notes on things I'm learning
66,341 words

Lesson 39 (Beginner 2B Lesson 7): Time

We spent the first 10 minutes or so of the class going through the common mistakes. Then we started on Chapter 10.

The teacher only sent us the test report at the end of the lesson, and like before, only the writing component (sentences and essay) were graded. The rest are in the report.

I lost marks in speaking and writing, so in the end it was still pretty high. I managed to end up with full marks for listening despite the apprehension I was feeling last week.

My friend didn't come for class today. The teacher seems to be at home today from her background and the set up with 1 computer. I noticed she's been alternating for the past few weeks. Like last week, it was in the school, but the previous week, it was not, and the week before, which I think was the first week they opened the physical school again, she was there.

Chapter 10 is about time, which I've learnt before somewhat with the First Step Korean course offered by Yonsei University on Coursera.


Korean English Notes
์˜ค์ „ AM From 12am to 12pm (midnight to noon), but also used to refer to the time of the morning after breakfast from 8am to 12pm (where there is no more specific word for that period in the morning).
์˜คํ›„ PM From 12pm to 12am (noon to midnight), not just the afternoon period, though from 12pm to 6pm you don't have a more specific word for it than this.
์ƒˆ๋ฒฝ dawn 12am to 6am
์•„์นจ morning Approximately from 6am to 8am, it refers generally to the time before (and in a sense, during) breakfast. 9am might be still considered ์•„์นจ.
์ •์˜ค noon The ์˜ค is where you get the ์˜ค for ์˜ค์ „ and ์˜คํ›„. Sino-Korean word from ๆญฃๅˆ.
๋‚ฎ daytime
์ €๋… evening 6pm to 9pm
๋ฐค night 9pm to 12am (midnight)
์˜ค๋Š˜๋ฐค tonight
์–ด์ ฏ๋ฐค last night ์–ด์ œ + ๋ฐค, but because there is no ๋ฐ›์นจ, you add the ใ…… to stick them together. (I guess this is why it's ์ฐป์ง‘ for "teahouse".)
์•„์  brunch The full name is ์•„์นจ ๊ฒธ ์ ์‹ฌ, but it's such a mouthful that most people just call it ์•„์ . ๊ฒธ means "as well as".
๋ฐ์ดํŠธํ•˜๋‹ค to have a date
๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to wait for a bus
๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to take a bus
๋นจ๋ž˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to do the laundry
์š”๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to cook I have no idea why the textbook decided to add words that I though we learnt long ago... but ok. This isn't the only one but it's the one that I think we learnt the earliest.
์ƒค์›Œํ•˜๋‹ค to take a shower
์„ธ์ˆ˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to wash one's face
์šด์ „ํ•˜๋‹ค to drive
์ „ํ™”ํ•˜๋‹ค to call
์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋‹ค to get up
์ฒญ์†Œํ•˜๋‹ค to clean
์ปดํ“จํ„ฐ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to use a computer
ํšŒ์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to hold a (formal) meeting
์ˆ˜์—…์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to take a class More general
์ˆ˜์—…์„ ๋“ค๋‹ค to take a class Lecture-style class, where you listening to the teacher. Not for sports classes where you have to move and do things. For that you should use ํ•˜๋‹ค
์‹œํ—˜์„ ๋ณด๋‹ค to take a test ๋ณด๋‹ค is also used for attending an interview.
์ฃผ๋ง ์ž˜ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to have a good weekend
์ด๋ฒˆ this time
์ฏค about About $10: ์‹ญ ๋‹ฌ๋Ÿฌ์ฏค; Around 5 (apples): ๋‹ค์„ฏ ๊ฐœ์ฏค
๋ฐ˜ half


1. ์‹œ๊ฐ„ (Time)

You use the native Korean numbers for the hour, and the Sino-Korean numbers for the minutes.

์‹œ is for the hour, ๋ถ„ is for the minutes.


  1. ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜คํ›„ ๋„ค ์‹œ์˜ˆ์š”. (It is 4:00pm now.)
  2. ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜ค์ „ ํ•œ ์‹œ ์‚ผ์‹ญ ๋ถ„์ด์—์š”. = ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜ค์ „ ํ•œ ์‹œ ๋ฐ˜์ด์—์š”. (It is 1:30am now.)
  3. ์—ด๋‘ ์‹œ์— ์ ์‹ฌ์„ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I ate lunch at 12pm.)
  4. ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์—ดํ•œ ์‹œ์ฏค(์—) ์ž์š”. (Nana goes to sleep around 11pm.)

The use of the time particle ์— is required when you are indicating the time that an action is being performed.

When ์ฏค is used to indicate approximate time, the time particle ์— is optional.

2. N ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ N ๊นŒ์ง€

This is used to indicate a period of time. N ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ indicates the point where something began; N ๊นŒ์ง€ indicates when something ended.

They can be used separately as well and it is not necessary to use both.

They can be used not only with hours and minutes, but also days of the week, dates, and even years.

They can also be used "to express a specific range on a scale" according to the notes, but I'm not exactly sure what this refers to. Perhaps just that you can use it to refer to a range of pages in a book for example.

For translations:

  • ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ might be translated from, since (e.g. from 12pm, since 1999)
  • ๊นŒ์ง€ might be translated until, to, by (e.g. until 5pm, to Friday, by 15 Jan)


  1. ์˜ค์ „ ์•„ํ™‰ ์‹œ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์˜คํ›„ ๋‹ค์„ฏ ์‹œ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ผํ•ด์š”. (I work from 9am to 5pm.)
  2. ์‹œํ—˜์ด ์›”์š”์ผ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์ˆ˜์š”์ผ๊นŒ์ง€์˜ˆ์š”. (The exam period is from Monday to Wednesday.)
  3. 5์ชฝ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 10์ชฝ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ฝ์œผ์„ธ์š”. (Please read from page 5 to page 10.)
  4. ๋ฐฉํ•™์ด 7์›” 18์ผ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 26์ผ๊นŒ์ง€์˜ˆ์š”. (The school holidays is from 18 to 26 July.)

The content is pretty straightforward in theory. The tricky part again is with the numbers, being able to say what you need to.

One thing I noticed during class was that many students said [์‹œ๋ ˆ] when it should be [์‹œ์—] as in 8์‹œ์— ์•„์นจ์„ ๋จน์–ด์š”. I believe this is because of the "muscle memory" where we had the dates and days of week, such as ์ผ์š”์ผ์—, 8์›” 1์ผ์—, etc. that all have the ใ„น batchim. The association for Time + ์— making a [๋ ˆ] sound becomes very automatic.

The other thing I noticed was that I tended to write ๋ถ€ํ…Œ instead of ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ, I corrected myself many times when doing the homework earlier, and even when typing it out in this post.

Lesson 38 (Beginner 2B Lesson 6): Beginner 2 Test

I figured I should write this before I forget the details. I'd like to think I won't forget but of course my memory will just fade.

There was one student (the person who typically sits in a dark room) who wasn't present for the test.

The test was conducted online, so around 10 minutes before the lesson, the teacher sent via KakaoTalk the test paper to everyone individually. For some reason I thought it was going to be sent via email, so I had also prepared to log in.

It's quite fortunate I could Airdrop the file to my Mac for printing, otherwise I would have wasted extra time trying to get it to print. But I didn't look at any of the questions before joining the Zoom call for the class... and so I found myself in the same situation for listening again as the previous test.



The listening was pretty similar to the last one, with a variety of questions. We started with listening, and so there was again no time to read the questions like for the first test. The difference was that there were only 2 of the really text-heavy questions. This is where there are 4 options and you had to choose the correct one based on the conversation. The last test had 5 or so, and that was the one that you really had to read.

The other sections were pretty similar to the first test, and yes, everything was multiple choice:

  1. Listen and select the correct word that is missing
  2. Listen to a question and select what constitutes an appropriate response (the type of question that threw me off in the very first test)
  3. Listen to a dialogue and select what they are talking about
  4. Listen to a dialogue and select where it possibly took place
  5. Listen to a dialogue and select the appropriate image based on the question (that is read out at the end)
  6. Listen to a dialogue and select the correct sentence that describes what happened


After the listening, we did oral one by one. I was the fortunate one to go first. In a way it was good to go first, so you don't get distrubed halfway while doing the rest of the paper.

There were a few components, there's actually a reference piece of paper with instructions/text/images that are required. The teacher screen shared this with us.

  1. Read out 5 sentences.
  2. Construct a sentence to describe the weather shown in the picture, using ๊ณ  to join (2 pictures - so it was something like cold and rainy, hot and sunny.)
  3. Construct a sentence to describe the action shown in the picture, using formal speech (3 pictures - one was skiing, the other sightseeing, and with 2 people at a cafe with one eating cake and the other drinking tea/coffee)
  4. There is a large picture shown with people and multiple objects in it. It was a scene of a living room. You had to pick 4 objects that you see in the picture and then say what they are and how many there are with the counting numbers. I recall saying: 5 people, 4 bottles of cola, 2 cups of wine (they were glasses but I used ์ž” which is for cup), 1 apple. There were also stalks of flowers, among other things like chairs, tables, etc.

The last part, there's no more screen sharing, and it's a converation about your family. This part the teacher will ask you how many people are in your family, and then you answer. Then she will ask you their occupations and what they like to do.

Initially when she asked I kind of froze and she repeated the question at least once or twice.


All MCQ, nothing too different from the last one.


There was the first page where you had to join some sentences with either ๊ณ  or ์ง€๋งŒ as appropriate.

Then there was the essay. The assignment was to introduce your family, using honorific speech where appropriate. There were some questions that you had to answer:

  1. How many people there are in your family
  2. Who are they
  3. What are their occupations
  4. What do they like to do

The recommended length was 150-300 words.

The test sheet that the teacher sent for us to print only had one sheet of the square paper, and I didn't have enough space, so I ended up using an extra sheet that was sent in the mail with the textbook. This was part of an answer sheet that was sent together with the textbook along with the other handouts. The teacher said we can have a choice as to whether to fill out the answer sheet or to simply mark it on the paper.


We had to take a picture and send it to the teacher (via KakaoTalk) within 15 minutes after the lesson ended. The teacher was very nice about it too, she said that she noticed people tended to take more time when the test is conducted online.

Thoughts & Reflection

  1. I was surprised that the listening had no numbers again, just like the first test. We did learn the larger numbers for prices in Chapter 6 (I discovered to my horror the day before the test). I had also thought the first test would test the dates, but in the end we were spared from that.
  2. The teacher sent a reminder to us the day before (actually the same day - it was past midnight) which included a reminder that we aren't to refer to anything because it would harm our learning in the long term. I really appreciated that, as that really set the tone. That was why in the end I only looked at the paper when the test startedโ€”after we joined the Zoom callโ€”and once the call ended I didn't take extra time to check through. This was despite there being actually extra timeโ€”you don't need 15 minutes to take pictures of all the sheets. I had managed to check the reading part, but didn't have time to check my essay before submission.
  3. I felt really relieved when it was over; I'm not really sure why I was so stressed.
  4. I am certain that I missed 1-2 questions for listening. If I got them right, it would be because it was a smart guess more than anything. I did eliminate options, but I didn't fully understand the dialogue in some places.
  5. For oral, independent of how I actually do (in terms of the score), I know that I hesitated a lot and was not confident. I really need to improve on speaking. In terms of correctness I know it's mostly correct (I suddenly got a scare this morning, whether I actually said ์Šคํ‚ค๋ฅผ ํƒ‘๋‹ˆ๋‹ค when ์Šคํ‚ค came up in my Anki review since it felt so unfamiliar, or whether I said ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค) but I hesitated a lot and acted very uncertain. If I was grading myself I'd grade myself lower because of that.
  6. On the day of the test, but before the test, I spent time on Quizlet doing focused review (for just Korean, but still interleaving all the chapters' sentences). This was helpful, and doubly so when I started to test myself on how to say a sentence in various forms: casual/formal/present/past/honorific.
  7. I almost skipped lunch because I was studying, but I'm glad I did not because I definitely needed a break. The brain has to go into diffuse mode too and not only focused mode for effective learning.

