œdepartureโ€)
๋ˆ์„ ๋ฐ”๊พธ๋‹ค to exchange money
๋Œ์•„์˜ค๋‹ค to come back
๋– ๋‚˜๋‹ค to leave
์˜ฌ๋ผ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go up
๋ฌผ๊ฑด๊ฐ’์ด ์‹ธ๋‹ค to have the price of items be cheap ๋ฌผ๊ฑด = items; ๊ฐ’ = price
๋ฏธ์ˆ ๊ด€ art museum
๋ฐ˜์ง€ ring
๋ณด์ด๋‹ค to be seen Passive, without intentionally seeing something.
์˜ˆ๋งคํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve (a ticket) movie, train, plane ticket.
๋น„ํ–‰๊ธฐ ํ‘œ๋ฅผ ์˜ˆ๋งคํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve a flight ticket
์˜ˆ์•ฝํ•˜๋‹ค to make a reservation; to book
ํ˜ธํ…”์„ ์˜ˆ์•ฝํ•˜๋‹ค to reserve a hotel
์กฐ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be silent, quiet, still, calm
์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋„ ์—†๊ณ  ์กฐ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be uncrowded and quiet
์‹ ํ˜ผ์—ฌํ–‰ honeymoon
์‹ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to quarrel, fight
๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ a sporting or athletic competition or match
์•ผ๊ตฌ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ baseball match
์•ผ๊ตฌ์žฅ baseball stadium
์—ฌ๊ถŒ์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค to make a passport
์—ฌํ–‰ํ•˜๋‹ค to travel
์ฆ๊ฒ๋‹ค to be enjoyable
ํœด๊ฐ€ vacation

Duolingo Bonus Vocab

Since I've been doing more Duolingo again I've got more vocab that I want to add to Anki to aid my efforts. (I have a love-hate relationship with that app, the newest way it has succeeded in its gamification efforts and suck me in is to provide a 2x XP boost each time I complete a level which makes me use the app longer than the 10 minutes I normally would.)

The translations in bold are what Duolingo accepts, the others are from Wiktionary. In any case, I suspect the usage of the adverbs require more context to figure out what is the most appropriate.

Korean English Notes
์˜๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to be clever
๋„“๋‹ค to be wide
๋‚ ์”ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to be thin (slim)
๋šฑ๋šฑํ•˜๋‹ค to be fat
๋ฉ€๋ฆฌ far away ๋ฉ€๋ฆฌ์—์„œ ์˜ค๋‹ค = to come from far away. ๋ฉ€๋‹ค is "to be far".
๊ฑด๋„ˆํŽธ the opposite side ๋‚จ์ž์•„์ด๊ฐ€ ์—ฌ์ž ๊ฑด๋„ˆํŽธ์—์„œ ๋จน์–ด์š”. = The boy eats across from the woman. ๊ฑด๋„ˆ๋‹ค is "to cross" (e.g. the road).
์™ผ์ชฝ์— ์žˆ๋Š” N N on the left ์™ผ์ชฝ์— ์žˆ๋Š” ์ฑ…์€ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”. = The book on the left is interesting.
์ƒ๋‹นํžˆ fairly; suitably; to an appropriate degree ์ด ์™€์ธ์€ ์ƒ๋‹น์ด ์‹ธ์š”. = This wine is fairly cheap.
๊ฝค quite; rather, fairly; to more than an ordinary degree ์‚ฐ์ด ๊ฝค ๋†’์•„์š”. = The mountain is quite high.
์ฐธ really; truly ๊ทธ ํ•™์ƒ์€ ์ฐธ ์ฐฉํ•ด์š”. = That student is really kind.
์ฐฉํ•˜๋‹ค to be kind; to be good, pleasing Apparently "to be kind" is from the 19th century, from the 2000s onwards the colloquial usage means for example to be good in the sense of a cheap (reasonable) price. See Wiktionary. Anyway, there is ์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๋‹ค that means "to be kind".
์—„์ฒญ overly; very (much), really, terribly Additonally consulted Naver for this translations. ์‹ผ ์ง‘์€ ์—„์ฒญ ์ž‘์•„์š”. = The cheap house is overly small.
ํ›จ์”ฌ by far; much more or less (than normal); a lot; long (before or after); far more ์ €์˜ ์ง‘์€ ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ์ปค์š”. = My house is bigger by far. (Note that I think you should be using ์šฐ๋ฆฌ when describing your own house. But this is the sentence that Duolingo had. ๐Ÿคทโ€โ™€๏ธ)
๊ต‰์žฅํžˆ exceedingly; very, greatly ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๊ต‰์žฅํžˆ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•ด์š”. = I am very tired.
๋ณ„๋กœ very; really It's used in a negative context as "very", as in: ์˜ํ™”๊ฐ€ ๋ณ„๋กœ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์—†์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. = The movie is not very interesting. As "really" it's sometimes used with a negative.


For some random, completely unrelated reason, I decided to click on the Duolingo Help Center today and found out that Tinycards was shut down on 1 September 2020. I've never really used it for vocab, but I did enjoy the country mapping, 50 US states, Russian alphabet, and Egyptian hieroglyphics official decks for a while. I think at some point just before they released, they let me test one build on Testflight... that was really a long time ago.

Listed Subscription Function

I accidentally hit the email subscribers button while trying to update the post... this is the first time it's happened. I did subscribe with my own email before, so I finally get to see what happens when that button is pressed. I wasn't quite expecting the full post in the email. (And the footnote link in that is the same, and is just as brokenโ€”or moreโ€”depending on how you look at it.)

That aside, the button changes to "Subscribers Emailed" with a tick, and it seems that pressing it again doesn't send another email too. I do wish there was a way to test all these out more easily, but anyway, I'm not really using that feature. It was a misclick.

  1. This is actually another topic that I should be consolidating my thoughts and writing about, but my usual own debrief after the lesson on the way home since Standard Note's upgrade to 3.5 has resulted in the mobile app crashing a lot, and creating many conflicted copies of the notes to the point of it being annoying. But even without that, usually I am pretty tired and I'd feel obligated to review all the past notes... regardless I've started to note down some interesting facts as I learn them (started to read some books on the topic and seeing how I can apply them)... though for now I've just dumped them on Notion. Also, yes, footnotes are still broken on the Listed site, but this warrants being a footnote, so I'm making it one regardless.  โ†ฉ

Lesson 54 (Beginner 3B Lesson 6)

The youngest girl in our class was 30 minutes late for this lesson. I don't know if she is the youngest anymore, with the new male student who said he was a university student. It depends on which year he was in.

We started with Quizlet, a deck that I'd not added to Anki because I didn't know it existed and I'd not thought to check the decks when they were added. Actually, I don't recall seeing an email about them being added. I know Quizlet changed their UI a bit too. So the deck was basically on the second grammar point from the previous lesson, the present tense modifier.

But before that I think the teacher had also asked us what we did last week, since it was a public holiday and we had no class. I honestly couldn't remember. Sigh.

Also I noticed it at least twice during the lesson some German came out because I had a German lesson on Thursday for the first time in 3 months.

Anyway, this week is a busy week for me at work, and so was the weekend, which is why this is late. In fact, I am doing this as a form of procrastination instead of doing a presentation I should be preparing for. Ah, well. But this is also overdue in my own books to (I try to finish the post over the weekend), so... it's not really that either.

This week is also Black Friday... uh, Thanksgiving Week, if I'm not mistaken, from the marketing emails I've been getting. I'm wondering whether to get some language courses but I doubt I'd actually use them now, given how my schedule is and I probably won't fit them in.

We finished up the last 2 grammar points. I can only breathe a sigh of relief that the next writing assignment is next week and not this week.


3. Nํ•œํ…Œ[๊ป˜]

This is, basically, the indirect object marker. Like how ์„/๋ฅผ is the direct object marker.

The notes say that Nํ•œํ…Œ:

indicates that the preceding noun is affected by the action of the verb

That is really not helpful to me, but I know this is the indirect object marker and so that is okay for me.

Some usage notes:

  1. You use ๊ป˜ instead of ํ•œํ…Œ when you want to show that the receiver of the verb's action is respected (e.g. grandparents, parents, boss,...).
    • When the verb is "to give" (์ฃผ๋‹ค) and the situation calls for using ๊ป˜, you use ๋“œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค instead of ์ฃผ๋‹ค. It's like the honorific speech, but... not really. At least not as we have seen it. Notice the difference:
      1. ์ œ๊ฐ€ ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ป˜ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ๋“œ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (I gave a present to my grandmother.)
      2. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ €ํ•œํ…Œ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์ฃผ์…จ์–ด์š”. (My grandmother gave a present to me.)
    • The second sentence is where the subject of the sentence is respected, which is what was previously covered.
  2. You use ์—๊ฒŒ instead of ํ•œํ…Œ in formal speech or in written language.
    • ์นœ๊ตฌ์—๊ฒŒ ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์คฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (I gave a present to my friend.)
  3. You use ํ•œํ…Œ(์„œ) or ์—๊ฒŒ(์„œ) when the noun is the source or starting point of the action.
    • Example would be a verb like "to hear" (๋“ฃ๋‹ค) and "to receive" (๋ฐ›๋‹ค), where you hear something from someone or receive something from someone.
    • ์นœ๊ตฌํ•œํ…Œ(์„œ) ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ๋ฐ›์•˜์–ด์š”. (I received a present from my friend.)
    • It's easy (but not entirely correct) to translate ํ•œํ…Œ/์—๊ฒŒ as "to" and ํ•œํ…Œ์„œ/์—๊ฒŒ์„œ as "from". As we have seen, depending on the verb, ํ•œํ…Œ/์—๊ฒŒ can also mean "from" since ์„œ is optional.
    • The teacher said that she rarely adds the ์„œ.

4. V-์•„/์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”

This is used to suggest or recommend that someone try a certain action.

In terms of how it's conjugated, it's very similar to V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ๋‹ค, in particular with V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” which requests that someone does something for you.

To "soften" the request, instead of using ์ข€ (it seems), you use ํ•œ๋ฒˆ, which literally means "one time".


  1. ์ด ์ฑ…์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ ์ฝ์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try reading this book.)
  2. ๋“ค์–ด ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try to listen.)
    • This is a very familiar instruction I hear for many of the audio tracks. I've wondered what the grammar was (but was not curious enough to try to find out before this).
  3. ์ œ์ฃผ๋„์— ํ•œ๋ฒˆ ๊ฐ€ ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. (Please try to go to Jeju island.)
    • Context could be someone asking what is a nice place to visit in Korea, for example.

I'm honestly not sure about the nuance between this and making requests with V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”.

In the example sentences that I've seen that are translated (in the Quizlet deck), they all have the "try" there, but it doesn't really tell me much about the distinction.


Korean English Notes
์ˆ˜๊ฑด towel
์„ ๊ธ€๋ผ์Šค sunglasses
์‹ ์šฉ์นด๋“œ credit card ์‹ ์šฉ = Sino-Korean word from ไฟก็”จ ("credit").
๊ณ„์† continuously ๋จธ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ณ„์† ์•„ํŒŒ์š”. = My head keeps hurting.
์ธ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค to be popular
์ž ์ด ์˜ค๋‹ค to be sleepy ์ž ์ด ์™€์š”. = I am sleepy. ์ž ์ด ์•ˆ ์™€์š”. = I cannot sleep.
์ŠคํŠธ๋ ˆ์Šค stress
์•„๋ฆ„๋‹ต๋‹ค to be beautiful
๋ฌด์„ญ๋‹ค to be scary
์ง์› staff; employee
์ œ์ผ the most Forms superlatives of adjectives, e.g. ์ œ์ผ ๋†’์€ ์‚ฐ = the highest mountain
์ฒด๊ฒฉ์ด ์ข‹๋‹ค to be well-built
๋งˆ์Œ heart; mind
๋งˆ์Œ์ด ๋”ฐ๋œปํ•˜๋‹ค to be warm-hearted
๋ฏธ๋‹ˆ์Šค์ปคํŠธ miniskirt


I forgot to title this and I'm too tired to think of anything.

Lesson 53 (Beginner 3B Lesson 5): A Longer Post than Usual

We went through the mistakes for the test at the start. This was significantly shorter than in the past, so I take it to mean that everyone else did very well. I did better than expected again. There was one question which I thought I had gotten wrong but it turned out that my answer was correct... so it's a bit scary but now it's 3 tests where I've only been penalised for the essay/oral components and I'm just going to keep pressuring myself...

But that's for another time to worry about. I think the next test will be in February at the earliest, since this test was 3 months from the last one. However, next week is a public holiday, so there's no class. There's bound to be a break during Christmas as well, like last year. So I think it's more likely that the test is in mid-February, at the earliest.

We had a new student join the class. He's still a university student, so I guess he might be the youngest? I'm not certain... the previously youngest student in the class was... well, it depends on which year he is in, I guess. It's possible due to national service that he is older than she is... I think he had learnt Korean elsewhere and took a placement test.

We spent the lesson going through the handout for this chapter, which was the vocabulary and then the first 2 grammar points. That meant there is quite a fair bit of homework in the homework sheet, and the teacher also gave us another 2 pages to do in the handout itself.

Chapter 14 is about clothes.

With the vocab she made us make sentences with the adjectives. She spared me though, near the end. Not sure if it was intentional or not, but I'm grateful. For the first two sentences I was used as an example... for the adjectives "cute" and "smart"... For the "cute" one that came from the youngest student, I guess she can't call any of the guys in the class "cute", and since I'm the younger of the remaining two students... Then my friend continued and said I was smart. That kind of adds pressure, I don't really think I'm that smart (seriously, work with my colleagues and some of them are the definition of smart), just... I guess for some things I put more effort into it, and then it pays off in the end.

We only had one breakout room for this session, and it was in a group of 3. The new student and the other girl (the younger one) was in the main room with the teacher.

I'm in quite a dilemma about how to tag my Anki cards... I realised I have nothing tagged in Beginner 3B. That's because we started chapter 13 while it was still Beginner 3A. The thing is, 3B is technically this term, but at the same time, we are really doing Beginner 4A since the test is over. The teacher has called the Zoom room Beginner 4... I'm probably going to continue labelling the lessons here following 8 lessons = 1 term (A or B). But in my cards... I tagged chapter 14 as Beginner 4A.

One day the inconsistency will be so great, I bet it will come back to bite me. Or I'd just be missing a tag somewhere maybe, like how I'm already missing the Beginner 3B tag.

As for why the Zoom room is numbered 4 and not 4A, maybe she decided to schedule more meetings upfront? I have no idea, in the past the room was 2B, then 3A, then 3B...

Anyway, the breakdown seems to be like this:

  1. Beginner 1: Chapters 1-5
  2. Beginner 2: Chapters 6-9
  3. Beginner 3: Chapters 10-13
  4. Beginner 4: Chapters 14-16?

I'm basing Beginner 4 based on the fact that Chapter 16 is the last for the book, and I... assume we won't be touching the 2A book. However, if we do end at Chapter 16, then the test may come even earlier, since there would only be 3 chapters. I can't tell since the lastest set of notes I've received is only up to Chapter 16. There's a chance that we might just continue to Chapter 1 for the level 2 books.


Korean English Notes
์˜๋ณต clothes Sino-Korean word from ่กฃๆœ, from ่กฃ (โ€œclothingโ€) + ๆœ (โ€œclothingโ€). Synonym of ์˜ท.
๋ชจ์ž hat
์–‘๋ณต suit
์ •์žฅ formal clothing bigger category that includes ์–‘๋ณต
์…”์ธ  shirt with buttons
ํ‹ฐ์…”์ธ  T-shirt
๋ธ”๋ผ์šฐ์Šค blouse
์›ํ”ผ์Šค dress "one piece"
์ฝ”ํŠธ coat
๋ฐ”์ง€ pants
๋ฐ˜๋ฐ”์ง€ shorts lit. "half pants"
์‹ ๋ฐœ shoes; footwear This term refers to all kinds of shoes, including ์šด๋™ํ™”, ๊ตฌ๋‘, ์Šฌ๋ฆฌํผ, ์ƒŒ๋“ค, ...
์Šค์ปคํŠธ/์น˜๋งˆ skirt
๊ตฌ๋‘ (formal) shoes
์šด๋™ํ™” sneakers sports shoes
์Šฌ๋ฆฌํผ slippers
์ƒŒ๋“ค sandals
์ž…๋‹ค to wear (clothes)
์‹ ๋‹ค to wear (footwear)
์“ฐ๋‹ค to wear (hat, eyeglasses)
๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ voice
ํŒ”๋‹ค to sell
๋†€๋‹ค to play
์šธ๋‹ค to cry
๊ท€์—ฝ๋‹ค to be cute
๊ธฐ์˜๋‹ค to be happy
๊ธธ๋‹ค to be long
์งง๋‹ค to be short Describing length.
ํฌ๋‹ค to be big
์ž‘๋‹ค to be small
ํ‚ค๊ฐ€ ํฌ๋‹ค to be tall
ํ‚ค๊ฐ€ ์ž‘๋‹ค to be short Describing height.
๋‚ฎ๋‹ค to be low Describing value/height of something.
๋†’๋‹ค to be high Can also mean "to be tall" or "to be lofty".
๋‘๊ป๋‹ค to be thick For something flat, e.g. books or clothes. Cannot be used to refer to, say, drinks, such as "a thick coffee"
์–‡๋‹ค to be thin Applies to the same things as ๋‘๊ป๋‹ค
๋‹จ์ˆœํ•˜๋‹ค to be simple The antonym is ๋ณต์žกํ•˜๋‹ค ("to be complex", but it also means "to be crowded").
๋ˆˆ์ด ๋†’๋‹ค to have high standards Idiom. Literally, "eyes are high".
๋ˆˆ์ด ๋‚ฎ๋‹ค to have low standards Idiom. Literally, "eyes are low".
์–ผ๊ตด์ด ๋‘๊ป๋‹ค to be thick-skinned Idiom. Literally, "face is thick".
๊ท€๊ฐ€ ์–‡๋‹ค to be easily influenced by others' words Idiom. Literally, "ears are thin".
๋˜‘๋˜‘ํ•˜๋‹ค to be smart
๋ฉ‹์žˆ๋‹ค to be stylish
ํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be comfortable
๋ถˆํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be uncomfortable
๋‹ฌ๋‹ค to be sweet
ํž˜๋“ค๋‹ค to be hard/tough
๊ฑด๊ฐ•์— ์ข‹๋‹ค to be good for health
์ด์‚ฌ(๋ฅผ) ํ•˜๋‹ค to move house
๋ฐ๋‹ค to be bright; to be light e.g. in colour
์–ด๋‘ก๋‹ค to be dark; to be gloomy
๋ฒ—๋‹ค to take off; to remove (from oneself) e.g. clothes, shoes
๋‘๋‹ค to put
๋“ค์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go in; to enter ๋ฐฉ์— ๋“ค์–ด๊ฐ€๋‹ค. Other meanings include: (1) to go to; to attend (a school); (2) to begin
๋ฆฌ๋ณธ ribbon ๋ฆฌ๋ณธ์ด ์žˆ๋Š” ์‹ ๋ฐœ = the shoe with a ribbon
์ด๋ถˆ blanket; duvet
์Šฌํ”„๋‹ค to be sad
๋ฌธ์ œ problem; question


1. 'ใ„น' ํƒˆ๋ฝ

Back in Lesson 42 we learned 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ, which was the elimination of ใ…ก for verb stems that end with that vowel when conjugated with ์•„/์–ด.

This is something similar, in that it is also an elimination, but the rules are somewhat different.

When the verb or adjective stem ends in ใ„น:

  1. Do not insert '์œผ'.
  2. 'ใ„น' is omitted when followed by a suffix that begins with ใ……, ใ„ด, or ใ…‚.

1. Do not insert '์œผ'.

This applies to certain grammar forms with an optional ์œผ such as A/V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”, A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”, and V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. Most recently, we also learnt V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค.

Actually, this is much like with N(์œผ)๋กœ, where if the noun's final consonant is 'ใ„น', we do not add '์œผ' but simply add ๋กœ to it.


  1. ์‚ด๋‹ค + -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” โ†’ ์‚ด ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”.
  2. ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹ค + -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”? โ†’ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊นŒ์š”?
  3. ๋†€๋‹ค + -(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค โ†’ ๋†€๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”.

2. 'ใ„น' is omitted when followed by a suffix that begins with ใ……, ใ„ด, or ใ…‚.


  1. ์‚ด๋‹ค + -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์‚ฌ์„ธ์š”.
    • Yes, this is identical to the honorific form/imperative form for ์‚ฌ๋‹ค ("to buy").
    • Here Rule #1 comes into play as well.
  2. ํŒ”๋‹ค + ๋„ค์š” โ†’ ํŒŒ๋„ค์š”.
  3. ๊ธธ๋‹ค + -์Šต/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค โ†’ ๊น๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The teacher actually gave a very helpful mnemonic device for this section. It's definitely better than the text description I'm going to give here because she actually drew it out and told it like a story. I'm not going to draw it out... and I'm not going to include the screenshots I took here, so here's the text description.

First, you imagine you have... Snoopy. Yeah, Snoopy. But this isn't really Snoopy. It's a "pirated version", so its name is actually "Snooby". Unlike the actual Snoopy, Snooby is very fierce. He likes to chase snakes. When the snake sees Snooby, it runs away. So the image is of a snake (which basically was drawn so it curls around like the letter ใ„น) running away from Snooby (ใ……, ใ„ด, ใ…‚).

That image is so effective, I don't think it's going to be easy to forget this.

2. A-(์œผ)ใ„ด

This is the present tense modifier for adjectives, which actually modifies the noun that comes after the adjective. The adjective is always before the noun.

(This is amazing because I've been wondering how to do this for quite some time, to add an adjective to a noun to describe it. I can't wait for chapter 15 when we learn how to add verbs to nouns, though I already rougly know how to do it from chancing across the Quizlet deck...)

The rules are:

  1. If there is batchim, add ์€.
  2. If there is no batchim, or if the batchim is ใ„น, add ใ„ด.
    • Recall from the above section, the ใ„ด sound causes the omission of ใ„น
  3. If the adjective ends in ์žˆ๋‹ค/์—†๋‹ค, add ๋Š”.