Next Week

There was no homework for this week. Next week we'd get the test report (I think like for the first test, but now the advantage is that we get to keep the question paper since it's still with us), and will go through the common mistakes. The teacher said we'd do some revision before moving on to Chapter 10.

Beginner 3A

Later in the same day I got the invoice for the next term. I'd not realised this was the 6th lesson. I went to check if I could claim the course under the training budget of my company (I could) so I had to go to the school's website to get the required syllabus information and whatnot to apply for the claim. I went to check their teachers list and now the previous teacher that I had is no longer listed on their site. So I guess she really left. :(

I guess next week would already be considered as 3A, but, eh, I don't know. I also don't know how we will get our certificates. I know the school gives them out after each level (2 terms, generally, with the exception of the Foundation class which was 1 term).

TIL: A Collection from the Past Week

TIL for Korean.

The Grammar Extension at the back of the textbook is a treasure trove of information.

I was supposed to post this yesterday but I forgot, so I added in even more last minute stuff from my morning revision. I'll do a separate post later for the test.

19 July

  1. Looking at the conjuation tables on Wiktionary, I realised that for contrast, ์ง€๋งŒ is formal non-polite.
  2. I have no idea what I was thinking about the casual vs informal distinction. There shouldn't be one (though I mused about it and in Lesson 36 actually decided that there must be a distinction). The textbook calls it informal, such as when it discusses -์•„์š”/์–ด์š”. I realised that while looking at the Grammar Extension at the back of the textbook). Then, I also realised tht the conjugation tables on Wiktionary calls ํ•ด์š”์ฒด informal polite... I was evidently blind to the Wiktionary table headers.

24 July

(You can tell how much I studied during the week lol - the answer is almost nothing. I only did additional Quizlet reviews and found that they have a combined sets feature.)

1. Informal polite past for ์ด๋‹ค

Informal polite past for ์ด๋‹ค (์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”) is ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”/์˜€์–ด์š” from reading the Grammar Extension at the back of the book.

This is from Chapter 5 (!) but I was reading everything from the start.

So far we've seen:

  • Informal polite present: ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”
  • Informal polite past: ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”/์˜€์–ด์š”
  • Formal polite present (indicative): ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • Formal polite present (interrogative): ์ž…๋‹ˆ๊นŒ
  • Formal polite past (indicative): ์ด์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/์˜€์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • Formal polite past (interrogative): ์ด์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ/์˜€์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ
  • Informal polite present (honorific): ์ด์„ธ์š”/์„ธ์š”
  • Informal polite past (honorific): ์ด์…จ์–ด์š”/์…จ์–ด์š”

2. Specific/General Rules

There's quite a few grammar rules that are taught first specifically, and then a more general rule is given later, without explicitly tying them together.

For example:

  1. N ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” (Chapter 2, #3) is actually a more specific one of the making request Vโ€“(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (Chapter 6, #1). The first rule covers only the verb ์ฃผ๋‹ค. I only made this connection because the Grammar Extension mentions in their respective sections that you can add ์ข€ to make the request more polite. Adding ์ข€ was not re-emphasised in Chapter 6.
  2. N(์ด)์„ธ์š” (Chapter 9, #3) is a very specific one just for casual/informal honorific conjugation of the verb "to be" of the very next rule A/Vโ€“(์œผ)์‹œโ€“ (Chapter 9, #4). In fact this 4th grammar rule is so general that it technically covers the formal (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) form too, but we have not actually covered that.

The rules concerning ์ด๋‹ค in Chapter 1 can be said to be very specific conjugations for that verb alone. But I think a case can be made that ์ด๋‹ค ("to be") is special in that sense. It really depends on how you want to look at it.

In most languages the verb "to be" is highly irregular; ์ด๋‹ค for the conjugations we've seen is pretty much regular (except that it has 2 forms in some cases depending on whether the noun preceding it has batchim or not).

The other thing special about it is that "to be" is a verb that joins 2 "subjects" - more accurately, two "things" in the nominative. (It was first brought to my attention because of this thing known as Gleichsetzungsnominativ in German - basically, both of the things are in nominative.)

It's very different from other verbs where there is a subject and an object (that is being acted on). With "to be" the two things are "equal".

3. Why is it (์œผ)์„ธ์š” for A/Vโ€“(์œผ)์‹œโ€“?

Remember in Lesson 36 I said I wasn't sure why it congjuated such that ์‹œ becomes ์„ธ and not ์…”? I had noticed that on Wiktionary they do list the ์…” form there in the conjugation tables.

The textbook actually mentions this (again in the Grammar Extension): Basically, โ€“(์œผ)์„ธ์š” is more commonly used than โ€“(์œผ)์…”์š”.

4. There is a formal way to reply to (์œผ)ใ„น๊นŒ์š”? suggestions

It's โ€“(์œผ)ใ…‚์‹œ๋‹ค.

This is the hortative form for the formal polite (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) form.

With batchim:

  • ๋ญ˜ ๋จน์„๊นŒ์š”?
  • ๋น„๋น”๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์์‹œ๋‹ค.

Without batchim:

  • ์–ด๋””์— ๊ฐˆ๊นŒ์š”?
  • ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฐฉ์— ๊ฐ‘์‹œ๋‹ค.

It just so happens that for the informal polite (ํ•ด์š”์ฒด) form, the indicative form is identical to the hortative form, which is why you simply reply the same way.

You make the distinction in speech with the intonation.

But you should never use this to superiors. The textbook doesn't explain why, but I'd guess it's because there is probably a more polite way to suggest things to your elders.

25 July

The Wongoji rule that I missed that earned that remark from the teacher was that I wrote the full stop on the next line. If it's the end of a sentence at the end of a line, the period should stay on the same line, basically sharing a box with the last character.

This page covers it.

In the case that a sentence mark should be stamped at the end of a line, it shouldnโ€™t be carried down to the next line, but rather placed inside the last box on that line. Starting a line with โ€˜.โ€™ or โ€˜,โ€™ should be carefully avoided.

The handout that I have doesn't mention that rule. In fact, it's pretty much what this other page on the same site says.

Interestingly, I cannot seem to find these rules mentioned on any other site apart from the one I've linked above.

Lesson 37 (Beginner 2B Lesson 5): Test Incoming

There is a test next week. I think everyone in class was kind of shocked when the teacher made the announcement.

I knew it was coming; it had to be the case. When the new textbook arrived, there were handouts for Chapter 9, but there was also the revision sheet for Chapters 6-9. When I saw it, I knew that there had to be a test because there was a similar one for Chapters 1-5.

I had also remarked this to my friend just the week before (on Zoom, of course, I don't really meet him otherwise)... it was a call just with him and the husband of the other friend who had stopped taking the class with us but was taking classes with another school for financial reasons. She was finishing up her Korean class at the time, so she joined the conversation later, if I recall.

I think it was a bit unexpected since the teacher didn't mention this the previous week, not about this lesson being a revision lesson, and also not about the test in advance. (By contrast for the first test, the other teacher told us something like more than a month in advance, and also we knew which lesson was a revision lesson.)

So in this lesson we finished up the last of Chapter 9, and it was a revision lesson. I won't be posting the grammar and whatnot from those lessons since that's quite repetitive and not very helpful for myself. I would use the time better to prepare in other ways for the test.

What is interesting about this lesson is that since we aren't in class and there's no paper flashcards to use, we used Quizlet. This is probably where the fact that the school uses Quizlet before all this started came in really, really handy.

So for Chapter 9, actually the only thing left that we covered is one more listening exercise, and then the pronunciation topic (and of course the self-check). We did not cover the culture note, but I did cover one last week that's not from the textbook.


This is about the pronunciation of ์˜, tying in with the grammar that we learnt in this chapter, where ์˜ is used to indicate possession.

There are 3 ways that ์˜ can be pronounced:

  1. [์˜] - /ษฐi/- This is when it's the first letter of the word, e.g. ์˜์‚ฌ [์˜์‚ฌ]. You hear the /ษฐ/ sound very distinctly.
  2. [์ด] - /i/ - This is when it's the second or subsequent letter in a word, e.g. ํšŒ์˜ [ํšŒ์ด].You don't hear the /ษฐ/ sound, only the /i/.
  3. [์—] - /e/ - This is the one that we just learnt together with the grammar this chapter, e.g. ์œ ์ง„ ์”จ์˜[์—] ์ฑ…


Korean English Notes
๊ฐ•์˜ lecture In one of the sample words for the pronunciation topic.

Test Prep Checklist

I wonder if I'd make this a priority, since I did not for the last test, but eh, why not actually list things out. The last time I kept it in my head and see how well that turned out (I didn't do any extra prep for the test...)

  1. [ ] Revise Basic Grammar
    • [ ] Chapter 6
    • [ ] Chapter 7
    • [ ] Chapter 8
    • [ ] Chapter 9
  2. [ ] Revise Basic Vocab (Quizlet)
    • [ ] Chapter 6
    • [ ] Chapter 7
    • [ ] Chapter 8
    • [ ] Chapter 9
  3. Conjugation for the following
    • [ ] Formal
    • [ ] Formal past tense
    • [ ] Honorific speech (casual)
    • [ ] Honorific speech (casual) past tense
  4. Be able to write about (both casual/formal, and use honorific speech as appropriate)
    • [ ] Family members (using honorific speech) - ages, likes, and dislikes
    • [ ] What you/family members are good at
    • [ ] Weather
    • [ ] Making plans (ใ„น๊นŒ์š”?) - This is a possible oral topic
    • [ ] Weave in the surprise sentences (๋„ค์š”)
  5. Listening
    • [ ] Practise listening to the old dialogues
  6. Pronunciation
    • [ ] Go through the Speaking and Pronunciation dialogue audios (Speak and listen)
      • [ ] Chapter 6
      • [ ] Chapter 7
      • [ ] Chapter 8
      • [ ] Chapter 9
  7. Oral
    • [ ] Buying something at a shop (one customer one shopkeeper)
    • [ ] Friends ordering something at a restaurant (include prices, counting units)
    • [ ] Making plans with a friend to go out
  8. Korea General Knowledge
    • [ ] Know about some famous places (3) and
    • [ ] What you can do there

Lesson 36 (Beginner 2B Lesson 4): Making Polite Sentences

We continued with the handout for the third grammar point. There were many speaking exercises done in pairs. Since we had 5 students (the person whom I said had the same Korean name as the previous teacher wasn't here today), for some of the activities, one lucky student had to do it with the teacher. (I did it only the first time, the rest I was paired with the youngest girl in class, also someone from my previous group.)

We finished the Chapter 9 handout and most of the things in the textbook. We have a writing assignment as part of the homework this week, which I've yet to do...


4. A/V-(์œผ)-์‹œ-

This is used to indicate respect when the subject of the sentences holds higher social status than the speaker.

The third grammar point for Chapter 9 (covered in Lesson 35) was for nouns: N(์ด)์„ธ์š”.

This one is for verbs and adjectives.

The teacher said that usually you will see it in these forms:

  • A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (present tense)
  • A/V-(์œผ)์…จ์–ด์š” (past tense)

(1) Present Tense: A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”

The present tense form looks like this:

  1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์œผ์„ธ์š”
  2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์„ธ์š”


  1. ์ฝ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์ฝ์œผ์„ธ์š”
  2. ๊ฐ€๋‹ค + ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”
  3. ์žˆ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”1

Why does ์‹œ become ์„ธ? I do not know. In the textbook, there is a yellow sticky note that says: -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์–ด์š” โ†’ -์œผ์„ธ์š”/์„ธ์š”.

์–ด์š” is just the present tense for the casual-polite2 form.

Why is it that it is ์„ธ and not ์…” as per the "add one stroke" thing which I thought I finally understood? I have no idea.

(The teacher didn't go through this, I only saw it when flipping through the textbook as I was doing the homework. However on Wiktionary, there are 2 forms listed under the Sentence-final forms with honorific table, for polite, indicative, non-past, for example with ๊ฐ€๋‹ค: ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š” and ๊ฐ€์…”์š”. So it seems that the expected ์…”์š” form actually exists, but might not be the one used most frequently for certain reasons.)