(I think the last one is actually just a more specific case of how you do it for verbs. Adding ๋Š” is a special case for these kind of adjectives that look even more like verbs than other adjectives do... but I'm just rambling and these are hypotheses that are unverified.)


  1. ์ž‘๋‹ค: ์ž‘์€
  2. ํฌ๋‹ค: ํฐ
  3. ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋‹ค: ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ๋Š”
  4. ๋ง›์—†๋‹ค: ๋ง›์—†๋Š” [๋งˆ๋ค๋Š”]

Lesson 52 (Beginner 3B Lesson 4): Test 3

I really, really don't want to write about the test. For various reasons I definitely don't think I am proud of how I did this, regardless of the actual result. It's very likely that it'll still be a relatively high score. I should be happy in terms of my studying efforts, in that I actually studied from an earlier date, but still. I don't feel good right now about myself.

I didn't have enough time to check through my answers, let alone review the essay at the end. Except it wasn't an essay, it was actually 2 topics which made it harder to write. The second topic was... well, it was from the textbook, the homework, which now that I think about it, the teacher hinted at it last week too...


For oral, I was the first to go again. I was a nervous wreck (the phrase "bundle of nerves" went through my mind a lot) who couldn't even read the sentences properly. But since the oral is the only component that I don't have the paper for, I should write what I recall.

  1. Read 5 sentences. I freaked out over the instructions which had tons of unfamiliar words, due to the formatting I thought that the instructions was the first sentence to read. Mostly involved the pronunciation from the relevant chapters, but man, one sentence had like 2 of them together... ugh. I don't want to talk about it.
  2. The train directions thing. Same as in the textbook, you are at a station and you have to say how to get to another station.
  3. Plans for today (after the lesson) and tomorrow.
  4. Pretend that you are a doctor and the teacher is the patient. And it took me a while to realise I had to start the conversation... This was the giving advice part.

The order was, as far as I could tell, me, my friend, the youngest girl, then the other lady. The good thing about going first is that you don't have to context switch since it's right after the listening test.


The youngest girl in the class who wasn't here for the last lesson of the previous term asked after the test if our class only has 4 students. (She finished early too, which only added to my stress. Then my friend finished. Before the class ended.)

The teacher confirmed that the other 2 students both transfererd to the Wednesday class, but then she said that next week we would have a new student and should prepare an introduction. (I think... it is sort of serious, so I should have something to say. Lol.)

Then she also mentioned that she made some corrections to the notes and will send it to us (next week?), so yay for getting the original so I can print them in colour.... oh wait, I just received a notification for a parcel, so maybe she's resending them as physical copies.

Lesson 51 (Beginner 3B Lesson 3): Test 3 Revision

Today's lesson was a revision lesson, so there is nothing really new and this will be a relatively short post.

Here's what we did:

  1. Went through the revision handout page 1 (vocab)
  2. Did Quizlet Live first in pairs (2 vs 2) and then individually. Chapters 10 and 11 were in pairs and 12 was individually. For each chapter, it's 3 times, first 2 is English and you select the Korean, the last one is definition, from English you select the Korean.
  3. Went through revision handout page 2 (grammar)
  4. Went through the revision worksheet that was last week's homework together
  5. (Last 10 minutes or so) Oral practice with the teacher asking questions and us answering.

This was different from the last time, where we did not have a full lesson for revision. I recall the Quizlet was practising the sentence cards for each chapter. The revision worksheet was also homework for the week before the test. This week there's now no homework, and I would guess next week there isn't either.

I only submitted my homework yesterday night, which was the revision sheet and the writing. The writing was why I delayed, because I really had nothing to write. I asked the other girl (the youngest in the class) and she said she did this revision sheet homework but not the writing, and so it's not submitted. I'm not sure if the others submitted then, I don't see the other lady not submitting the homework. Maybe the teacher won't mark the 3 pages. I had 2 mistakes in it from the first section.

I've been doing Quizlet revision every day for the past 2 weeks, about 15 min/day. For this last week I'd set aside maybe 25 min/day for revision which will include listening to audio and also more speaking. For oral there's 3 things in particular I should prepare for, given what happened in the last 10 minutes:

  1. Giving advice
  2. Future tense + plans
  3. Subway directions


Korean English Notes
์—ฐ๋ง end of the year
๊ฑด๋„ˆ๋‹ค to cross (a street, river, ridge, etc.)

Lesson 50 (Beginner 3B Lesson 2): End Chapter 13

Wow, lesson 50. Did I think I'd make it this far? In a way, yes, because I was expecting to continue lessons until I was at the intermediate stage, which would take at least 2 years, so I'm bound to have more than 50. It's not exactly a no either but I'm wondering how long I will be able to do this without motivation, since the "shiny new thing" that this was is no longer shiny or new. In fact, this last week, I've been (once again) driven to try to learn Japanese again... and I'm actually entertaining the thought.

But that's a topic for another time, and that happened after another lesson that I don't record here (not to do with languages) since it's mostly a mess that I don't think I can tidy up in a nice form.

Today's class had 3 of us, since the total enrolment is 4. My friend didn't attend. The teacher said that he's said he was busy. I wonder if he would ask me about the homework like the last time, when I messaged him since I couldn't join the class...

The teacher started the class with asking us some questions which wasn't too bad, fortunately. Today was much better than last week. The words came easier for sure.

The teacher also mentioned the homework, which had a question about where a bus was going with a picture of... well, I called it a triangle when googling to find it out, and I thought it was some kind of tourist attraction:

SNU Gate

None of us knew since we'd not seen it in the textbook (we covered the pages it appeared in today).

It's the gate to SNU (which I found out after googling, like I said, so I did get it correct in the homework).

The gate writes the various syllables of the name of the university. It's called ์ƒค gate because it looks like that. The big triangle looks like ใ…… (or rather the triangle is meant to be ใ……), which comes from ์„œ์šธ (Seoul). Then ๊ตญ๋ฆฝ (National) and ๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต (University) contribute their first consonants ใ„ฑ and ใ„ท to give you the thing at the side.

Anyway, the test is confirmed to be the week after next. Next week is a revision lesson. At least that is a relief since there's a full revision lesson, unlike the last time when it felt like the test sneaked up on us since we finished the chapter and did the revision in the same lesson... Regardless, since last week I've added Quizlet to my daily revision, so it's an added dose of vocab learning. I'd have to do more for speaking and listening though.

We only touched the textbook today, oddly enough. There's actually one more page in the handout but I think the teacher forgot. It's not a big deal and I filled it in myself, it was related to the last grammar point. We did the exercises in the textbook, which were speaking and listening, as well as reading. With fewer students, I'm more kept on my toes since I have to be ready to read. (We usually take turns and with fewer students that means my turn comes around faster.)

Listening and Speaking

Since this came up in this section (p. 119) I'll put it here, though normally this doesn't have its own section in my posts as there's nothing to write. In fact, the content here kind of falls into both "pronunciation" and "culture note", which is why I've included it.

It is about how to read bus numbers. Bus numbers up to 3 digits have to be read in full. You can only read individual digits if there are 4 or more digits.


  1. 1๋ฒˆ ๋ฒ„์Šค [์ผ ๋ฒˆ]
  2. 55๋ฒˆ ๋ฒ„์Šค [์˜ค์‹ญ์˜ค ๋ฒˆ]
  3. 706๋ฒˆ [์น ๋ฑ…๋‰ต ๋ฒˆ]
  4. 5513๋ฒˆ [์˜ค์˜ค์ผ์‚ผ ๋ฒˆ]

Related to this, is that in Seoul, there are buses of 4 different colours, and apparently:

  1. Blue: These buses go downtown
  2. Green: These buses go to a nearby region
  3. Yellow: These buses travel within a small area, sometimes a loop
  4. Red: These buses go to other cities

The bus numbers indicate the region that the buses serve. Apparently, the first number is the starting region, and the second number is the ending region. For bus 5513, which serves Seoul National University, it starts and ends in region 5, where the university is located.

Note: None of the above have been separately fact-checked by me, it's based on the notes I took in class.

Culture Note

The culture note is about the public transport in Korea the use of a transportation card. It's convenient in that it can not only be used for the bus and the subway, but also for taxis (which have a sign ์นด๋“œํƒ์‹œ, literally "card taxi").

On top of that, the fare is cheap. The textbook says that if you transfer from subway to bus or vice versa within 30 minutes, you get a discount on the fare.

The teacher said something along the lines of if the travel distance is within 10km you won't be charged extra, for up to 5 transfers (if I did not misunderstand).

If you tap the card and it's a transfer, the machine will say ํ™˜์Šน์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. Otherwise it doesn't say anything.


The pronunciation topic has to do with station names, and how you pronounce the '์—ญ' (station) that comes after the station names.

  1. When the name of the station has no batchim (final consonant), '์—ญ' just pronounced as [์—ญ]
  2. When the name of a station ends with the final consonant 'ใ„น', '์—ญ' is pronounced as [๋ ฅ].
  3. When the name of the station ends with any other final consonant, '์—ญ' is prounounced as [๋…].


  1. ํ™๋Œ€์—ญ [ํ™๋Œ€์—ญ]
  2. ๊ณ ์†ํ„ฐ๋ฏธ๋„์—ญ [๊ณ ์†ํ„ฐ๋ฏธ๋„๋ ฅ] - Note, it is not [๋„ˆ๋ ฅ] but [๋„๋ ฅ].
  3. ์‹ ๋„๋ฆผ์—ญ [์‹ ๋„๋ฆผ๋…]


Korean English Notes
์–ผ๋งˆ ์ „ not long ago
๊ตฌ๊ธ‰์ฐจ ambulance Sino-Korean word from ๆ•‘ๆ€ฅ่ปŠ (โ€œambulanceโ€)

Lesson 49 (Beginner 3B Lesson 1): Wake-Up Call

My sense that my grasp of the language was slipping was true, though I'd ignored it for longer than I'd like to admit.

We did the Quizlet this lesson and boy, oh, boy, it was fantastic in showing me all the gaps in my knowledge. The problem is due to the way I added all the new Memrise-imported decks straight into my main "Everything" deck. That ended up with those cards being prioritised over the Korean cards that I had added, usually in a subdeck when I'm doing that chapter, before being merged to the parent deck once that chapter is over (and all the words have been learnt).

I've since fixed/temporarily solved the problem by creating another parent deck and putting the old "Everything" deck under that, and making sure the Korean deck for the chapter is before that one. I've started also revising with Quizlet as I think the next test is as near as 2 weeks away.

This is probably the second or third wake-up call. I guess I am bound to have one before every test at the least.


3. V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ๋‹ค

This is used to indicate when the subject of a sentences does something or offers a service to someone else.

์ฃผ๋‹ค by itself means "to give", so it's as though someone is giving you something by completing a certain action.

Conjugation-wise, conjugate to the informal polite, drop the polite ์š”, and then attach the appropriate conjugated form of ์ฃผ๋‹ค.

Most of the examples that we saw are with ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” as you are requesting a favour from someone.


  1. ์‚ฌ์ง„ ์ข€ ์ฐ์–ด ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. = Please take a photo for me.
  2. ๋„์™€์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. = Help me.
    • This is verb special, in that there is no space between the verb and ์ฃผ๋‹ค.
  3. ์š”์ฆ˜ ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์ค‘๊ตญ์–ด๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€๋ฅด์ณ ์ค˜์š”. = These days Nana is teaching me Chinese. (Present informal polite)
  4. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์–ด ์คฌ์–ด์š”. Mother read the book to me. (Past informal polite)

4. N(์œผ)๋กœ + ๊ฐ€๋‹ค/์˜ค๋‹ค

This is used to indicate the direction of movement. It is translated as "to" or "towards" and is used with ๊ฐ€๋‹ค or ์˜ค๋‹ค (to go and to come respectively).

You add ๋กœ if there is no Batchim (or if the Batchim is ใ„น) and ์œผ๋กœ whenever there is Batchim.

(If I'm not mistaken, this ใ„น rule existed for some of the other grammars that we've learned, but those were attaching after verbs, not nouns, and there aren't many verbs we've seen that end with ใ„น, which is probably why this is the first time this is highlighted.)

You can attach it to directions and places.


  • ์ด์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ (this way)
  • ์™ผ์ชฝ์˜ค๋กœ (to the left)
  • 1์ธต์˜ค๋กœ (to the 1st floor)
  • ์œ„๋กœ (up)
  • ๊ต์‹ค๋กœ (towards the classroom)

Then what is the difference between N(์œผ)๋กœ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค and N์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค?

The former has a focus on the direction, while the latter focuses on the destination. While you can use places with both expressions, you cannot use a direction with N์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค in most cases because it is not the final destination:

  • ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”. (O)
  • ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ์— ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”. (X) - Because the right side is not the final destination.


Korean English Notes
์ผœ๋‹ค to switch on; to turn on e.g. electric appliances such as air conditioner, TV, radio, and lights
๋„๋‹ค to switch off; to turn off
์ดˆ๋Œ€์žฅ invitation card
์ดˆ๋Œ€ invitation
์™ผ์ชฝ left side
์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ right side
1์ธต 1st floor [์ผ์ธต]
์ง€ํ•˜1์ธต Basement 1
ํƒ์‹œ ๊ธฐ์‚ฌ taxi driver

Lesson 48 (Beginner 3A Lesson 8): I planned to write this post

The class today had only 3 of us students. The student with the same Korean name as the other Korean teacher, my friend, and I. She was late, so when the lesson started it was just my friend and I. At the end of the class, the teacher said that the other newer student will be tranferring to the Wednesday class, and that this student also can't attend every Saturday, so I think she's transferring to another class. I am not sure but the way the teacher said goodbye makes me think that the class is taught by another teacher, since our teacher said that she might see this student in the Wednesday or Saturday classes if she does make-up class. So from next week, the class will be back to 4 of us that were from the previous teacher's class.

We continued with Chapter 13 vocabulary, and then did the first 2 grammar points. Everything was from the handout; we did not touch the textbook today.


1. V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to indicate intention, desire, or a plan to do a certain action. The teacher said that in higher levels, we would continue to see more of ๋ ค๊ณ , and every time we see it, it will be used to indicate some sort of intention or plan.

This does have a past tense, you could say ... ๋ ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ์–ด์š” to indicate that you had planned to do something in the past. Though given this construct, it's likely that you will follow up with something along the lines of "but I was too busy" (and so I did not).

To conjugate, nothing new. You take the basic form as with the other ์œผ verbs, such as -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” and -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. (As a reminder, only if you see ์•„/์–ด then do you not take the basic form.)

And as with anything with the optional thing in brackets, you know that you need to check for batchim. If there is batchim, that's when you add the optional part. If there isn't, then you don't have to add it.


  1. ํ•˜๊ต์— ๊ฐ€๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”. (I plan to go to school.)
  2. ์ง‘์—์„œ ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์œผ๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”. (I plan to eat at home.)
  3. ์–ด์ œ ์ˆ˜์˜ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ์–ด์š”. (I planned to go swimming yesterday.)

The difference between this and the future tense V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” is that the future tense is used generically to express a future event.

On the other hand, V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค has more emphasis on the intent.

Notably, you can use V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค with the past tense as demonstrated, because you can used it to talk of your intentions in the past. However, it is impossible to use the future tense with past events.

2. N์—์„œ N๊นŒ์ง€

These look familiar, don't they?

N์—์„œ was seen all the way back in Lesson 13 and was used to indicate where an actiion was taking place.

We saw ๊นŒ์ง€ used with time, and it appeared together with ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ back in Lesson 39.

Here, we see another (but related) use for both of these:

  1. ์—์„œ is used to specify a starting point (location) for physical movement.
  2. ๊นŒ์ง€ is used to specify an ending point (location) for physical movement.

Again, like N๋ถ€ํ„ฐ N๊นŒ์ง€ with time, it is possible to use them on their own, though they frequently are used together.


  1. ์ง‘์—์„œ ํ•™๊ต๊นŒ์ง€ ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์›Œ์š”. (It is near from my house to the school.)
  2. ๊ณต์›์—์„œ ๋ณ‘์›๊นŒ์ง€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๊ฐ€์š”? (How do you get from the park to the hospital?)
  3. ์–ด๋Š ๋‚˜๋ผ์—์„œ ์™”์–ด์š”? (Which country do you come from?)
  4. ์ˆ˜์˜์žฅ๊นŒ์ง€ (์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด) ์–ผ์•„๋‹ˆ ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”? (How far is it to the swimming pool?)

Important to take note that with time, you have to use ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ and not ์—์„œ. If I had a pitfalls/things to watch out for section this would go in it.


Korean English Notes
์—ญ station
์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ [์ •๋‰ด์žฅ] stop, stand ๋ฒ„์Šค ์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ = bus stop; ํƒ์‹œ ์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ = taxi stand
์–ผ๋งˆ๋‚˜ how long
(์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด) ๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to take (time) 5๋ถ„(์ด) ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”. = to take 5 minutes (์˜ค ๋ถ„); 1์‹œ๊ฐ„ ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”. = to take 1 hour. (ํ•œ ์‹œ๊ฐ„)
๋ฉ€๋‹ค to be far
๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค to be near
์•Œ์•„๋ณด๋‹ค to look into; to find out; to check (e.g. price) literally, to know + to see combined.
๋‹ซ๋‹ค to close e.g. a door
์—ด๋‹ค to open
๋•๋‹ค to help ๋„์™€์š” is the informal present tense, it's irregular. I've seen it before in Duolingo.
ํŽธ๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค [ํŽผ๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค] to be convenient
๋ถˆํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be inconvenient
์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to use ไฝฟ็”จ (as with all Hanja, to change into a verb, requires ํ•˜๋‹ค). The native Korean term is ์“ฐ๋‹ค (yes, same as "to write").
์„ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to stop (something) to stop something moving, such as a car. You would use this to tell the taxi to stop so you can alight.
์‹ ํ˜ธ๋“ฑ traffic light ไฟกๅท (signal) + ็ฏ (lamp)
์š”๊ธˆ fare ๆ–™้‡‘
์น ํŒ blackboard/whiteboard Same word for both.
๊นŽ๋‹ค to discount Back in Chapter 5, we learnt the phrase ๊นŽ์•„ ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” which means "Please give me a discount" and which my teacher at the time said that she would never use in real life. (I think because she thinks it's quite a daring thing, I guess.)
N ์•ˆ์— within, in 10๋ถ„ ์•ˆ์— = within 10 minutes; ์ง‘ ์•ˆ์— = in the house
N ๊ทผ์ฒ˜ near + N e.g. ์ง‘ ๊ทผ์ฒ˜. The difference between this and ๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค is that this one requires a noun (place), while the other doesn't need a place and can be used to end a sentence. The teacher said this one is similar to Chinese ้™„่ฟ‘ but the other one is more like ๏ผˆๅพˆ๏ผ‰่ฟ‘. (She said ๅพˆ่ฟ‘ but I guess it's more just ่ฟ‘ because... well, her Chinese isn't that great - not that mine is anything amazing - and ๅพˆ means "very".)

Lesson 47 (Beginner 3A Lesson 7): End Chapter 12

I received the notes for chapters 13-15, including a revision sheet for the test which will be after chapter 13, and the answer sheet for the test. The next test is from chapters 9-13. Given that typically it's about 3 weeks to complete a chapter, I should expect the test in about a month. Time really flies, doesn't it?

Today's lesson was mostly on finishing up chapter 12 in the textbook, since in the last lesson we'd already covered the grammar in the handout. So we did the speaking, listening, and reading exercises, as well as the culture note and pronunciation topic which I will cover since those are new.

The student who used to sit in the dark wasn't here again. I really should take note of how often they skip. I really wonder how they can manage because even though I'm going for class and doing some (albeit minimal) revision on Anki I get lost, like at the start of the lesson when the questions being asked are freestyle questions.

For the last 10 minutes, we started with the vocabulary for chapter 13, which is on transportation.

This post is written before I do my homework (unlike the usual) because this week's homework involves writing (no worksheet) and also giving a call to the teacher to practise oral. :/ (It's a defined exercise but still... making phone calls to other people make me nervous. Doubly so if it's to an authority figure like a teacher. Triply so if it's in a foreign language.)


I'm making a note here that phone numbers are hard.

This is probably more of a culture note, but for 1 and 2 in phone numbers, some Koreans may opt to use the native numbers (though that is strictly not correct) because it makes it much clearer. For the Sino-Korean numbers, 1 (์ผ) and 2 (์ด) sound much too similar that it can also be a challenge for native speakers to differentiate. By contrast, ํ•˜๋‚˜ and ๋‘˜ are very distinct.

Culture Note

The culture note was about emergency numbers in Korea. Or more specifically, the numbers to call if some sort of incident happens.

If a burglar broke in, or if there's a car accident, you should call the police at 112.

If a fire broke out, or your friend is really sick, then you should call 119 for the fire service or the ambulance.

The teacher mentioned that there are other numbers such as 111, 114, and 120.

She said 111 is for reporting suspected North Korean spies (if I understood correctly). Like, if you had a colleague that you suspected was a North Korean spy or something, you'd call that.

114 is a phone service, used more in the past when there wasn't Internet available everywhere. If you wanted to know the number of say a particular eatery, you would call them to ask what the number of the eatery is and they would tell you.

I'm not sure what 120 is for, the teacher didn't mention in class. A quick search gave this site which says:

Seoul Dasan Call Centre: Information related to services provided by the City of Seoul

Sounds like 114? I have no idea what's the difference, is this 120 something specific to Seoul?


The pronunciation topic for the chapter was on the prounciation for ๋ชป, which was also discussed last week.

It mentions 3 rules:

  1. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ„ฑ,ใ„ท,ใ…‚,ใ……,ใ…ˆ โ†’ [๋ชฏ] + [ใ„ฒ], [ใ„ธ], [ใ…ƒ], [ใ…†], [ใ…‰]. (That is, with single consonants with a double consonant counterpart, the sound is of the double consonant)
  2. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ„ด,ใ… โ†’ [๋ชฌ] + [ใ„ด],[ใ…]. (We covered this last week, where it becomes [๋ชฌ].)
  3. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ…Ž โ†’ [๋ชจ] + [ใ…Œ] (Nothing new here, this was covered in chapter 11, see Lesson 44 where the pronunciation of ใ…Ž was mentioned.)