But notice these -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” verbs are the same conjugation as the "please..." sentences. We studied this back in Chapter 6, the first grammar point which was V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (see Lesson 23).

Naturally, I have questions:

  • How does that relate to this rule?
  • Is this a more general one?
  • But aren't they expressing different meanings, with one being a statement and the other being a suggestion?

I don't have a certain answer, but my understanding from what we've been taught so far is this: Just like how the regular casual/polite sentences can be a suggestion, so can this honorific form that indicates respect.

How did I come to this conclusion? I was reminded of the pronunciation topic for Chapter 8 (see Lesson 34) where I mentioned propositive sentences.

Basically, there is a different intonation (specifically, the length of the ์š”) to indicate whether it's a sentence or a suggestion (in addition to the contextual clues when the statement is uttered).

I think it is the same situation here. The initial rule we learnt back in Chapter 6 introduced the form of the verb, and we just learnt it in the context of using it to make polite requests.

Here it is more "general" in that sense, since we don't apply it just to verbs, but to adjectives. And we also look at the past tense form.

(2) Past Tense: A/V-(์œผ)์…จ์–ด์š”

The past tense form looks like this:

  1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”
  2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์…จ์–ด์š”


  1. ์ฝ๋‹ค + ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ์ฝ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”
  2. ๊ฐ€๋‹ค + ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ๊ฐ€์…จ์–ด์š”
  3. ๋จน๋‹ค + ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ๋“œ์…จ์–ด์š”3

This time, the rule makes a bit more sense, sticking to the ใ…ฃ + ใ…“ โ†’ ใ…• and with ์—ˆ์–ด์š” as the past tense for the casual-polite form: -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์—ˆ์–ด์š” โ†’ -์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”/์…จ์–ด์š”.4

The Curious Case of ์žˆ๋‹ค

Above, I said that ์žˆ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”.

However, back in Lesson 34, we learnt that ์žˆ๋‹ค is special (along with ๋จน๋‹ค/๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค and ์ž๋‹ค), and the special form is ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”.

What gives?

์žˆ๋‹ค actually has 2 meanings:

  1. to be located (somewhere): ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๊ต์‹ค์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The teacher is in the classroom.)
  2. to have (something): ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ์šฐ์‚ฐ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The teacher has an umbrella.)

When the subject is someone you respect and they are located at a particular place, that's when you use ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”: ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๊ต์‹ค์— ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”.

In the case of the other meaning (to have), you would use ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”: ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ์šฐ์‚ฐ์ด ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”.

According to the teacher, to use ๊ณ„์„ธ์š” for this second sentence sounds like you are respecting the umbrella, which isn't correct.


For ์žˆ์–ด์š” (์žˆ๋‹ค), use:

  • ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š” when it means "to have"
  • ๊ณ„์„ธ์š” when it means "to be located"

Culture Note

This is an informal culture note, not in the textbook.

"์นœ๊ตฌ" refers to a friend of the same age.

This came up because the youngest student in our class said for one of our speaking exercises where we were saying what we are going to do tomorrow that she was going to a friend's wedding.

She used ์นœ๊ตฌ, and the teacher was a bit shocked since she was so young. The student clarified that her friend was 9 years older.

Then the teacher said that the word ์นœ๊ตฌ is actually used only for friends of the same age as you.

Otherwise, you would use the family terms... which explains why you hear all the uses of ์˜ค๋น  (oppa) and such in the K-dramas.

So usually you would prefix it with from where you know the person, so for example:

  • ํ•™๊ต์˜ค๋น  (older guy friend I know from school)
  • ๊ตํšŒ์˜ค๋น  (older guy friend I know from church)

Otherwise, if you don't know where you know the person from (or if it's perhaps too hard to say), then you can say ์•„๋Š”์˜ค๋น , which simply means "this older guy friend I know". (์•„๋Š” comes from ์•Œ๋‹ค, to know.)


Korean English Notes
ํˆฌํ‘œํ•˜๋‹ค to vote because the election was on 10 July
์€ํ‡ดํ•˜๋‹ค to retire ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€๋Š” ์€ํ‡ดํ•˜์…จ์–ด์š”.= My father is retired.
๊ตํšŒ church (Protestant) We learnt this before with the previous teacher back in Chapter 5, but somehow I'd never actually included it in my Anki deck... So it turns out there are 3 of us in the class who are Christians (Protestant) and our answers to what are you doing on Sunday will be going to church. Sino-Korean word from ๆ•Žๆœƒ (ๆ•™ไผš)
์„ฑ๋‹น church (Catholic) One of the students is Catholic. Sino-Korean word from ่–ๅ ‚ (ๅœฃๅ ‚).

Fragment URLs

Starting from this post, I'm adding fragment URLs for links to sections within posts since it seems like it's possible to type HTML into this Markdown file.

I'm adding these anchors to old posts as needed, basically when I have a need to link to that section within an old post. What this means is that the any new links from this post on will point to the correct section that it refers to.

I'm not going back to old posts to update the links in them right now, but maybe in future if I think it's worth the effort... but it's quite low on my priority list right now.

  1. We will take another look at ์žˆ๋‹ค after looking at the past tense. It can also be the irregular ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”. โ†ฉ

  2. This led me to realise I'd called it "informal-polite" in my Anki cards, and I changed all of them today to "casual-polite". I mused about the differences between "informal" and "casual" ~~and since I've not been disproven, currently believe that the terms are not interchangeable in this context (when talking about Korean).~~ I'm pretty sure now that there isn't a difference; the textbook actually calls it "informal", though the Quizlet cards and the way it's referred to in class is "casual". โ†ฉ

  3. Recall this is an exception, see Lesson 34 โ†ฉ

  4. When this post was first published, I had not seen the yellow sticky note in the textbook that shows the combination of -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์—ˆ์–ด์š”. I saw it later that same night, while doing the homework. So this was what I said originally based on what was in the handout (I had correctly guessed it was a combination with ์–ด, though more precisely it was ์—ˆ): Again, how does ์‹œ become ์…”? I am inclined to say it's through the addition of ์–ด, because of how ๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค becomes ๋งˆ์…”์š” and all that, but I don't really know if that's the case (where does the ์–ด come from though?). It's presented this way, so I'm taking this as-is for now, with no idea how it's actually constructed. Maybe in future we will learn a more general rule, maybe not. โ†ฉ

Lesson 35 (Beginner 2B Lesson 3): Grammar, Grammar, Grammar

First, an explanation...

... that no one asked for. (If anyone is actually reading this for the Korean content then skip ahead to the next section.)

I tried to write this post last week, but evidently could not, because apart from a link to a relevant How to Study Korean webpage, this was what was in it:

I can't do this now sorry ;(

I've had Lesson 36 earlier today.

This past week was insane for a number of reasons. I spent most of my Sunday afternoon and evening after church (livestream of course) trying to organise, or, more accurately, reorganise my computers to follow the PARA system after reading quite a bit on it.

Monday and Wednesday evenings I have other lessons. This past Tuesday I was doing more organising on my work laptop after getting this reorganisation done for my personal computers, along with an more-than-usual number of meetings. Thursday I was also in some meetings in the morning, and the afternoon it was polling duties. Throughout the week I was also preparing for polling duties. Friday (yesterday) was polling day and I was on duty the whole day essentially. I had a lot of last-minute "studying" to do because I only got news that I had to do this duty 2 weeks prior (afaik it's a lottery system who gets called apparently and you can get called as long as you are in the public service though I've also heard that once you get called for one election your chances of being called again in subsequent elections are higher). I only received e-learning materials and yet somehow I knew more than those who had known they were to be on duty. Sigh. I would like to say they are irresponsible, but I know how "life" can get in the way, and, well, it's not my place to judge.

Not to say that I was just working. On some nights I was playing Path of Exile with a few colleagues when I really should have just taken the chance to go to bed, but when I spend all day working I just feel like I need that break (and I don't want to get left behind too).

Anyway, that's the long story of it all. I stayed up late last night/this morning long enough to hear the first few results being announced before falling asleep (not suprising given I was up since 5am)... and even today I'm actually pretty tired, but work is work and I have to get things done. (I also forgot to switch off one 5am alarm that I'd set for the day before so when it rang I decided to just check the results of the elections before heading back to bed.)

I don't really like to talk about politics cos I don't usually get involved (and I think there's some guilt/baggage because I know I should care more and in that sense fight for what matters) but I really think that the government messed up bad with calling an election in the middle of the whole pandemic. The whole last-minute "arrow" I received to do this was just ridiculous among other things and the whole logistics nightmare and inconsistent procedure (as told to me by friends/relatives who are just members of the public and observed the lapses compared to the official announcement). Fortunately it wasn't that bad and there were no insane queues for my polling station since it was a small one. There were definitely issues that I observed but it's not something I'm supposed to talk about, so I shall not.

The results speak for themselves. I'm honestly surprised about the results for my area since obviously the ruling party won, but the opposition did better than I expected regardless. Okay, that's probably enough rambling on this.

Today I'm still in a weird zombie-like state with not much energy but... eh, writing this post seems to be doable for now, so I shall get to it. (Edit after I'm done: It was hard to do, took me over 2 hours and I had to force myself to push through to the end. โ•ฅ๏นโ•ฅ)

Lesson 35

This is the first lesson in July, and the teacher was at the school (and not at what I presume to be her house) since they had reopened for physical in-the-classroom lessons (though my lessons will be online since most of us preferred it that way).

In this lesson we covered the first 3 grammar points. If I recall correctly we didn't have a lot of small-group practices (but we more than made up for it today in Lesson 36).

Okay, there were actually 3 things in this original note, not just the first 2 I mentioned above:

  1. The "I can't do this message"
  2. The How to Study Korean relevant lesson link
  3. "In Korea" - this was a reference to how elections are conducted in Korea, in view of the (then) upcoming elections here on 10 July.

For some reason I'd started to write in my digital notebook and realised that I normally don't record the details for my Korean lesson digitally but on the physical worksheets, so that's why it was just those 2 words.

I thought I wrote down what the teacher said about the elections process in Korea but I do not see the notes anywhere. I think what the teacher said was that it was not compulsory to vote in Korea, and that you could also vote before the actual day. So what many Koreans do is to use the public holiday as a holiday (for vacation).

I know one person didn't attend the lesson and it's definitely one of the 2 newer classmates, but it shouldn't be the one who has the same Korean name as the previous teacher. It's the other person who tended to sit in a dark room. I'm a little confused because she (the one with the same name) wasn't here today, while the other person was.


There was also a word quiz this lesson... and the questions were much simpler than I expected as it was just to convert one thing in the sentence and not something more complex that involved multiple things to change... though one question had that as an extended answer.


  1. ์ด๋ฆ„์ด ๋ญ์˜ˆ์š”?
  2. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ ๋‚˜์ด๋Š” ์ผํ”์ด์„ธ์š”.
  3. ์ด ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ์„ธ์š”.
  4. ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€๋Š” ์ง€๊ธˆ ๋ฐฉ์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”.
  5. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ์ง€๊ธˆ ์ž์š”.
  6. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ, ์ƒ์ผ ์ถ•ํ•˜ํ•ด์š”!
  7. ์‚ฌ์žฅ๋‹˜, ์ง‘์ด ์–ด๋””์„ธ์š”?
  8. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ์ปคํ”ผ๋ฅผ ์•ˆ ๋งˆ์…”์š”.


  1. ์„ฑํ•จ์ด ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋˜์„ธ์š”?
  2. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ ์—ฐ์„ธ๋Š” ์ผํ”์ด์„ธ์š”.
  3. ์ด ๋ถ„์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ์„ธ์š”.
  4. ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€๋Š” ์ง€๊ธˆ ๋ฐฉ์— ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”.
  5. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ์ง€๊ธˆ ์ฃผ๋ฌด์„ธ์š”.
  6. ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ, ์ƒ์‹  ์ถ•ํ•˜ํ•ด์š”!
  7. ์‚ฌ์žฅ๋‹˜, ๋Œ์ด ์–ด๋””์„ธ์š”?
  8. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ์ปคํ”ผ๋ฅผ ์•ˆ ๋“œ์„ธ์š”.