Last week, we mentioned another rule with ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ…‡ but here because ๋ชป is simply taken to be pronounced as [๋ชฏ] as a premise, it's not mentioned.


Korean English Notes
๋ฒ„์Šค bus
๊ณ ์†๋ฒ„์Šค express bus ๊ณ ์† = high speed (้ซ˜้€Ÿ)
์ง€ํ•˜์ฒ  subway ๅœฐไธ‹้“, literally "underground metal (iron)"
๊ธฐ์ฐจ train ๆฑฝ่ฝฆ, from the old steam trains (ๆฑฝ = steam, vapour, gas). But this is funny because in Chinese today, ๆฑฝ่ฝฆ means "car".
ํƒ์‹œ taxi
๋น„ํ–‰๊ธฐ airplane ้ฃž่กŒๆœบ
๋ฐฐ ship Reminder that it also means "stomach" and "pear".
์ž์ „๊ฑฐ bicycle
์˜คํ† ๋ฐ”์ด motorbike auto bike
๊ณตํ•ญ airport
N์„/๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to take/ride N where N is a means of transport
N์—์„œ ๋‚ด๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to get off at N where N is a station
N(์œผ)๋กœ ๊ฐˆ์•„ํƒ€๋‹ค to transfer to N where N is e.g. another (subway) line. 2ํ˜ธ์„ ์—์„œ 3ํ˜ธ์„ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐˆ์•„ํƒ€์š”. = I transfer from line 2 to line 3.
๊ฐˆ๋‹ค to replace
๊ฑธ์–ด(์„œ) ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go on foot can also be used with ์˜ค๋‹ค

Lesson 46 (Beginner 3A Lesson 6): I was late because I was unable to join the Zoom meeting

I was almost 10 minutes late to the lesson because of, basically, technical difficulties. For some reason, the password for the Zoom meeting was "wrong". It kept telling me I typed the wrong password.

Initially I thought I'd remembered it wrong. Then I thought it was the wrong keyboard (since I use Colemak, but switch to the Korean one to type in my Korean name, though usually it switches back).

But after trying so many times, I really suspect something went wrong somewhere. I not only used the laptop's keyboard, but also my external keyboard, and I even resorted to copy and paste and still it didn't work.

Eventually I resorted to using another computer. This is the older one that I have which, well, near the end almost ran out of battery, so I had to charge it, which ended up being really slow, and even after I closed pretty much all other apps. :/

My friend didn't join the lesson, so intially I messaged him to say that I couldn't get on, but he said he wasn't joining today. I was wondering if it was just me, and turns out it was. But they were just going through the first speaking dialogue in the textbook.

The rest of the lesson was finishing up the handout with the 2 grammar points, and I noticed that the teacher rotated us for all the different breakout sessions.

Also, I got the invoice for the next term today after the lesson.


3. ๋ชป V

This is used to express that the subject of the sentence is unable to perform the verb. It is a form of negation.

The grammar itself is very simple, and we saw this somewhat in Lesson 35, with N์„/๋ฅผ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค. However, that was specifically for ํ•˜๋‹ค verbs. The teacher mentioned in brief the use of ์ž˜ with other verbs back then, too, I remember it was ์น˜๋‹ค.

The idea is that when you say you cannot do something, then you use ๋ชป. For this reason, ๋ชป can only be used with verbs. The other negation ์•ˆ can be used with both verbs and adjectives because it negates an action or a state.

When would you use ๋ชป or ์•ˆ?

Say you have a question such as: ๋‚ด์ผ ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐ€์š”? (Are you going to school tomorrow?)

If you answer: ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, ๋ชป ๊ฐ€์š”. ๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (No, I cannot go. I caught a cold.)

But if you could also say: ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, ์•ˆ ๊ฐ€์š”. ์ˆ˜์—…์ด ์—†์–ด์š”. (No, I am not going. I do not have class.)

Notice the difference. In the second, you would not use ๋ชป because it's not about your inability to go.

A small note about this, is that if the teacher asks you if you did your homework, you should use ๋ชป and not ์•ˆ. During the class, the teacher said if we used ์•ˆ she will be very hurt, and basically the reason for that is when you use ์•ˆ, it's as though you intentionally did not do the homework. I found the explanation when I re-read this article (I first read it after Lesson 35).


Now, the tricky part with this is the pronunciation.

  1. ๋ชป + ใ„ด, ใ…: [๋ชฌ]. Example: ๋ชป ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š” [๋ชฌ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”], ๋ชป ๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค [๋ชฌ ๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค]
  2. ๋ชป + ใ…‡: [๋ชจใ„ท]. Example: ๋ชป ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์š” [๋ชจ๋””๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜์š”]. (Think of ๋ง›์—†๋‹ค, it's [๋งˆ๋ฅ๋”ฐ])

For the second one, it's when two different words are combined that you get the [ใ„ท] sound. For example with ์˜ท์ด (์˜ท + particle), this is pronounced as [์˜ค์‹œ]. The teacher also answered my previous unspoken question I have regarding why ๋ง›์žˆ๋‹ค is [๋งˆ์‹ฃ๋”ฐ]. Originally, ๋ง›์žˆ๋‹ค was pronounced as [๋งˆ๋”›๋”ฐ], but it's become so common that they stick the two together, and it has the [ใ……] sound instead.

4. A/V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ

This is used to express cause and effect.

With the above construction, the cause goes before the -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ, while the result comes after. Otherwise, you will invert the cause and effect. Basically, the -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ sticks to the cause, so if you want to mention the effect first, and put the cause after, you must also move -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ together with the cause.

This is the grammar behind the greeting phrase "Nice to meet you": ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ ๋ฐ˜๊ฐ‘์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‚˜. (Literally, I meet you so I'm glad.)

By this point it isn't hard to figure out how to conjugate it, it's just the same as -์•„์š”/์–ด์š”/ํ•ด์š” but you replace ์š” with ์„œ. (Honestly my problem now is remembering which grammar requires the basic form and which ones require me to conjugate.)


  • ๋งŽ๋‹ค: ๋งŽ์•„์„œ
  • ๋จน๋‹ค: ๋จน์–ด์„œ
  • ์ข‹์•„ํ•˜๋‹ค: ์ข‹์•„์„œ

Just two things to take note of:

  1. The tense is only expressed in the final clause (like ๊ณ ). You will never have ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์„œ (X). Even if the cause is in the past, you will not have that.
  2. -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ cannot be used with imperative or propositive forms, such as -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” and -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. If you are trying to express a reason for a suggestion (e.g. please eat this because it's delicious), it utilises another grammar, not this.

4.5 N(์ด)๋ผ์„œ

This is the noun form, when you are giving a reason that is a noun. It's not in the textbook at this point, but will be covered later. It was included in the handout, so I'll include it too.

Same as before, you add the ์ด if the noun has batchim, otherwise leave it out.


  1. ์ผ์š”์ผ์ด๋ผ์„œ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์‰ฌ์–ด์š”. (It's Sunday so I rest at home.)
  2. ์•ฝ์† ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ๋‘ ์‹œ๋ผ์„œ ์ง€๊ธˆ ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (The appointment is at 2pm so I have to go now.)


Not many new words today as well.

Korean English Notes
๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go out, to leave
์†Œํ’ picnic
๊ธฐ์–ต memory Sino-Korean word from ่จ˜ๆ†ถ (่ฎฐๅฟ†), from ่จ˜ (โ€œrecordingโ€) + ๆ†ถ (โ€œthinkingโ€). ๊ธฐ์–ต ์•ˆ ๋‚˜์š”. = I don't remember.


Well, I was indeed late, and one of the grammar points was about giving a reason for something. And the other was about inability to do something, so it's kind of a stretch, but I guess it works?

Lesson 45 (Beginner 3A Lesson 5): Wasn't I writing this post?

We started the lesson with going through the different responses that we had to do for the homework, which was giving advice based on one of 4 scenarios. Turns out that I was overthinking because the other students submitted pretty short answers. Mine wasn't very long either, but had a few more sentences.

Then we revised the vocab for Chapter 12. The teacher had a Zoom virtual background today, and though she was at the school (she turned off the background later when we did the revision with the physical cards), she only used 1 computer to connect to the meeting.

We also covered the first 2 grammar points in the handout for Chapter 12, and in the textbook. The only breakout session was to complete 4 questions in the handout that had to do with the second grammar point. 2 of the students couldn't make it, so it was just 4 students, all from the previous class. (It's the 2 newer students that were unable to join today.)


1. A/V-์ง€์š”, N(์ด)์ง€์š”

This is used when a speaker wants to confirm something that they already know. In English, you would translate it as "right", or "isn't it", etc. (I just cannot help but think of the German oder.)

For example:

  • It's raining, right? = ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • The food was good, wasn't it? = ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€์š”?
  • You will go to school tomorrow, right? = ๋‚ด์ผ ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์ง€์š”?

In spoken Korean, when it's said fast, you usually will not hear [์ง€์š”], but [์ฃ ].

From the examples, you can see that all that is needed is to add the basic form of the adjective or the verb in the present tense.

For the past or future tense, you conjugate the verb as per normal, but instead of ์–ด์š” (past) or ์˜ˆ์š” (future), you replace it with ์ง€์š”.

Note that this ์ง€์š” can only be used in the question, similar to (์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”? If someone asked, you have to reply with with the indicative form:

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์™€์š”.

Now, what happens if you had already ended the sentence? Say you wanted to ask for a confirmation of opinion about the food, but instead of ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์ง€์š”? you had already said ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์–ด์š”.

How do you then turn it into a question? You add ๊ทธ๋ ‡์ง€์š”? behind. When spoken, you may simply hear ๊ทธ์ตธ? (As we saw last lesson, ใ…Ž + ใ…ˆ will make a ใ…Š sound.)

By the way, it intially confused me at first, but I thought whatever is said by the original speaker asking had to be true. That is, the answer can only be ๋„ค. But it's possible for it to be ์•„๋‹ˆ์š” and then the listener provides a correction.

So far the examples were for adjectives and verbs, so what about nouns? It's essentially the same, but here you have to look out for the batchim (which didn't matter for the adjectives and verbs).

If the noun ends in a syllable with batchim, you need to add ์ด before ์ง€์š”. Otherwise, you do not.

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์ค‘๊ตญ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด์ง€์š”? (Isn't Nana Chinese?)
  • ์ค„์ด์•™ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ˆ˜์ง€์š”? (Julian is a singer, right?)

Similarly, if it's in the past tense:

  • ๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์ฝ” ์”จ๋Š” ํ•™์ƒ์ด์—ˆ์ง€์š”? (Mariko was a student, wasn't she?)
  • ์ƒค์˜ค๋ฐ ์”จ๋Š” ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜์˜€์ง€์š”? (Wasn't Xiao Ming an athlete?)

This follows from the past tense form of ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”. I've not covered it in a lesson post, but it's described in this post which included stuff I learnt/discovered before the last test.

The teacher did summarise it in class today. What was interesting is that for ์ด์—์š”, she highlighted that the ์ด์–ด (minus the last stroke in ์—) is present in ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”, while for ์˜ˆ์š”, the same 2 (horizontal) lines are in ์˜€์–ด์š”.

2. V-๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”

This is the present progressive form, basically the to be + -ing form in English, such as "I am eating".

A sentence like ์ €๋Š” ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์–ด์š” can have 3 meanings:

  1. I eat rice. (a general statement)
  2. I am eating rice. (something I am doing right now)
  3. I am going to eat rice. (something I am going to do in the near future)

So this form is used when you want to emphasise an action you are in the midst of doing. It can only be used for the second meaning above.

This is where I think English is just weird, after having learnt other languages. The point is that for the present tense form and progressive form, most languages do not actually differentiate between the 2 as much as English does. Or more precisely, usually in other languages the regular, present tense form is used much more frequently.

This is something that was mentioned in both my French and German classes. It's along the lines of (for French) je mange is used for both "I eat" and "I am eating". Similarly for German, with ich esse. (And yes, they also can indicate an action in the near future. Definitely for German, for French I'd probably use aller + V - the futur proche - but I think it's also valid to use the present tense form...)

French does also have a form for emphasising that you are in the midst of doing an action that I recall, which is the en train de faire + V.

The point isn't that other languages apart from English do not have the distinction, but my sense now is even for Korean, you only use this form to differentiate when you are trying to emphasise, and so it's not as commonly used. But for English the -ing form is much more common, which makes it the exception.

There really is nothing to this, after seeing so many conjugations. You just have to put the basic form of the verb.


  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I am eating.)
  • ์ œ์ธ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Jane is studying.)

What's more interesting, but not all that surprising, is how you can make the past tense and honorific forms.


  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I was eating.)
  • ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”. (The teacher is waiting for the bus.)
  • ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ๋ผ๋””์˜ค๋ฅผ ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์…จ์–ด์š”. (Grandmother was listening to the radio.)

Basically, it's just conjugating ์ด๋‹ค, which we have seen before. See Lesson 36 for grammar for the honorific form.


Not many new words today.

Korean English Notes
์—ฐ์Šตํ•˜๋‹ค to practise
๋งˆ๋‹ค every You use ๋‚ด (๋‚ด์ผ, ๋‚ด์ฃผ...) for single syllable. You use ๋งˆ๋‹ค for words with more than one syllable: ์ฃผ๋ง๋งˆ๋‹ค, ํ† ์š”์ผ๋งˆ๋‹ค.
๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค to stop ๋น„๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ์ณค์–ด์š”. = It stopped raining.
๋ฐ”๋‹ท๊ฐ€ beach ๋ฐ”๋‹ค (ocean/sea) + ๊ฐ€ (side)
๊ณ ์น˜๋‹ค to fix Kind of coincidental that it's similar to ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค, this came up because I said I was fixing flashcards since we learnt the progressive form today (second grammar point). ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค came up because it was raining and the teacher was asking if it indeed was raining (the first grammar point).


It's based on the grammar points again. Maybe when I re-read all these posts in the future I will laugh at the titles I made up.

Lesson 44 (Beginner 3A Lesson 4): End Chapter 11

Note: I realised today that the footnote linking on Listed is broken after making an edit to Lesson 42. This seems to affect even older posts, so I don't think it's something that is only affecting new posts. Ah, well.

A delayed post, one student didn't attend. The one whose English name I still don't know, but whose Korean name is that of the previous teacher.

It's unfortunately been too long since the lesson for me to remember the contents. So this is with reference. We mostly completed the textbook speaking, listening, and even reading, and then started on vocab for Chapter 12.

For the writing which was homework, we had to decide which one to pick at the time when we touched on the reading. I picked one though I wasn't really that committed to anything. At the end of the lesson the teacher said she wanted all 4 of the advice column topics to be written. Since I had picked the same thing as another student, the teacher asked me and the other student who picked the same topic to basically scissors-paper-stone or its equivalent to decide who does the original topic and who does the unpicked topic. (Actually 2 pairs picked 2 of the same topics but she chose me and the other person who picked the topic on improving pronunciation.) So I forfeited but I think the other student misunderstood and was nice and said she could try the (unpicked) topic. I hope I cleared it up. Anyway, we were supposed to post this to KakaoTalk group chat and no one has done it yet. The teacher sent us a reminder this morning.

Culture Note

The culture note was on traditional home remedies for sickness. The textbook covers four:

  1. When you have any nose symptoms (e.g. running nose), then you should take a spring onion and put it on your nose.
  2. If your throat hurts, gargle with salt water.
  3. If you have a cough, you should grind radishes and drink the juice.
  4. If you have body aches due to a cold, you should massage behind your neck.

The teacher said she had never heard of the first one until she saw it in the textbook. The second is common; I know that one too. The teacher said she heard of the third one as well, but never tried it.

The discussion question was on home remedies for colds in our country. Someone mentioned Vicks, first someone said to put it in hot water and inhale it, and that reminded me of when the doctor said to do that with just hot water. Usually if I used Vicks it's more for a blocked nose? Anyway it's a kind of cream that has the cooling sensation after a while. It also has a strong medicinal smell.

The teacher heard of Vicks but she only knows of the candy, so intially I think she didn't realise that this Vicks cream is inedible, so that took some explanation. They do have a candy for sore throat too.

The teacher also asked about... basically, charcoal pills. I forgot how she said it but we all realised she meant charcoal pills. Those are for diarrhoea, but I never thought it was a kind of home remedy? Another student (the other new student who isn't new anymore, but comparatively) said you could take 100 Plus for diarrhoea. I've never heard of that one.


The pronunciation rules this chapter aren't anything new, they're something we've seen before, and have to do with the pronunciation of 'ใ…Ž'.

  1. If ใ…Ž is the final consonant, and the next syllable starts with ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…ˆ, ใ…‚, then you don't pronounce the ใ…Ž, and the next syllable's initial consonants are pronounced as their aspirated forms ใ…‹, ใ…Œ, ใ…Š, ใ….
    • ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ [์–ด๋– ์ผ€]
    • ์ข‹๋‹ค [์กฐํƒ€]
  2. If ใ…Ž is the initial consonant of a syllable that comes after a syllable that ends with ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, then the syllable is pronounced with ใ…‹, ใ…Œ, ใ… instead of ใ…Ž, and the batchim isn't pronounced with the preceding consonant.
    • ๋ฐฑํ™”์  [๋ฐฐ์ฝฐ์ ]
    • ๋ชปํ•ด์š” [๋ชจํƒœ์š”]

The important thing to note in the second rule is that "ending with ใ„ท" means any of the family of ใ„ท sounds, so as you see with ๋ชปํ•ด์š” [๋ชจํƒœ์š”].

The textbook doesn't actually include ใ…‚ in the first list, and doesn't include ใ…ˆ in the second. Since the teacher only mentioned ใ…‚, I didn't include ใ…ˆ in the second list above. I actually have a feeling that it should apply too... the teacher said that it applies to all consonants with the aspirated strong sound, though that was made at the start and it's ambiguous enough to apply only to the first rule. Regardless, when I stumble upon an example, then I'll (hopefully remember to) update this.


Korean English Notes
์กฐ์–ธ advice
์‹ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to fight ๋‚จ์ž ์นœ๊ตฌ์™€ ์‹ธ์› ์–ด์š”.
์™ธ๊ตญ foreign country
์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ phone number
ํœด๋Œ€ํฐ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ cellphone number ํ•ธ๋“œํฐ is common in spoken language.
๋ฌธ์ž text Not just text message, but text. Sino-Korean word from ๆ–‡ๅญ—.
๋ฌธ์ž๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›๋‹ค to receive a text message
๋ฌธ์ž๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to send a text message
์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›๋‹ค to answer the phone
์ „ํ™”(๋ฅผ) ํ•˜๋‹ค to phone to make a call or to talk on the phone
์‚ฌ๊ณ ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋‹ค an accident occurs Here, ๋‚˜๋‹ค means "to happen". In the last chapter, we learnt one of the other meanings, which is "to come out".
๋ถˆ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค a fire breaks out ๋ถˆ = fire
๋„๋‘‘์ด ๋“ค๋‹ค a burglar breaks in ๋“ค๋‹ค means "to enter". Its present tense polite form is the same as "to listen", which is ๋“ค์–ด์š”. If you heard a burglar, it would be ๋„๋‘‘์„ ๋“ค์–ด์š”. But if the burglar heard you, then it is the same as a burglar breaking in: ๋„๋‘‘์ด ๋“ค์–ด์š”.
๋Šฆ์ž  oversleeping ๋Šฆ์ž ์„ ์ž๋‹ค. Not to be confused with nap (๋‚ฎ์ง).
์‚ฌ๋ฌด์‹ค office
์žฅ์†Œ place
์—ฌํ–‰์‚ฌ travel agency
์ผ matter ์ผ is a word with many meanings, we already know it can mean "work" or "one" (the number). More generally it can refer to a matter. To ask "What's up?" you would say ๋ฌด์Šจ ์ผ์ด์—์š”? To say you have something on (without getting too specific) you can say ์ผ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”, but this can be mistaken as you have work. Typically, when using ์ผ to mean "matter" and not "work" you add ์ข€: ์ผ์ด ์ข€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I have something on.)
์กฐ๊ธˆ ์ „ a little while ago
์กฐ๊ธˆ ํ›„ after a little while
์•„๊นŒ a while ago
์ด๋”ฐ later
๋‹ค๋ฅธ (+ N) another other, different, etc. Examples: ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์š”์ผ, ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‹œ๊ฐ„, ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ... For something unspecified: ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ฑฐ
๊ทธ๋Ÿผ์š”. Sure.
์—ฌ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. Hello. (on the phone)
์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ๊ฐ€ ๋ช‡ ๋ฒˆ์ด์—์š”? / ์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋˜์„ธ์š”? What is your phone number? You use the second (honorific) version with a boss/senior.
์‹ค๋ก€์ง€๋งŒ ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ์„ธ์š”? Excuse me, but who's calling, please? Since you don't know who is calling, you would tend to err on the side of being more polite, and use the honorific form.
์ € ๋‚˜๋‚˜์˜ˆ์š”. This is Nana. Over the phone, you would not use the topic particle ์€/๋Š” to identify yourself.

Lesson 43 (Beginner 3A Lesson 3): I must only write this post

This lesson was a bit different. The teacher used her iPad instead of her laptop, because apparently the battery stopped charging that morning. She had used it for a physical in-person class in the morning (which also explains why she's now at the school every week), and then the message about the battery needing to be charged came up even though it was plugged in.

This meant that we had no breakout rooms, and there was no listening to the audio files. There was no interactive textbook stuff (I think it's some extra content for the textbook). There was a PDF of the textbook and also the handouts so those were still screen shared.

Today, I'm going to try to do free recall when typing out the first cut of this post for the grammar in an attempt to improve my learning on the topic. I've known this from probably the book Make It Stick, but since I'm reading Ultralearning now and it's a reminder, I should try to do more of this to aid my own learning.

I've already done the vocab in advance, so those are definitely not from memory. But in terms of learning vocab, I always have Anki.


3. N๋งŒ

This is used to indicate something unique, that is, the "only" thing. It can also be translated "just".

In terms of where it occupies a sentence grammatically, it can be anywhere that ๋„ can be. (For more on ๋„, see Lesson 27.)

Like ๋„, it replaces ์€/๋Š”, ์„/๋ฅผ and ๊ฐ€/์ด.1

It exists together with the other particles such as ์— and ์—์„œ, so instead of replacing them, you would have ์—๋งŒ or ์—์„œ๋งŒ.