1. N1(์˜) N2

This is used to express a relationship between two nouns, where the first noun (N1) possesses the second noun (N2).

This is translated to 's ~ or of ~ in English. It is equivalent to the Chinese ็š„.

The grammar is simple, but pay attention to the pronunciation: When used this way, ์˜ is pronounced [์—].

This was new to me and I'd not realised this though I've definitely seen ์˜ used this way, especially in Duolingo (where there was audio in some cases).


  1. ์ด๊ฑฐ๋Š” ๋‚˜๋‚˜์˜ ์ฑ…์ด์—์š”. (This is Nana's book.)
    • = ์ด๊ฑฐ๋Š” ๋‚˜๋‚˜์ฑ…์ด์—์š”.
  2. ์ด๋ถ„์€ ์•ค๋”” ์”จ์˜ ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (This person is Andy's teacher.)
    • = ์ด๋ถ„์€ ์•ค๋”” ์”จ ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
  3. ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ(์˜) ๊ฐ€๋ฐฉ์ด์—์š”? ์ œ ์นœ๊ตฌ์˜ˆ์š”. (Whose bag is this? It's my friend's.)
  4. ํฌ๋ฆฌ๊ทธ๋Š” ์ œ๋‹ˆ์˜ ๋‚จํŽธ์ด์—์š”. (Chris is Jenny's husband.)

In casual conversation, ์˜ can be omitted. However, we also have the second example in the notes, and I realise I don't know if the second sentence without the ์˜ is something that will be said normally over the first, since it's technically not casual, not only because you are using honorific speech, but also formal speech.1

Additionally, instead of saying ์ €์˜ you say ์ œ for something that is "mine", as shown in the last example.

For the first person pronouns, you add a stroke ใ…ฃ:

  • ์ €์˜ = ์ œ (as we have seen)
  • ๋‚˜์˜ = ๋‚ด

Finally, don't get confused if there is another subject which is another noun, as in the last example. When we had to fill in the blanks for this exercise in the worksheet, I recall getting confused and wanting to place the ์˜ after the subject particle (์€/๋Š”).

2. N์„/๋ฅผ ์ž˜ํ•˜๋‹ค [์ž˜ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค]

This is used to express whether someone is good at something (์ž˜ํ•˜๋‹ค), so-so at something (์ž˜ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค) or bad at something (๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค).

  • ์ž˜ = well
  • ๋ชป = poorly

And so:

  • ์ž˜ํ•˜๋‹ค = I do this well / I'm good at doing this
  • ์ž˜ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค = I am not so good at doing this
  • ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค = I am very poor at doing this

You can use this with all the ํ•˜๋‹ค verbs that we have learnt. By itself, ์ž˜ is an adverb (and so is ๋ชป) and so can be used with other verbs (though in that case you'd place a space between the ์ž˜ and the verb... and this is the part where I point you to the How to Study Korean lesson that explains the difference).

Note that when you use ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค it really means that you are very bad at something or cannot do it entirely. So for example we cannot say that we are bad at Korean (ํ•œ๊ตญ๋ง์„ ๋ชปํ•ด์š”) because we can definitely speak a few sentences.

For this, the pronunciation is also tricky:

  • ์ž˜ํ•ด์š” is [์ž๋ž˜์š”], though [์ž˜ํ•ด์š”] is okay.
  • ๋ชปํ•ด์š” is [๋ชจํƒœ์š”], and you have to get the aspirated t sound (/tสฐ/, for the ใ…Œ in ํƒœ) correct.

We had a few example nouns to which we could add ํ•˜๋‹ค to and we had to pick one of the three options.

Examples (these aren't all true statements about me):

  1. ์ €๋Š” ์ˆ˜์˜์„ ์ž˜ํ•ด์š”. (I'm very good at swimming.)
  2. ์ €๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ๋ง์„ ์ž˜ ๋ชปํ•ด์š”. (I'm so-so at Korean.)
  3. ์ €๋Š” ์š”๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋ชปํ•ด์š”. (I'm very poor at cooking. โ‡’ I can't cook at all.)
  4. ์ €๋Š” ๋…ธ๋ž˜ ์ž˜ํ–ˆ์–ด์š”. (I was very good at singing.)

3. N(์ด)์„ธ์š”

This is the honorific form of -์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š” and is used when the subject of the sentence is superior to the speaker in age or social status.

It is never used to speak of yourself; you would use ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”.

  1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์ด์„ธ์š”
  2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์„ธ์š”


  1. ์ €๋ถ„์€ ๋กœ์ฃผ ์”จ์˜ ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์ด์„ธ์š”. (That person over there is Rose's teacher.)
  2. ์ด๋ถ„์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ์„ธ์š”. (This person is my mother.)
  3. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ์ „์— ํšŒ์‚ฌ์›์ด์…จ์–ด์š”. (My mother was previously a company employee.)
  4. ์ €๋Š” ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์ด์—์š”. (I am a teacher.)

In the first grammar point, we had a similar sentence to the first example but uses formal speech: ์ด๋ถ„์€ ์•ค๋”” ์”จ์˜ ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

The difference? My current understanding of the difference is that the formal speech is used because of the social setting (e.g. in a formal presentation) but does not necessarily convey a respect for the person you are talking about. It would be more similar in level of respect to that person as when using ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”.

However, using (์ด)์„ธ์š” conveys respect for the person you are speaking of (i.e. honorific speech). There is, as far as I can tell form looking at Wiktionary conjugation tables, a formal form that is honorific as well. Basically, adding ์‹œ is what adds this honorific dimension (thanks Memrise for helping me with that2), though it combines with other stuff and you usually see it as ์„ธ (in the present tense) and ์…จ (in the past tense).


Korean English Notes
ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„ the capital city of Korea Another example of ์˜
ํ•œ๊ตญ๋ง Korean language (spoken) It is more of the sproken language. You have this for Chinese too (์ค‘๊ตญ๋ง) but for English it's just ์˜์–ด, though I'm uncertain if English is an exception because all languages are generally country name + ์–ด but that's not the case of English as it's not ์˜๊ตญ์–ด
ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด ๋ฐ˜ ์นœ๊ตฌ Korean classmate classmate in Korean class
๋™์•„๋ฆฌ (school) club aka CCA
๊ฐ™์€ ๊ณผ same department/same major (university) ๊ฐ™์€ ๊ณผ ์นœ๊ตฌ is someone from the same major

About the Title

I gave up on a good title. It's a reference to the 3 grammar points. It's not quite possible to have the 3 grammar points to make a sentence, since the first is for possession, the second is on doing something well/not well, and the third is an honorific form for "to be". At most I'd use 2 of them but then it would leave one out.

  1. I talk a bit more about this later under the third grammar point, but this isn't technically "honorific" speech, it's honorific insofar that it uses ๋ถ„ instead of ์‚ฌ๋žŒ at the beginning of the sentence, but the verb itself isn't actually conjugated to the honorific formal form (if I understand correctly since we've not been taught that yet). โ†ฉ

  2. First, Memrise actually says it is something that "makes polite phrase" and not honorific speech, so it's something I'm assuming by putting two and two together. Second, because of trying to link to this I realised that Memrise actually released (yet) another set of Korean courses... and the one that I've linked to isn't the one you'd search and find on their website anymore. โ†ฉ

Lesson 34 (Beginner 2B Lesson 2): Beginning a New Book

We finished up with the first textbook (1A) within the first 15 minutes, which was just the pronunciation and the self-check sections.

For the new textbook we went through the contents for an overview of what we will be covering in the 1B book.

Finally, there's a vocab quiz next week. I think it would be quite challenging, as there has to be some conversion of sentences done for the honorific speech.

I hope the Quizlet deck gets assigned soon before I start putting in my own cards into Anki... and then have dupes when the Quizlet deck is added and I import those.

On a side note, I found some other public decks on the teacher's account, including one set for the irregular ใ„ท conjugation for Chapter 8, so I imported that to Anki.


This is more about the intonation.

  • ์ง€๊ธˆ ์ˆ™์ œํ•ด์š”. (I'm doing homework now.)
  • ๊ฐ™์ด ์ˆ™์ œํ•ด์š”. (Let's do the homework together.)

The difference in the two ์š”s is that in the first, it's much shorter. The second one is longer.

Basically, the rule is that when you have a sentence where the meaning is "let's do something" (called propositive sentences) then you would say it such that the ์š” is longer.

I actually found it quite hard to pronounce. I understand it, and I can hear the difference, but it's really quite a challenge to produce this on command at this point.

If you didn't check out the linked HiNative answer, the TL;DR between propositive and imperative sentences in Korean is that in the former you are making a suggestion but the listener has a choice whether to do it or not, but for the imperative it's a command and they must do it.


The Chapter 9 content for this lesson has been all vocabulary, with quite a bit of cultural and contextual notes which I've outlined either in the notes or in their own sections below this table.

Korean English Notes
ํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ grandfather can be used to refer to passers by who are elderly that you are not related to
ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ grandmother can be used to refer to passers by who are elderly that you are not related to
์™ธํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ maternal grandfather ์™ธ = ๅค–
์™ธํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ maternal grandmother
์•„๋น  dad
์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ father Different families will use either ์•„๋น  (casual) or ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ (formal).
์—„๋งˆ mom
์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ mother Different families will use either ์—„๋งˆ (casual) or ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ (formal).
ํ˜•์ œ siblings
ํ˜• (male's) older brother See this post for more information about older siblings. This was when I figured it out after learning from Yonsei University's course.
์˜ค๋น  (female's) older brother
๋ˆ„๋‚˜ (male's) older sister
์–ธ๋‹ˆ (female's) older sister
๋™์ƒ younger sibling
๋‚จ๋™์ƒ younger brother
์—ฌ๋™์ƒ younger sister
์™ธ๋™ only child
๋ถ€๋ชจ๋‹˜ parents includes the respect term ๋‹˜
์นœ์ฒ™ relatives
๋‚จํŽธ husband
์•„๋‚ด wife
์•„๋“ค son
๋”ธ daughter
์‚ผ์ดŒ uncle Literally because he is 3์ดŒ away from you. More notes below.
์‚ฌ์ดŒ cousin Literally because he is 4์ดŒ away from you
๊ฐ€์กฑ family ๅฎถๆ—
์šด์ „ driving ่ฟ่ฝฌ
์ˆ˜ํ•™ math ๆ•ฐๅญฆ
์—ญ์‚ฌ history ๅŽ†ๅฒ
๋ฏธ์ธ beautiful woman ็พŽไบบ
์‚ฌ์žฅ๋‹˜ president of a company ็คพ้•ฟ. ๋‹˜ is the respectful ending; you wouldn't use it when describing yourself, as the position is just called ์‚ฌ์žฅ, e.g. ์ €๋Š” ์‚ฌ์žฅ์ด์—์š”.
์ด์ชฝ this literally this side or this way; you could use it when you are pointing to someone next to you and introduce them by saying ์ด์ชฝ์€ ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ์ด์—์š”.
์ „์— in the past ๅ‰
N์— ๋‹ค๋‹ˆ๋‹ค to attend on a regular basis This is when you are going someplace regularly, say weekly or daily. Even for an online class, you can say ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด ์ˆ˜์—…์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. If it is clear, it is another way to say your occupation. A student could say: ์ €๋Š” ํ•™๊ต์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. An office worker could say: ์ €๋Š” ํšŒ์‚ฌ์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. Can also be used for working in a bank, etc.
์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๋‹ค to be kind ไบฒๅˆ‡. Pronunciation is like [์นœ์ €๋ผ๋‹ค], the ใ…Ž is almost silent.
๋ฉ‹์žˆ๋‹ค to be stylish; to be cool Normally used for guys, but you could apparently use this for girl crushes too. (Though I'm not sure what qualifies as a girl crush...)
์ธ์‚ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to greet ไบบไบ‹. This is all the hi/bye greetings. "์ธ์‚ฌํ•˜์„ธ์š”." is when you ask someone to say hi to someone else.
๋ญ˜์š”. Not really. This is a stock reply you can give when someone 1) thanks you or 2) praises/compliments you. It literally means "For what?" so when someone thanks you and you say this you are saying it was not a big deal at all.
Nํ•œํ…Œ์„œ from someone ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ ํ•œํ…Œ์„œ ๋“ค์—ˆ์–ด์š”. = I heard it from Steven.
์—ด 10 All these are native Korean numbers.
์Šค๋ฌผ 20
์„œ๋ฅธ 30
๋งˆํ” 40
์‰ฐ 50 It's like middle age, half of 100, so take a break (rest), like ์‰ฌ๋‹ค. (I am not sure if this is simply a mnemonic device or if it's actually true...)
์˜ˆ์ˆœ 60
์ผ๊ณฑ 70
์—ฌ๋“  80
์•„ํ” 90
๋ฐฑ 100 I'd learnt all these on my own before looking them up, thought 100 was ์˜จ? Clearly this is the Sino-Korean number.
๋†’์ž„๋ง honorific speech
์„ฑํ•จ name (hon.)
๋‚˜์ด age
์—ฐ์„ธ age (hon.) Funnily, the way I remember this is because I know Yonsei University. They have the same Hangeul, but different Hanja. It's ๅนดๅฒ for this, but for the university, it's ๅปถไธ– (which derives from the first syllables of the names of the 2 institutions that merged together to form it). You would not use this unless the person is at least in their 60s. See the note below for birthday.
๋Œ house (hon.) ์ง‘
๋ถ„ person (hon.) This both serves as the counting noun ๋ช… and as the word for person ์‚ฌ๋žŒ.
์ƒ์‹  birthday (hon.) ์ƒ์ผ, but you would not use it unless the person is at least in their sixties. (The teacher who I think is at most in her 40s - I'd say she looks like she's in her 30s but she's wayyy to experienced to be that young - said she would be shocked to hear this said to her. For teachers you know it's ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜ so usually you would use honorific speech.
๊ณ„์‹œ๋‹ค to be there ์žˆ๋‹ค. This and the other verbs here we've seen before when studying making requests with V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”... which was also when we last saw numbers.
๋“œ์‹œ๋‹ค to eat/drink ๋จน๋‹ค/๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค
์ฃผ๋ฌด์‹œ๋‹ค to sleep ์ž๋‹ค