  1. ์˜ค๋Š˜ ์•„์นจ๋งŒ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I only ate breakfast today. That is, I didn't eat any other meal.)
  2. ์ €๋งŒ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์šด๋™ํ•ด์š”. (Only I exercised at home. That is, out of everyone at home, only I exercised at home.)
  3. ์—ฌ์šฐ์›์ˆญ์ด๋Š” ๋งˆ๋‹ค๊ฐ€์Šค์นด๋ฅด์—๋งŒ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Lemurs are only found in Madagascar.)

4. V-์•„์•ผ/์–ด์•ผ/ํ•ด์•ผ ๋˜๋‹ค/ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to indicate when something must or has to be done. It can also indicate something should be done.

  • In the informal form, it is more common to use ๋˜๋‹ค, so you have ๋ผ์š”.
  • In the formal form, it is more common to use ํ•˜๋‹ค, so you have ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

As you can probably already tell from the form, you have to conjugate to the present tense form, attach ์•ผ, and then add ๋˜๋‹ค/ํ•˜๋‹ค.

For example, if you have:

  • ๋จน๋‹ค: It becomes ๋จน์–ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๋จน์–ด์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).
  • ๊ฐ€๋‹ค: It becomes ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๊ฐ€์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).
  • ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•˜๋‹ค: It becomes ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).

Examples (sentences):

  1. ๋ชธ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ์•ฝ์„ ๋จน์–ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (I am sick, so I need to eat medicine.)
  2. ๋‚ด์ผ ์‹œํ—˜์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๊ผญ ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (I have a test tomorrow, so I must study.)
    • ๊ผญ makes the necessity stronger, making it more definite.
  3. ์›”์š”์ผ์— ํšŒ์‚ฌ์— ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (On Monday, I have to go to work.)

In terms of revising for a test in future, I should revise with scenarios (e.g. the person is sick) and give advice for the scenarios (e.g. eat medicine and rest), because those are the most tricky. There were many of these in the textbook and also for the homework (workbook).


In class, we all had to come up with example sentences. In one, someone said: ์›”์š”์ผ์— ์ผํ•ด ์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (On monday, I have to work.)

When the teacher repeated, I noted that she also pronounced it as [์ผํ•ด] and not [์ด๋ž˜], as I'd have imagined.

For the longest time I thought ์ผํ•˜๋‹ค was just [์ผํ•˜๋‹ค] but more recently heard it as [์ด๋ผ๋‹ค]. It's not wrong for sure to pronounce the ใ…Ž, just a question of wanting to know what natives tend to say.

So with the current data I have, ์ผํ•˜๋‹ค seems like one of the those verbs where it's more... okay to pronounce the ใ…Ž.


Korean English Notes
์†๋‹˜ guest
๊ด€์‹ฌ interest ๅ…ณๅฟƒ. interest in a topic, ๊ด€์‹ฌ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”.
๋ฌธํ™” culture ๆ–‡ๅŒ–
์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๋‹ค to prepare ๅ‡†ๅค‡. ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๋‹ค = to prepare a present (for someone's birthday)
์žฅ์‹ decorations
์žฅ์‹ํ•˜๋‹ค to decorate e.g. the house, in preparation for a birthday party
๋‚ด๋…„ next year Take note not to use ๋‹ค์Œ with ๋…„. This is special, like how ๋‚ด์ผ is "tomorrow". However, you still need ์— as a particle for time, e.g. ๋‚ด๋…„์— ๊ฒฐํ˜ผํ•  ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”.
๋‚ดํ›„๋…„ the year after next Or you can say 2๋…„ ํ›„ (์ด ๋…„ ํ›„), which is literally "2 years later".
๊ฒฐํ˜ผํ•˜๋‹ค to get married ็ตๅฉš. ๊ฒฐํ˜ผ sounds more like [๊ฒจ๋ก ]... Not sure if it's [๊ฒจ๋กœ๋‚˜๋‹ค].
๋ฐ˜์ง€ ring
๊ฒฐํ˜ผ๋ฐ˜์ง€ wedding ring
๋นŒ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to rent
์›จ๋”ฉ๋“œ๋ ˆ์Šค wedding dress
ํ”„๋Ÿฌํฌ์ฆˆ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to propose
์ง luggage
์ง์„ ์‹ธ๋‹ค to pack luggage
๊ฐ€์ด๋“œ๋ณต travel guide book
๋ฆฌํฌํŠธ report
๋‚ด๋‹ค to submit e.g. a report

About the Title

It's based on the 2 grammar points for today, and also the fact that I was procrastinating to write this.

  1. The teacher called these the "particles without meaning" but I don't really understand why, because to me they have meaning in that they indicate the topic, object, or subject in a sentence. I guess maybe she meant that they are "meaningless" when translated into English. That is, that there isn't a word for them when translated, while for ์— and ์—์„œ, they might be translated as "at", "on", etc. โ†ฉ

Lesson 42 (Beginner 3A Lesson 2): Don't...

A belated post since I was caught up with thingr for the rest of Saturday. For this lesson we went through the first 2 grammar points in the handout (which also coincide with the first 2 grammar points in the textbook - and we also covered that).

We started with the vocabulary. Before the new vocab, we did a review of last week's vocab. We did it with Quizlet, just one at a time. At the time it was just 3 of us answering in sequence, because one student was not attending, another had not yet joined the call, and there was one more who was in the call, but the camera and mic were off.


Korean English Notes
๋ชธ body Used in spoken language
์‹ ์ฒด body More formal term than ๋ชธ
๊ธฐ์นจ์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to cough The teacher pointed out it's not ๊น€์น˜ (kimchi) - the ใ… is on the other syllable - which serves as a great way to remember this word for me.
๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to catch a cold Typically, you use the past tense form: ๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (I caught a cold.)
๋ชฉ์ด ์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to have a sore throat
๋‚˜๋‹ค to come out It has a few other meanings as well, but here they all have this meaning.
์ฝง๋ฌผ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a runny nose Pronunciation: [์ฝ˜๋ฌผ]. Literally means the nose water is coming out. (์ฝ” = nose; ๋ฌผ = water. ใ…… has no meaning and is just the "glue")
ํ”ผ blood
๋•€ sweat
๋ˆˆ๋ฌผ tears Apparently there is a BTS song about this? Or that uses these words (blood, sweat, tears). They can all be used with ๋‚˜๋‹ค.
์—ด์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a fever Literally means heat is coming out of the body. You can also say ์—ด์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค
ํ‘น ์‰ฌ๋‹ค to rest well (to get a good rest) The original meaning of ํ‘น is deep (e.g. when scooping ice cream)
๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค to smoke a cigarette ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค means to smoke; it has a negative connotation. Apart from this kind of smoke, it is also used to mean when someone cheats on their partner/spouse: ๋ฐ”๋žŒ์„ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค
๋งํ•˜๋‹ค to speak This is more one-way. ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋‹ค is more interactive, two-way communication.
๋ฌด๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to overdo
์œ ํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be prevalent/widespread ์œ ํ–‰ = Sino-Korean word from ๆต่กŒ (โ€œfashionโ€). Can be used to talk about colour, fashion, etc. Or Coronavirus: ์ฝ”๋กœ๋‚˜19๊ฐ€ ์œ ํ–‰์ด์—์š”.
๋‹คํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be fortunate
๋Šฆ๋‹ค to be late
์ˆ  alcoholic drink e.g. ์œ„์Šคํ‚ค (whiskey), ๋งฅ์ฃผ (beer), ์†Œ์ฃผ (soju), ์™€์ธ (wine)
๋”ฐ๋œปํ•œ ๋ฌผ warm water Will learn the grammar behind this next time.
์–ผ์Œ๋ฌผ ice water ์–ผ์Œ = ice
ํƒˆ๋ฝ omission 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ: Elimination, removal of ใ…ก
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค to be busy
๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค to be hungry
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to be painful
๋‚˜์˜๋‹ค to be bad
์˜ˆ์˜๋‹ค to be pretty
์“ฐ๋‹ค to write
๋‘๋ฆฌ์•ˆ durian
๋งˆ์Šคํฌ mask
๋›ฐ๋‹ค to run
์ฃผ์ฐจํ•˜๋‹ค to park (a vehicle)
์ฃผ์ฐจ์žฅ car park Sino-Korean word from ้ง่ปŠๅ ด
๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค to bring (an item)
๋ฐ๋ ค์˜ค๋‹ค to fetch; to bring (a person/an animal) Wiktionary says it means "to fetch". The teacher introduced this as "to bring" for people/animals after mentioning ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค is for things.
๊ณณ place Instead of saying ์—ฌ๊ธฐ, you can say ์ด ๊ณณ.


1. 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ

For verbs and adjective stems that end in 'ใ…ก', 'ใ…ก' is ommitted when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด.

The teacher said ํƒˆ๋ฝ means "elimination"; Wiktionary said it's "omission".

Basically, this is removal of 'ใ…ก' when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด, and adding ์•„์š”/์–ด์š” for present tense (or ์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” for past tense).


  1. ๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค (to be busy) becomes ๋ฐ”๋น ์š”
  2. ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค (to be hungry) becomes ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํŒŒ์š”
  3. ํฌ๋‹ค (to be big) becomes ์ปค์š”

The last one explains a lot. For ํฌ๋‹ค, some time after it was introduced in Chapter 8 (see Lesson 31), I realised it was conjugated to ์ปค์š” probably thanks to Duolingo. I didn't think too much about it at the time but added it to Anki to memorise. I thought it was an exception, rather than adhering to a rule.

Now the question is, when do you add ์•„ or ์–ด? Normally, when conjugating for the present/past tense informal polite form, you look at the vowel of the syllable before ๋‹ค, but here the vowel is always 'ใ…ก'.

Clearly, it's not looking at that syllable, or you would never have ์•„ (the condition is you need to have either ใ… or ใ…—).

Instead, you look at the syllable before the one that has the 'ใ…ก'. If the syllable before has ใ… or ใ…—, then it's ์•„, otherwise it's ์–ด. For ํฌ๋‹ค, there's no syllable before, so there's no ใ… or ใ…—, which is why you add ์–ด and it becomes ์ปค์š”.

Now, it's important to remember that this only applies to endings that have ์•„/์–ด. So you don't add it for other endings:

-์•„์š”/์–ด์š” -์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” -๊ณ  -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค ๋ฐ”๋น ์š” ๋ฐ”๋นด์–ด์š” ๋ฐ”์˜๊ณ  ๋ฐ”์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค ์•„ํŒŒ์š” ์•„ํŒ ์–ด์š” ์•„์˜๊ณ  ์•„์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์“ฐ๋‹ค ์จ์š” ์ผ์–ด์š” ์“ฐ๊ณ  ์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The handout had 6 verbs, so this is just a subset of them.

We filled this out as a group in breakout rooms (well, one pair and my group had 3 since one person was absent).

One thing I noticed is for the formal -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค, we always had ์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค because none of the verbs which have stem ending in 'ใ…ก' have batchim.