My Family, House, and Country

Normally you would use ์ œ to refer to my (thing). That is the first person singular.

However, for your family members (typically your seniors), house, and country, you use ์šฐ๋ฆฌ instead.

์šฐ๋ฆฌ literally means we or us, and it is the first person plural.

  • You use it even when you are the only child and are talking about your mother: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ.
  • You use it even when you are the only person living in your house: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์ง‘
  • You also use it when you refer to your husband, even though you don't share your husband with anyone else: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ๋‚จํŽธ

Family: ์ดŒ System

The ์ดŒ (from ๆ‘, meaning village) is used to count how far away someone in the family tree is from you.

In this system, the family boundary is 8์ดŒ (ํŒ”์ดŒ). If another person is within the family boundary, you cannot marry them.

You can only go up and down, not "sideways" along a tree. This is why your uncle is called ์‚ผ์ดŒ and is 3์ดŒ away:

  • 1์ดŒ between you and your father
  • 2์ดŒ between you and your grandfather (father's father)
  • 3์ดŒ between you and your grandfather's son, i.e. your uncle

It's not 2์ดŒ because although your uncle is your father's brother (or mother's, but let's just take an example which illustrates the point), you cannot go "sideways" along the connection. You have to draw the connection up to your grandfather and then back down.

This is also why your cousin (uncle's son) is 4์ดŒ away and called ์‚ฌ์ดŒ.

Native Numbers (Age)

I think this is the last time we will see numbers (as a topic of their own), but there are still some notes on their use.

Naturally everyone in class had to cough up their ages and reveal it. It was a revealing day, since before this when doing the family portion we had to talk about how many people were in our family and who they were.

Half the class (3) are in their 20s (์ด์‹ญ๋Œ€), and the other half (another 3) are in their 30s (์‚ผ์‹ญ๋Œ€).

The numbers 20-50 are used very often.

Note that 20 has a "special" form (์Šค๋ฌด) when used with unit nouns. But only for 20, for the rest of the 20s you use the original form.

  • ์Šค๋ฌด ์‚ด (20 years old)
  • ์Šค๋ฌผ ํ•œ ์‚ด (21 years old; but notice ํ•˜๋‚˜ is ํ•œ)

60-90 are not used as much. Many tend to use the Sino-Korean numbers instead of the native numbers, even when it is technically not the correct expression.

To say someone is 71 years old:

  • ์ผํ” ํ•œ ์‚ด is the correct expression
  • ์น ์‹ญ์ผ is also acceptable

However, the 60-90 range numbers do bear some similarity to their single-digit counterparts 6-9, which makes them easier to remember.

Honorific Speech

This is used to give respect to the person that you are talking about. It is expected when you are talking about someone that is older or higher in social status.

It is not necessarily the person that you are talking to, but it could be.

Consequently, the subject of the sentence must be the listener (second person) or a third person, and never the speaker (first person).

Note: Different languages have different types of honorific speech; it turns out that the Tโ€“V distinction in Indo-European languages like French (tu/vous) and Italian (tu/voi) is also a form of honorifics. The term comes from the Latin pronouns.

This section is give examples on how it's for talking about others.

So if someone uses honorific speech on you, you cannot use that form in your reply. It would be weird!

For example if you go to a restaurant and they ask how many people are in your party:

  • ๋ช‡ ๋ถ„์ด์„ธ์š”?

Your reply (for a party of 3) would be:

  • ์„ธ ๋ช…์ด์š”.

Similarly, if someone asks you (and your name is Nana) if you eat meat:

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ณ ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋“œ์„ธ์š”?

Your reply would be (if you do eat meat):

  • ๋„ค, ๋จน์–ด์š”.

Agreement with Various Subjects

This came up in my German class today, it's about agreement or (Kongurenz auf Deutsch).

It's what happens when you have two subjects, joined in a "koordinativ" way. (I'm not sure what is the correct way to translate this, and what are the correct concepts in English.)

Examples include using:

  • und
  • sowohl... als auch
  • weder... noch

If you have 1st person and 2nd person, then it's 1st person plural:

  • Ich und du gehen... (=Wir gehen)

If you have 2nd and 3rd person, it can be either 2nd person plural (more common), or 3rd person plural:

  • Weder du noch deine Frau seid... (=Ihr seid)
  • Weder du als noch deine Frau sind... (=Sie sind)

We also had an interesting discussion last week about the use of "zu" before an infinitive, specifically, why does it appear when you have multiple verbs, but not for modal verbs.

Also last week (today being the last day) I decided to finally claim that Legendary achievement in Duolingo (which is to finish #1 in Diamond league). All I can say is, never again, even when it was only ~4k XP for me. It's not worth it, I had to pour extra time into Duolingo that would have been better used for other activities.

Lesson 33 (Beginner 2B Lesson 1): This Lesson is Surprising

It's the same 6 people in this new term. At least for now. We are still having the lessons online until at least the end of July.

Since the lockdown measures have eased, there was a poll to ask whether we'd want to have lessons at the school after June, but I chose (and apparently so did the majority) to have the classes online.

I think apart from the commute taking time, it's the whole having to go out and being on public transport for an extended period, plus you still have to wear a mask and practise safe distancing. It's just that much easier online.

We are almost done with Chapter 8 (as far as I can tell, we only have the pronunciation and the self-check left), which is the last chapter in the 1A textbook.

And yes, we had another writing assignment which I've yet to complete. It really feels like we flew by this chapter.


3. ์ด[๊ทธ, ์ €] + N

Attach ์ด, ๊ทธ, ์ € to nouns to indicate their location.

Previously, we learnt ์ด๊ฑฐ, ๊ทธ๊ฑฐ and ์ €๊ฑฐ which are used to indicate "this (thing)", "that (thing)", and "that (thing) over there" respectively.

Actually, ๊ฑฐ literally means "thing" or "(that) one", so you can remove ๊ฑฐ in the 3 cases and replace it with any noun.

However, you need to include a space between ์ด, ๊ทธ and ์ € and any noun.


  • ์ด ์ฐจ = this car
  • ๊ทธ ์ฑ… = that book
  • ์ € ๊ฐ€๋ฐฉ = that bag over there

As a reminder:

  • ์ด (this): close to the speaker
  • ๊ทธ (that): close to the listener, or not in sight, or previously mentioned in conversation
  • ์ € (that over there): far from speaker and listener, but still in sight

4. A/V-๋„ค์š”

This is used to express the feeling of surpirse about a fact that the speaker has come to know.

It will not be something that the speaker already knows. There is no exact English translation for this, as it would simply translate to the present (or past) tense form.

Regardless if there is batchim (๋ฐ›์นจ) or not, you simply add -๋„ค์š” to the stem for present tense. (This means from the dictionary form, you remove ๋‹ค.)

For the past tense, you conjugate the past tense form, and replace ์–ด์š” with ๋„ค์š”.


  • ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋ฅ๋„ค์š”. (The weather is hot.)
  • ์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ์ž˜ ์ฐ๋„ค์š”. (He takes good pictures./He is a good photographer.)
  • ํ•˜๋Š˜์ด ๋ง‘๋„ค์š”. (The sky is clear.)
  • ์šฐ์œ ๊ฐ€ ์—†๋„ค์š”. (There's no milk.)
  • ๋ˆˆ์ด ์™”๋„ค์š”. (It snowed.)

Note the pronunciation, due to ๋„ค, there's quite some changes:

  • ๋ฅ๋„ค์š”: [๋ค๋„ค์š”]
  • ์ฐ๋„ค์š”: [์ฐก๋„ค์š”]
  • ๋ง‘๋„ค์š”: [๋ง๋„ค์š”]
    • Since ๋ง‘ usually is [๋ง‰], you have ใ„ฑ + ใ„ด resulting in the ใ…‡ (-ng) sound, as per [์ฐก๋„ค์š”].
  • ์—†๋„ค์š”: [์—„๋„ค์š”]
  • ์™”๋„ค์š”: [์™„๋„ค์š”]

Culture Note

The culture note for this chapter is about blind dates. Perhaps more accurately, it's about dating culture?

There are 3 types of blind dates:

  1. ๋ฏธํŒ…
  2. ์†Œ๊ฐœํŒ…
  3. ์„ 

๋ฏธํŒ… (Group Blind Date)

The first, ๋ฏธํŒ…, is taken from the English word "meeting", but means a group blind date.

It is most common among university students. Usually it's one a guy and a girl who knew each other previously (such as in high school) invite their friends to go for this date together.

So the girl will invite her friends, and the guy his friends, and they come together for this date. If any of the friends are interested in each other, they would exchange numbers.

์†Œ๊ฐœํŒ… (Blind Date)

The second is called ์†Œ๊ฐœํŒ…, which means "introduction" (์†Œ๊ฐœ) + "meeting" (ํŒ…, from "meeting" ๋ฏธํŒ…).

This is common for both university students and for people who have just started working.

Usually it's a friend or colleague that will suggest for his two friends (who have not met each other) to go on such a date, and the pair go on the date by themselves, meeting one-on-one.

์„  (Blind Dating for Marriage)

This is the serious one, and the setting is much more formal. Usually such a meeting is set up by a family member (naturally a senior member, e.g. parents or grandparents and not siblings), and the people who go on such a date do so with the intention of marriage.

The verb for this is ์„ ์„ ๋ณด๋‹ค. I couldn't find the ์„  that this ์„  refers to since there's quite a few things that ์„  can mean...


Korean English Notes
์น˜ํ‚จ fried chicken
์น˜ํ‚จ์ง‘ fried chicken shop (restaurant)
๋ฐ์ดํŠธํ•˜๋‹ค to go on a date
์‹ํ˜œ Sikhye a sweet rice drink
๊ด‘๊ณ  advertisement ๅปฃๅ‘Š (ๅนฟๅ‘Š)
์–ธ์–ด๊ต์œก์› language education institute ์–ธ์–ด (่จ€่ฏญ) means "language".
์šด๋™์žฅ stadium
๋ฏธํŒ… group blind date Blind date with a group of friends, common among students in university. If a boy and girl knew each other say in high school, each would invite their friends (of their respective gender) to this group blind date. Their friends, if they have interest in each other, would exchange contact numbers.
์†Œ๊ฐœํŒ… blind date This is usually when a mutual friend suggests that two of his friends meet up one-to-one. These two friends would not have met before. ์†Œ๊ฐœํŒ… is kind of a portmanteau of "introduction" (์†Œ๊ฐœ) + "meeting" (ํŒ…).
์†Œ๊ฐœํ•˜๋‹ค to introduce
์„  formal blind date ์„ ์„ ๋ณด๋‹ค = to have a blind date (typically arranged by a senior in the family) for the purpose of marriage
์›ƒ์–ด๋ฅธ senior Wiktionary says it's pronounced [์šฐ์„œ๋ฅธ] but I'm hearing ์šฐ๋”๋ฅธ, a bit like how ๋ง›์—†๋‹ค is [๋งˆ๋ฅ๋”ฐ]?
์›์ˆญ์ด monkey
์‚ฌ์šฉ์ž๋ช… username ์‚ฌ์šฉ์ž = ไฝฟ็”จ่€… (user); ๋ช… = ๅ (name)
์„œ๋ฒ„ server
๋ฉค๋ฒ„ member
๊ฐœ์ธ ๋ฉ”์‹œ์ง€ private message ๊ฐœ์ธ = ๅ€‹ไบบ
์ถ”๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋‹ค to add ์นœ๊ตฌ ์ถ”๊ฐ€ํ•˜๊ธฐ = add a friend (button label)

About the Title

"This lesson" refers to the third grammar point for attaching ์ด to nouns. "Surprising" refers to the last grammar point. I think it would have been confusing to indicate the culture note about dating, so I left that out.

Lesson 32 (Beginner 2A Lesson 8): Shall we go by foot?

We started the lesson with using Quizlet for revision. This is the first time since... well, the beginning of this term. It was still the groups competition (2 groups of 3), but since it's individual effort in that sense, it depended on your teammates. The first round I was paired with 2 people from my previous class (including my friend) and we won. The second round we also won, but this was a different group, with one person from my previous class (the same as in the first round, but not my friend) and one classmate who is new for this term, from another class. We probably restarted like twice since someone answered wrongly, that's how it goes. I thought we were gone but in the other team too, someone answered incorrectly and we won by a narrow margin.

For some strange reason the most common word that both groups tripped over was ํฌ๋‹ค (to be big). In our second ronud, when I said we restarted twice, it's because someone chose ํฌ๋‹ค as the answer wrongly twice.

In this lesson, we went through the first 2 grammar points of this chapter.

There was also some exposure to telling time (just examples with the hours with native numbers + ์‹œ and also ๋ฐ˜ for half hours) in some of the sentences for today for the first grammar point. If I am not mistaken, this is the first time seeing it in my course, though I'd already seen them in First Step Korean, and so I was able to explain it to my conversation partner in one of the breakout rooms. But the actual introduction of telling time comes later still.


1. V-(์œผ)ใ„น๊นŒ์š”?

This is used to make suggestions or ask the listener's permission or intention about something. You only use this for questions, never in statements.

The subject is not stated. However, the implicit subject of the question is usually "we". Sometimes, it can also be "I", depending on the context.

Important: Be careful with the pronunciation of ๊นŒ, it is not [์นด].

The rule is as follows:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์„๊นŒ์š”?
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X or ใ„น + ใ„น๊นŒ์š”?

So for example, with ์ฝ๋‹ค, there is ๋ฐ›์นจ and so you add ์„๊นŒ์š” (since you can't squeeze the ใ„น below), which gives ์ฝ์„๊นŒ์š”?

  • ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์„๊นŒ์š”? (Shall we read a book?)

With ๊ฐ€๋‹ค, there is no ๋ฐ›์นจ so you can add the ใ„น below, and then tack on the ๊นŒ์š”?

  • ์–ด๋””์— ๊ฐˆ๊นŒ์š”? (Where shall we go?)

As mentioned above, you can only use this form for questions. So if someone asks you a question, when you reply, generally you will use the present tense form (์•„์š”/์–ด์š”/ํ•ด์š”).

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋‚ด์ผ ๋ญ ํ• ๊นŒ์š”? (What are you doing tomorrow?)
  • ๋‚˜: ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”. (I'm meeting my friend.)

If you are speaking with close friends and you don't have to be polite or show manners, you can also use ์ž. Apparently, this is what you will hear when you watch K-dramas.

Naturally, you can add a time element to all questions, and in most cases you will use the particle ์— (See Grammar #2 in Lesson 17):

  • ๋งˆ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (Shall we meet?)
  • ๋‚ด์ผ ๋งˆ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (Shall we meet tomorrow?)
  • ๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ ๊ธˆ์š”์ผ์— ๋งˆ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (Shall we meet next Friday?)
    • A side note for saying "next (day of week)" is that ์ฃผ is preferred to be there, though technically you can still say ๋‹ค์Œ ๊ธˆ์š”์ผ์—...

As observed in these examples, the translation for sentences with V-(์œผ)ใ„น๊นŒ์š”? is usually "Shall we...?"

However, this is not the only possibility. You can ask about the time or place to do something:

  • ์–ธ์ œ ๋งˆ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (When shall we meet?)
  • ๋ช‡ ์‹œ์— ๋งˆ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (At what time shall we meet?)
  • ์–ด๋‹ค์—์„œ ๋งŒ๋‚ ๊นŒ์š”? (Where shall we meet?)

The Thing About ๋ญ˜

In the textbook (page 189) that covers this grammar point, there's a post-it that talks about this ๋ญ˜.

I first came across it in the First Step Korean course on Coursera, and I put this down as a question at the end of the Lesson 29 post.

Basically, the textbook says that:

  • ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ + ๋ฅผ โ†’ ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ๋ฅผ โ†’ ๋ˆ„๊ตด
  • ๋ญ + ๋ฅผ โ†’ ๋ญ๋ฅผ โ†’ ๋ญ˜

So, if you are being proper, the particle will be there. However, in more casual conversations, you'd combine the particle as shown (resulting in ๋ˆ„๊ตด and ๋ญ˜ respectively).

However, in spoken language, you not only combine, but can also omit the particle.

Which is why in many sentences I've seen so far where the object particle ๋ฅผ should have been, it's not there, and we only have ๋ญ and not ๋ญ๋ฅผ/๋ญ˜.

2. ใ„ท ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™

This is the ใ„ท (๋””๊ทฟ, di-geut) irregular verb conjugation.

The rule states that for some verb stems ending in 'ใ„ท' and are followed by a vowel (i.e. ใ…‡, "empty circle" as the teacher calls it), 'ใ„ท' changes to 'ใ„น'.

In Chapter 7, we learnt the rule for ใ…‚ (๋น„์, bi-eup) ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™ irregular verbs (see Lesson 28 - it's more adjectives than verbs, actually). At the time, the teacher also said we'd be learning at least one irregular conjugations in the next chapters, or something along those lines.

Unlike the ใ…‚ rule which applies more universally to most words, this ใ„ท rule does not apply generally to all ใ„ท verbs, but only to certain words.

For now, we learn only two of them, but these two are common words in everyday usage, which is why we learn this rule:

  1. ๋“ฃ๋‹ค (to listen)
  2. ๊ฑท๋‹ค (to walk)

Let's take ๋“ฃ๋‹ค and ๊ฑท๋‹ค, and compare it with ๋‹ซ๋‹ค (to close) which isn't irregular:

-์•„์š”/์–ด์š” -์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” -(์œผ)ใ„น๊นŒ์š”? ๊ณ  ์ง€๋งŒ -(์Šค)ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๋“ฃ๋‹ค* ๋“ค์–ด์š” ๋“ค์—ˆ์–ด์š” ๋“ค์œผ์„ธ์š” ๋“ค์„๊นŒ์š”? ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ๋“ฃ์ง€๋งŒ ๋“ฃ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๊ฑท๋‹ค* ๊ฑธ์–ด์š” ๊ฑธ์—ˆ์–ด์š” ๊ฑธ์œผ์„ธ์š” ๊ฑธ์„๊นŒ์š”? ๊ฑท๊ณ  ๊ฑท์ง€๋งŒ ๊ฑท์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๋‹ซ๋‹ค ๋‹ซ์•„์š” ๋‹ซ์•˜์–ด์š” ๋‹ซ์œผ์„ธ์š” ๋‹ซ์„๊นŒ์š”? ๋‹ซ๊ณ  ๋‹ซ์ง€๋งŒ ๋‹ซ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

To go by Foot

An example sentence that appeared due to ๊ฑท๋‹ค (to walk).

๊ฑธ์–ด์„œ ๊ฐ€์š” means to go (somewhere) by foot.


This has come up before, but this was brought up again because of the pronunciation of ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ [์–ด๋– ์ผ€], which appeared in a speaking dialogue in the textbook.

Basically, ใ…Ž + ใ„ฑ = ใ…‹ regardless of the order.

  • ใ…Ž + ใ„ฑ = ใ…‹ (as in ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ [์–ด๋– ์ผ€])
  • ใ„ฑ + ใ…Ž = ใ…‹ (as in ์‚ฐ์ฑ…ํ•˜๋‹ค [์‚ฐ์ฑ„์นด๋‹ค])


Korean English Notes
์ถค ์ถ”๋‹ค to dance
์‚ฌ๊ณผํ•˜๋‹ค to say sorry This happens when the person is too awkward to say ๋ฏธ์•ˆํ•˜๋‹ค/์ฃ„์†กํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค as an apology. In fact, they may not even say ์‚ฌ๊ณผํ•˜๋‹ค, but instead give the other person an apple instead, since this literally means "apple-to do".
๊ณ ๋ฐฑํ•˜๋‹ค to confess To confess feelings for someone, that is.
๋‹ซ๋‹ค to close e.g. close the door. This was introduced to say that majority of ใ„ท-verbs are not irregular.

About the Title

In case for some reason I forget why the post is named as such, it's named for the two grammar points.

The first is usually translated "Shall we...?" and the other one is the irregular ใ„ท verb, of which "to walk" is one of them.

The "go by foot" is a reference to the new expression (๊ฑธ์–ด์„œ ๊ฐ€์š”), but also because if I said "Shall we go for a walk?" I think the more correct verb to use is ์‚ฐ์ฑ…ํ•˜๋‹ค, and "Shall we walk?" just doesn't sound quite right.

Lesson 31 (Beginner 2A L7): Ending Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 Vocab

We spent the first hour finishing up chapter 7, and the last half an hour going through the vocabulary for chapter 8.

I realised after a week of Zoom meetings this past week (I had a couple of workshops for work), how amazing this teacher is at using Zoom. She switches seamlessly between screen share and then stop sharing, to share different files on different software (some are in MS Word, others are in Adobe Acrobat). The way she uses the annotation tools (okay, yes, that's not exclusive to Zoom). And the speed at which she creates breakout rooms. It's really something I didn't notice until I saw how others struggled with it.

Another good thing that's like air. It's like how good UI and good UX are invisible. Good IA too. Until they are horrible and then they are noticed. Okay, that's a digression.

The remainder of the chapter 7 content that we covered were all from the textbook.

We restarted on page 175, the page with the dialogue of a presentation. We practised that, and also shared something we wrote from the homework, which was an exercise on that page.

There were listening exercises too and then another dialogue about going somewhere, and talking about the weather. I picked Paris because... well, I had no idea how to say any city in Switzerland or even Switzerland in Korean (this is rectified; I've checked and added a few to the vocab list).

Culture Note

The culture note discusses food eaten in summer and winter. Unfortunately I live in the tropics so what is winter? The weather is always hot.

The food items introduced included ํŒฅ๋น™์ˆ˜ (patbingsu), which is red bean shaved ice. ํŒฅ means "red bean" and ๋น™์ˆ˜ means "shaved ice". Naturally, this is eaten in the summer.

Other varieties of shaved ice exist, such as ๋”ธ๊ธฐ๋น™์ˆ˜ (strawberry shaved ice) and ๋ง๊ณ ๋น™์ˆ˜ (mango shaved ice).