The teacher happened to pop into our breakout room, so I asked the teacher if there were any verbs that have batchim and whether the rule applies to it. The teacher said some things and the gist of it I could tell was no. Unfortunately, she replied mostly in Korean... and I couldn't really catch what it was and was just too awkward to clarify.1 (Edit 10 Sep: I just realised that there is such a verb this chapter: ๋Šฆ๋‹ค. I forgot about it until today when revising Anki, so there you go. Of course it could have been an exception to the rule, but it's probably not.)

Another subtle thing to note is that for past tense ์ง€๋งŒ, you do have to apply this rule. The reason is beause you are adding ์•˜/์—ˆ (and the rule is triggered by adding of ์•„/์–ด).

  • ์–ด์ œ๋Š” ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋นด์ง€๋งŒ ์˜ค๋Š˜์€ ์ข‹์•„์š”. (The weather was bad yesterday, but it is nice today.)

This rule is one that helps me a lot with regards to Duolingo... or it would have been helpful to know when I was doing Duolingo. (I've given up on Duolingo for Korean, mobile is too punishing with the limited lives, and desktop is simply just too hard... I've had "easy mode" for too long since mobile has a word bank, and I'm not trying from Lesson 1.)

It would also have been somewhat helpful for Memrise too, for some words in their (old) Korean course where they had both the dictionary forms and the present tense forms.

2. V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”

This is used to request or order the listener not to do something.

The formal polite form is V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค.

This formal form is a lot more familiar to me due to it's prevalence on Duolingo... so this would have been another useful rule to learn before I tried those Duolingo exercises, but it's all in the past now.

It's very easy to conjugate, you just remove the ๋‹ค, so take the verb stem and attach -์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š” to it.


  1. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์—์„œ ๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't smoke here.)
  2. ์ด์•„๊ธฐํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't talk here.)
  3. ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't watch this movie.)

Between close friends, you can drop the ์„ธ์š” (which are the honorific and politeness markers).

Apparently, if you watch K-dramas, you probably hear this phrase "ํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ" a lot, which can be translated as "Stop doing it".

The prohibition signs we had to write phrases for reminded me of a chapter in the French textbook (we used Alter Ego+) which also featured signs. I forgot which book (and obviously which chapter), but I think it was about the ways to say something was prohibited. I recall one of the ways started with something like Il est interdit de... and possibly Interdire ร ...

I have sense there was another verb but it escapes me right now. The only (unhelpful) thing that comes to mind is Vietato but that's Italian.


The title is of course a reference to the second grammar point. Initially, I thought of "Don't make me think of a title" because I really didn't want to come up with one. Then I wanted to shorten it, but "Don't Make Me Think" just reminds me of the usability book by Steve Krug. "Don't" seemed too curt, and "Don't make me..." sounds like a threat still, so it's the way it is now.

Titles are hard, like names are hard (even though this isn't CS).

  1. I would also just want to confess that there have been times I go to class and the teacher says things and it flies over my head but the other people seem to understand, so if this happens a lot more I have to really be careful. Heck, even for the last oral test, I bought time for the last question by pretending to think of an answer to the question about the number of people in my family when I was trying to parse the question. On reflection because of my horrible German listening comprehension made evident in my last 2 lessons, I realise I don't listen enough and don't have enough comprehensible input for both German and Korean. More of a problem for German since I'm at a higher level, but if I don't do anything about Korean, it will also become a problem. โ†ฉ

Lesson 41 (Beginner 3A Lesson 1): New Term, New Chapter

It's a new term but there's no one who left or joined. The teacher was in school today, so I wonder if she will be there from now on, since this breaks the pattern.

This lesson was on 15 August, which is also Korea's National Liberation Day. Since it's a public holiday that falls on a Saturday, the teacher asked us if we get Monday off when Saturday is a public holiday. We said that it depends on the company that you work for.

(I'm not sure if it's more of a converation starter than her not really knowing, because I'm sure she's been living here for years.)

Then she asked about if the public holiday falls on a Sunday. We said that yes, it will be a holiday. (Concidentally enough, the week before was Singapore's National Day - 9 August fell on a Sunday this year, and so Monday was a holiday.)

The teacher said that in Korea generally if the holiday falls on a Sunday, there is no extra rest day given on Monday, with the exception of 3 holidays:

  1. Lunar New Year (์„ค๋‚ )
  2. Mid-Autumn Festival/Korean Thanksgiving Day (์ถ”์„)
  3. Children's Day (์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋‚ ) - on 5 May

Children's Day isn't a public holiday for us, only for the students. But it is a public holiday in Korea for everyone. I think we had this discussion some time back about this.

So every year, she says that the Koreans will check the calendar and see if it's a "lucky" year in terms of the day of the week that the holidays fall on.

We finished up Chapter 10 in the textbook, and started with some vocab for Chapter 11 (only on the body parts, and not the sickness/symptoms-related words, so I won't be including those until we cover them next week even though I have the Quizlet deck with them in).


The grammar points were completed last week with the completion of the handout, but since we are covering some of them again as they appear in textbook, I wanted to note for V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ that the ์„œ is optional in spoken language.

Instead of:

  • ์ฟ ํ‚ค์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์„œ ์คฌ์–ด์š”. (I made cookies and gave them.)

You can also say:

  • ์ฟ ํ‚ค์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ์คฌ์–ด์š”. (I made cookies and gave them.)

Culture Note

The culture note in this chapter is about the opening hours of various institutions in Korea.

  1. Bank - Monday to Friday, 9am to 4pm. Closed on weekends. Most office workers who need to use the bank services will use their lunch hour, according to the teacher.
  2. Post office - Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm. Closed on weekends as well.
  3. Immigation office - Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm and half day on Saturday: 9am to 1pm

We didn't really have in-depth discussion about this, but the teacher noted that she also noticed that the banks here have different opening times depending on their location (e.g. whether they are standalone or in a shopping mall).


The pronunciation topic this time is that after the final consonants (๋ฐ›์นจ) ใ…‚ or ใ„ท, if the initial consonants of the next syllable are any of: ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, ใ……, ใ…ˆ, then they are pronounced as the double conosant versions: ใ„ฒ, ใ„ธ, ใ…ƒ, ใ…†, ใ…‰.

The first thing to remember is that the final consonant ใ„ท is the one with many possible "variants": ์•‹, ์•—, ์•š, ์•›, ์•, ์•Ÿ. (These were the 6 that the teacher listed, but I guess ์•˜ as well?)

The other thing is ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, ใ……, ใ…ˆ looks like a pretty long list, but it's really only those consonants that have a double consonant version, so it's not nearly as hard to remember. By now it's pretty intuitive which consonants can "double up" to make the double consonants.


  1. ๋ช‡ ์‹œ[๋ฉท์”จ]
  2. ๋ฐฅ๋„ [๋ฐฅ๋˜]
  3. ์‚ผ์‹ญ ๋ถ„[์‚ผ์‹ญ๋ฟ]

I have a feeling that we have sort of been told this for isolated cases before, but it's not been generalised into a rule.

I went to dig, and found something from Lesson 30... Only to realise that it's kind of different to this rule due to my mistake.

The textbook was consistent. While I wrote my own example from my understanding:

  • ๋งŒ๋‚ฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค: [๋งŒ๋‚˜์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]

The textbook's examples from back in Chapter 7 were (consistent with this pronunciation rule):

  • ์ถฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [์ถฅ์”€๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  • ์–ด๋–ป์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ [์–ด๋–ง์”€๋‹ˆ๊นŒ]

I think in that chapter there was more focus on how it's [์”€] instead of [์Šต] - that is, the /m/ sound - and so it wasn't something I paid much attention to. After all, I have to admit that I can't always tell the difference between ใ…… and ใ…†. It's very possible that while trying to copy down whatever the teacher wrote, I copied down the wrong thing (I have caught myself doing that many times before, when reviewing). Or it could have been my wrong interpretation of something she said.


Korean English Notes
๊ทธ๋ฆผ drawing
๊ทธ๋ฆผ์„ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to draw a drawing Like Chinese ็”ป็”ป, it's repeated. ็”ป by itself means drawing.
์ธ์‹ธ insider (slang) To refer to someone who is very active socially. Someone who is part of many social groups and has many friends.
์•„์‹ธ outsider (slang) Opposite of an "insider", someone who prefers to study alone for example if they are in university.
์ฟ ํ‚ค cookie
์ „ํ†ต tradition; traditional ไผ ็ปŸ
์ด๋ฉ”์ผ email
์‹ ์ฒด body Found this in the textbook, I needed it to Google for labelled images that I could add to Anki.
N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์•„ํŒŒ์š” N hurts That's a terrible translation and I'm sorry. Substitute N with any body part to say that it hurts (e.g. ๋ชฉ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” means your throat hurts, that is, you have a sort throat).
๋จธ๋ฆฌ head/hair Used to be that the original form for "hair" is ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์นด๋ฝ, but now just ๋จธ๋ฆฌ is used for both.
๋ˆˆ eye
๊ท€ ear
์ฝ” nose
์–ผ๊ตด face
๋ชฉ neck/throat
์ž… mouth
์ด tooth To show the teeth, you can't say ์ž…, so it's ์ด. (This is what the teacher said, it's a useful mnemonic device.)
์–ด๊นจ shoulder Sounds like "ok" (another mnemonic device of sorts)
ํŒ” arm Imagine there is an 8 on the arm sleeve (the picture we had in the notes was of a boy wearing a T-shirt and shorts)
๊ฐ€์Šด chest The chest area, includes the breast and heart, so you could say ๊ฐ€์Šด์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” when you are sad and have heartache.
๋“ฑ back Refers only to the upper back.
ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ waist Includes also the lower back. So if you have pain in your lower back due to sitting too long, you would not say ๋“ฑ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” but ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์•„ํŒŒ์š”.
๋ฐฐ stomach/belly
์† hand
๋‹ค๋ฆฌ leg Also can be used for table legs, and also means bridge
๋ฌด๋ฆŽ knee
๋ฐœ foot

Some miscellaneous things related to body parts (it's not as bad as it sounds... am I the only one thinking of dead bodies when someone says "body parts" instead of "parts of the body"?) when we went through this:

  1. There is a song called ๋ˆˆ,์ฝ”,์ž…. The teacher played only the line where he sings this, so I don't have much context of the whole song but I think it's about someone remembering their previous love.
  2. Korean mothers play this ์ฝ”์ฝ”์ฝ” game with their kids to teach them the various parts of the face. ์ฝ” means nose, so you start by going ์ฝ”, ์ฝ”, ์ฝ”,... and tapping on your nose each time you say it. Supposedly both the mother and the kid does it, since the teacher made all of us do it. Then she would say another body part and point somewhere else, e.g. ์ž… (mouth) but point to her ear. Then we, as the kid/learner, are supposed to still point to the correct body part (mouth) and not to the ear.
  3. There is a Korean version of the "Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes" song: ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๊นจ ๋ฌด๋ฆŽ ๋ฐœ. Yes, it's called almost the same thing: Head, Shoulder, Knee, Foot. The second round was really too fast to sing along to in class.

Finally, a note on differentiating ํŒ” (arm) and ๋ฐœ (foot), particularly in the sentences ํŒ”์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” and ๋ฐœ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”.

  1. ํŒ”์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”: Emphasis is on the consonant sound ใ…. It results in a downward intonation.
  2. ๋ฐœ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”: Emphasis is on the vowel sound ์•„. It results in an upward intonation.