It's somewhat similar to the ice kachang dessert here in that they are also shaved ice... though I guess the Taiwanese shaved ice desserts would be even more similar.

Then there is ์ฐ๋นต (jjinppang, steamed bread), very similar to the local ๅŒ… (bฤo), but traditionally this only has red bean paste filling. The local ๅŒ… usually... well, for me, I like the meat ones. This is hot food eaten in the winters.

The third item is also eaten in the winter, and it's ๋ด‰์–ด๋นต (bungeo-ppang, "carp bread"). This is also filled with red bean paste. When I saw the picture, the first thing it reminded me of was taiyaki ("baked sea bream"). Yes, it turns out that bungeo-ppang was derived from taiyaki, and the type of fish it was modelled after changed... though... I have to admit I'd not looked closely at the type of fish before this.

There is also of course ์‚ผ๊ณ„ํƒ• (samgye-tang), the famous ginseng chicken soup.

I say famous because this is the one thing that I know every Korean tour I've been on (two, the last one being... something like in 2009), we ate this thing and I still remember it. I have to confess that I never knew the Korean name, and thus on Memrise, never made the connection. Memrise's Korean course has this word, but the English "translation" is "samgyetang" which is completely unhelpful.

This is eaten on extremely hot summer days, although the soup is hot, because it is a way to "fight fire with fire" (์ด์—ด์น˜์—ด, from ไปฅ็†ฑๆฒป็†ฑ). Though, I realise the Chinese expression I am familiar with is ไปฅๆฏ’ๆ”ปๆฏ’, to "fight poison with poison". But at the same time, I think the heat aspect isn't too unfamiliar, I think it refers to "heaty" foods (fried foods are an example, and I think ginseng too). Something to do with yin and yang, heaty and cooling foods, which I don't really get too, but basically there's this concept that you shouldn't eat too much heaty foods or you'd get sick... not that I really know what is considered heaty or not. Usually it's something my mother says and I... uh, conveniently forget.

Naturally, there is also ์ด๋ƒ‰์น˜๋ƒ‰ (ไปฅๅ†ทๆฒปๅ†ท), though this is not as common as the "hot" variant. So on really cold winter days, they eat ๋ƒ‰๋ฉด (cold noodles).


The pronunciation rule for chapter 7 lays out what we have already seen in:

  1. Lesson 23 on the numbers
  2. Lesson 29 with formal speech

Lesson 23:

์‹ญ๋งŒ [์‹ฌ๋งŒ] ... softening the sound when the previous end consonant meets the ใ… (m) of the next syllable

Lesson 29:

The ใ…‚ sound is softened to [ใ…] because of the ใ„ด sound that follows. It is [์Šด๋‹ˆ๋‹ค] and not [์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]. And it's [ํ•จ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค] not [ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค].

The rule states that when the final consonant sound [ใ…‚] is followed by a syllable that begins with ใ„ด or ใ…, then [ใ…‚] is prounounced as [ใ…].


  1. ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [์ž„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  2. ๋ฐฐ์›๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [๋ฐฐ์›€๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  3. ์‹ญ๋งŒ [์‹ฌ๋งŒ]


This section includes vocabulary for both chapter 7 (new things that came up in the lesson today) and chapter 8.

Korean English Notes
๋ฐ•๋ฌผ๊ด€ museum ๋ฃจ๋ธŒ๋ฅด ๋ฐ•๋ฌผ๊ด€ = The Louvre Museum
์•ผ์‹œ์žฅ night market
์‚ฌ์šฐ๋‚˜ sauna
์Šค์œ„์Šค Switzerland
๋ฒ ๋ฅธ Bern
์ทจ๋ฆฌํžˆ Zurich
๋กœ์ž” Lausanne
๋ ˆ๋งŒํ˜ธ Lac Lรฉman (Lake Geneva)
์ œ๋„ค๋ฐ” Geneva
์ œ๋„ค๋ฐ”์ฃผ Canton of Geneva
๋ณด์ฃผ Canton of Vaud
์ดํƒˆ๋ฆฌ์•„ Italy Italia
๋ฒ ๋„ค์น˜์•„ Venice Venezia
๋กฌ๋ฐ”๋ฅด๋””์•„์ฃผ Lombardy Lombardia
๋ฐ€๋ผ๋…ธ Milan Milano
๋น™์ˆ˜ shaved ice ๆฐทๆฐด
ํŒฅ๋น™์ˆ˜ red bean shaved ice (patbingsu) dessert, sort of similar to ice kachang (ais kacang)
์ฐ๋นต steamed bread (jjinppang) very similar to ๅŒ… (bฤo), but normally the filling is red bean paste
๋ถ•์–ด๋นต bungeo-ppang "carp bread", fish-shaped pastry stuffed with sweetened red bean paste.
์‚ผ๊ณ„ํƒ• Korean ginseng chicken soup (samgye-tang) ่”˜้ท„ๆนฏ
์ด์—ด์น˜์—ด to fight fire with fire ไปฅ็†ฑๆฒป็†ฑ, "to fight heat with heat", such as eating the hot Korean ginseng chicken soup on an extremely hot summer's day
์ด๋ƒ‰์น˜๋ƒ‰ to fight cold with cold ไปฅๅ†ทๆฒปๅ†ท
๊ฒŒ์ž„์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to play a game
์ถ•๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to play soccer
๋†๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to play basketball
์•ผ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to play baseball Note that baseball involves hitting (batting), but because there are other actions such as catching, running, etc. in the game, it uses the generic ํ•˜๋‹ค and not ์น˜๋‹ค (see below).
ํƒ€๋‹ค to ride; to take Used for sports where you are "riding" on something. Also for taking a bus, taxi, or riding a horse.
์Šค์ผ€์ดํŠธ๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to skate Seems like it can refer to both ice skating and inline skating (rollerblading) from image search.
์Šคํ‚ค๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to ski
์Šค๋…ธ๋ณด๋“œ๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to snowboard
์ž์ „๊ฑฐ๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to ride a bicycle
์น˜๋‹ค to play Used when you have to hit with your hands or with something.
๋‹น๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play billards
ํ…Œ๋‹ˆ์Šค๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play tennis
๋ฐฐ๋“œ๋ฏผํ„ด๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play badminton
๊ณจํ”„๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play golf
ํ”ผ์•„๋…ธ๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play the piano
๊ธฐํƒ€๋ฅผ ์น˜๋‹ค to play the guitar
๋‚ฎ์ž ์„ ์ž๋‹ค to take a nap
์ž ์„ ์ž๋‹ค to sleep
๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฐฉ์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go to a singing room (karaoke)
์ฐœ์งˆ๋ฐฉ์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go to a Korean sauna
์‚ฐ์ฑ…(์„) ํ•˜๋‹ค to stroll; to take a walk
๋“ฑ์‚ฐ(์„) ํ•˜๋‹ค to climb a mountain
์—ฌํ–‰(์„) ํ•˜๋‹ค to travel
์ƒํ™œ life ็”Ÿๆดป. You can use it to talk about a life situation and contextualise it, e.g. ํ•™๊ต ์ƒํ™œ = school life, ํšŒ์‚ฌ ์ƒํ™œ = working life, ํ•œ๊ตญ ์ƒํ™œ = life in Korea
๊ฑท๋‹ค to walk This is more general than ์‚ฐ์ฑ…ํ•˜๋‹ค. It would include things like walking for leisure, exercise, going to the kitchen to get a glass of water, or going downstairs to collect the letters. ์‚ฐ์ฑ…ํ•˜๋‹ค would be more intentional, and for the last two situations you definitely cannot use it.
๋“ฃ๋‹ค to listen
๋งŽ๋‹ค to be a lot N์ด/๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ๋‹ค. ์ผ์ด ๋งŽ์•„์š”. = A lot of work. You can use ๋งŽ์•„์š” or ๋งŽ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”, the meaning is the same.
๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค to be near This appeared in the last chapter's homework, but since it appeared again, I'm adding it here.
์‹ฌ์‹ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to be bored Pronunciation: [์‹ฌ์‹œ๋งˆ๋‹ค] - though it's still okay if the ใ…Ž is heard
ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•˜๋‹ค to be tired Pronunciation: [ํ”ผ๊ณ ๋‚˜๋‹ค] - this one apparently will sound weird if the ใ…Ž is heard
ํฌ๋‹ค to be big
์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ how Pronunciation: [์–ด๋– ์ผ€]
์กฐ๊ธˆ a little This is sometimes intentionally pronounced shaper or shorter (์ข€) to emphasise that it is little.
์ž์ฃผ often ์ž์ฃผ + V, e.g. ์ž์ฃผ ๊ฐ€์š”.

Lesson 30 (Beginner 2A L6): And (๊ณ )

We are finishing Chapter 7 next week since we covered the last grammar point. That's really fast.

The lesson started with revision of last week's grammar, so with the help of the physical flash cards with pictures on one side and the verb on the other, we had to conjugate for both ์ง€๋งŒ and then ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. There were a few variants. With the verb's infinitive shown or the picture side (which is harder), and we had to do both the present tense and the past tense.

We also went through the textbook for these grammar topics, in addition to the new grammar topic, since we did not touch the textbook in the last lesson.

I mentioned back in the second lesson of this term (Lesson 26) that we had a new student. Well, this was his last lesson as he's going into the army next Friday.

We also got the invoices for the next lesson term. The fee this round includes an extra $35 for the next textbook. Time really flies. It'll soon be a year since I started learning Korean.


There was also one page on the handout that we did in this lesson. It was an exercise for the third grammar point (A/V-์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค), which brought up a pronunciation note (that is also in the textbook, I later saw).

Basically, the ใ…† sound in the syllable-final position (it's a /t/) is hard to pronounce before the ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค when you have the past tense, such as in ๋งŒ๋‚ฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

So how it's actually pronounced is that instead of [์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค] it becomes [์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค], and you don't pronounce the /t/ sound with the previous syllable.

  • ๋งŒ๋‚ฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค: [๋งŒ๋‚˜์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  • ๋จน์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค: [๋จธ๊ฑฐ์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]


4. A/V-๊ณ , N(์ด)๊ณ 

The last time we saw ๊ณ , it was introduced to list events in order back in Lesson 19.

However, in this case, it does not necessarily mean that the events happen in sequence. (Indeed, it would make no sense for adjectives and nouns.)

This is simply used to connect two clauses that may not be sequential. It's simply "and".

I'm not certain how to distinguish between the two uses for the case of a verb since in some constructions they would be identical, but I think it's like for many things in language: it will depend heavily on context.

Notably for the verb here, the examples abounded with different subjects doing different actions. But back in Lesson 19, most of the sentences were focused on a single subject.

Let's look at some examples for each.


  1. ์˜ค๋ Œ์ง€๊ฐ€ ์‹ธ๊ณ  ๋ง›์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The orange is cheap and delicious.)
  2. ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์ถฅ๊ณ  ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (The weather is cold and it is raining.)
    • A small aside here that for ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค๋‹ค, ๋ˆˆ์ด ์˜ค๋‹ค and ๋ฐ”๋žŒ์ด ๋ถˆ๋‹ค, when someone asks how is the weather, you do not start with "๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€". The literal meanings of those phrases: "the rain to come", "the snow to come" and "the wind to blow". Just like you won't say "The weather is the wind is blowing", it doesn't make sense to add the ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€.
    • So, by itself: ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
  3. ์–ด์ œ ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋ฅ๊ณ  ๋ง‘์•˜์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (Yesterday, the weather was hot and sunny.)
    • Notice that if the entire sentence is in the past tense, you do not need to conjugate the ๋ฅ to make it ๋”์›  as in the case of the "but" sentence where the first half it in the past and the second half is in the present (see the previous lesson).
    • This is also the straightforward version that we were taught also with ๊ณ  the first time.


  1. ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ์€ ์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ์ฐ๊ณ  ๋‚˜๋‚˜๋Š” ์š”๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ํ–ˆ์–ด์š”. (Steven took pictures and Nana cooked.)
  2. ์ €๋Š” ์นดํŽ˜์—์„œ ์ปคํ”ผ๋„ ๋งˆ์‹œ๊ณ  ์ˆ™์ œ๋„ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (I am drinking coffee and doing my homework at the cafรฉ.)
    • I'm not doing homework after I drink coffee. The events are not sequential here.
    • The teacher seemed to have said something about using ๋„ for listing the events, but I'm not certain of its use here. She also mentioned that the events are not in order, but my uncertainty arises from what she's referring to, since the "not in order" part should be about ๊ณ , no?


This is the same as what was seen last lesson, that whether you have ์ด depends on whether you have batchim or not:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O: ์ด์—์š” + ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  = ์ด๊ณ 
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X: ์˜ˆ์š” + ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  = ๊ณ 

It's rather interesting that it's meant to be short form of ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ , which we learnt that it is "and" for connecting clauses and not things (which you will use ํ•˜๊ณ , and... I also talked about last week).

  1. ์ €๋Š” ํ•™์ƒ์ด๊ณ  ์–ธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ํšŒ์‚ฌ์›์ด์—์š”. (I am a student and my sister is an office worker.)
  2. ์ €๋Š” ๊ธฐ์ž๊ณ  ์ผ๋ณธ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด์—์š”. (I am a reporter and I am Japanese.)


Korean English Notes
๋†๊ตฌ basketball
์‚ด๋‹ค to live e.g. to live in a certain country, ํ•œ๊ตญ์—์„œ ์‚ด์•„์š”.
์—ด๋Œ€ ๊ธฐํ›„ tropical climate ็†ฑๅธถๆฐฃๅ€™
์Šตํ•˜๋‹ค to be humid
์‰ฌ๋Š” ์‹œ๊ฐ„ break time lit. resting time
์Šคํ‚ค์žฅ์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go skiing lit. to go to the ski resort
ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด ๊ณต๋ถ€๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋•Œ์š”? How is your Korean studies going? Refers to the learning journey

Lesson 29 (Beginner 2A L5): Contrasting Clauses and Formal Speech

Today was an intense grammar lesson, covering 2 more grammar points after our word quiz.

What was more interesting was that I found out from my friend, the guy who is still taking the class with me, that our previous teacher actually quit teaching at the school. Or, well, she quit at one point, but now she's back. Or maybe she never left (because of the Covid situation), I don't know. My friend thinks she may be teaching part-time.

Her last day was the day of our last lesson before the break, so that was Lesson 24. I had a sixth sense about this, that she was quitting the school, but I wasn't sure. On the last lesson, I was right on time and missed their informal photo-taking session (which was later posted to the KakaoTalk group) and probably when she mentioned it to them.

Yesterday, he sent me a message with a screenshot from Instagram asking me if the person in the picture was our previous teacher. The picture in that Instagram post by the school included a screenshot of a Zoom meeting (basically, a class), and our previous teacher was in it along with some other people (students, obviously).

I replied today just before the class since I had so many Zoom meetings this past week that the history no longer included the class and I had to dig out the meeting details, saying that it does look like her.

In response, he replied to say that "it seems she came back to teach" and so in my mind, I was like, Wait, what? She left? (It's interesting too because probably a week or so ago, to satisfy my curiosity/sixth sense, I did check the school's website which keeps a list of the teachers, and she was still on the list... and I know they updated it recently since they say it's closed for to the Circuit Breaker period... So, I chalked it up to me having a wrong feeling about this.)

Then he told me about how our last lesson was her last day.

So... it turns out my sixth sense was right.

(Her KakaoTalk name is still without the ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜ though, which is something I noticed last week or so... basically when I try to submit homework to our current teacher. And... I just read her Korean (actual) name again, I tend to skip that since she puts her English name too, and realised that one of my new classmates basically chose the same Korean name as this other teacher... ok. I'm clearly not very observant.)

Anyway, digression over.

Word Quiz

We started with the word quiz.

There were a list of words we had to write in Korean given their English translations. Some we were to write the basic (dictionary/infinitive) form, for the others we were to write the present tense (casual) form.

I made two mistakes. Maybe I should really consider forcing myself to type, or really write. It feels very unfamiliar to me because I've not actually written the words.

(I wrote ๊ฐ€๊ฒ๋‹ค instead of ๊ฐ€๋ณ๋‹ค, and ๋ง‘์–ด์š” instead of ๋ง‘์•„์š”. For the second one, I've gotten something similar wrong before with ๋‹ฆ๋‹ค.)


0. Extra Grammar: ์™€/๊ณผ, ํ•˜๊ณ  and (์ด)๋ž‘

Due to the homework where we were converting a polite-casual speech text to the polite-fromal speech, I decided to use ์™€/๊ณผ in place of ํ•˜๊ณ  since ์™€/๊ณผ was meant to be formal, right?

(Actually, you definitely can use ์™€/๊ณผ even in the casual ํ•ด์š”์ฒด speech from the textbook examples. I don't know if the converse is true, using ํ•˜ instead of ์™€/๊ณผ in formal ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด. I also discovered today that the textbook doesn't really mention ์™€/๊ณผ as being formal, it was all in the additional handout...)

I had to get straightened out on the ์™€/๊ณผ and ํ•˜๊ณ  thing, whether ์™€/๊ณผ not only means (formal) "and", but also "with", same as ํ•˜๊ณ .

This site provides the answer: Yes.

This example demonstrates it:

๋‚˜๋Š” ์ฒ ์ˆ˜์™€ ๊ฐ™์ด ์‚ด์•„. (I live with Chul Su.)

It's also in the description, but the next sentence goes on to talk about the spoken language thing -(์ด)๋ž‘, which I've not encountered and my brain wasn't up for it.

It's something that I already had a question about some time ago, but never bothered to find out since, hey, I didn't need it. Since, you know, we never learnt ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด formally (pun was not intended, but, whatever) until today.

Basically, I am lazy and I don't search things all that diligently. More on this when we cover the second grammar point today (third for this chapter).

I went to try to find a source that says ์™€/๊ณผ is formal, and then I came across this article... which does that, but also discusses (์ด)๋ž‘, the thing that I was avoiding in the other link. Sigh. So I ended up finding out about it anyway.

This is also interchangeable and has the same meaning, but you use ๋ž‘ if there is no batchim, and ์ด๋ž‘ when there is. (It's actually reminding me of the N(์ด)์ง€๋งŒ... which I shall now get into.)

2. A/V-์ง€๋งŒ, N(์ด)์ง€๋งŒ

This is used to connect two contrasting clause. In a nutshell, it functions like "but".

For adjectives (A) and verbs (V), you simply remove the ๋‹ค and replace it with ์ง€๋งŒ. For nouns, if it has batchim, you use N์ด์ง€๋งŒ, but if it does not, then you use N์ง€๋งŒ.


  1. ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด ๊ณต๋ถ€๋Š” ์–ด๋ ต์ง€๋งŒ ์žฌ๋ฏธ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Studying Korean is difficult but interesting.)
    • Adjective example
  2. ์–ด์ œ๋Š” ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐ”์ง€๋งŒ ์˜ค๋Š˜์€ ์•ˆ ๊ฐ€์š”. (Yesterday I went to school but today I did not.)
    • Verb example
    • Notice the use of ์€/๋Š” as the contrast particle. This particle is added to the thing you are comparing, in this case, the time.
    • Lesson 26 covered the different uses of this particle.
  3. ์ €๋Š” ํšŒ์‚ฌ์›์ด์ง€๋งŒ ์—ฌ๋™์ƒ์€ ํ•™์ƒ์ด์—์š”. (I am a company employee, but my younger sister is a student.)
    • Noun example
    • The way the teacher described it, the ์ด seemed to be part of the ์ด์—์š”, the "am". So it is only after the fact that I realised that this is in fact the noun example (not verb) as ํšŒ์‚ฌ์› is a noun.
    • Again, notice ์€/๋Š” being used for contrast.

์€/๋Š” is attached to nouns in contrasting clauses. You would generally not use ์ด/๊ฐ€.

The teacher said that it's not strictly wrong (ungrammatical) to use ์ด/๊ฐ€, but a sentence like ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ ์”จ ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผ๊ฐ€ ๋น„์‹ธ์ง€๋งŒ ์ œ ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผ๊ฐ€ ์‹ธ์š” sounds unnatural.

One of my classmates asked if it's okay to use ์ด/๊ฐ€ for the first clause, but ์€/๋Š” for the second clause.

The teacher said that that is fine in conversation (e.g. when the speaker isn't sure how he wants to end his sentence), but minimally ์€/๋Š” must be used for the second clause.

She said that the advantage of using ์€/๋Š” for the first clause is that if she just heard the first clause with ์€/๋Š”, she would expect to hear a contrast in the second half even before it's been said.

Past Tense (Part 1)

This was where things get a bit... crazy.

Look at the second example above: ์–ด์ œ๋Š” ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐ”์ง€๋งŒ ์˜ค๋Š˜์€ ์•ˆ ๊ฐ€์š”. (Yesterday I went to school but today I did not.)

  • With present tense, you simply slice off the ๋‹ค and attach the stem to ์ง€๋งŒ.
  • For the past tense, you conjugate it (verb/adjective) into the past tense form, remove the ์–ด์š” that comes behind, and add what is left to ์ง€๋งŒ.

Past tense (casual-polite) of ๊ฐ€๋‹ค is ๊ฐ”์–ด์š”. So, remove ์–ด์š” and you are left with ๊ฐ”.

For the special ใ…‚ adjectives from last week, such as ๋ฅ๋‹ค, you have ๋”์› ์–ด์š” as the past tense form. This means it becomes ๋”์› ์ง€๋งŒ.

This isn't the end, because it will also apply to the next grammar point!

3. A/V-์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

I was frankly quite surprised we were tackling 2 grammar points today from the handout. (We didn't touch the textbook today.)

The teacher said that we just needed to remember these two things (set phrases that we have memorised as-is), and we would remember how to do the conjugation:

  1. Nice to meet you: ๋ฐ˜๊ฐ‘์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  2. Thank you: ๊ฐ์‚ฌํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The rule is simple. For statements:

  1. If there is batchim, add -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  2. If there is no batchim, add -ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

Remember I mentioned above about me being lazy? I should have looked this up and made my life revising on Duolingo that much easier. (Duolingo uses the formal speech for their sentences in most of the exercises.)

It actually makes a lot of sense. If there is batchim, how do you add the ใ…‚?

In any case, the ใ…‚ sound is softened to [ใ…] because of the ใ„ด sound that follows. It is [์Šด๋‹ˆ๋‹ค] and not [์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]. And it's [ํ•จ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค] not [ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค].

  • ์ฝ๋‹ค โ†’ ์ฝ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [์ฝ์Šด๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  • ๋ณด๋‹ค โ†’ ๋ด…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [๋ด„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  • ๋“ฃ๋‹ค โ†’ ๋“ฃ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [๋“ฃ์Šด๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]

If it is a question and not a statement, it's not ๋‹ค, but ๊นŒ? The ๋‹ค is replaced with ๊นŒ (which we've also seen before in the first chapter).

Past Tense (Part 2)

You know, it actually isn't as mind-blowing when I'm typing this out now, but earlier during the lesson, it was really quite a lot of information to process and then use.

To obtain the past tense form, you do the same as for ์ง€๋งŒ. Conjugate it to the casual-polite past tense form, remove the ์–ด์š”, and then add -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

(Because of how the past tense is, I believe you end up always with -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค and don't ever add -ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.)

  • ์ฝ๋‹ค โ†’ ์ฝ์—ˆ์–ด์š” โ†’ ์ฝ์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • ๋ณด๋‹ค โ†’ ๋ดค์–ด์š” โ†’ ๋ดค์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • ๋“ฃ๋‹ค* โ†’ ๋“ค์—ˆ์–ด์š” โ†’ ๋“ค์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

(Ugh, the Markdown strikethrough with ~~ still isn't working I see, so I had to resort to using HTML tags.)

*This is a special conjugation. I encountered this in the First Step Korean course. The teacher said this verb's irregular conjugation will be covered in chapter 8. But really, it's relatively straightforward, the final consonant ใ„ท becomes ใ„น.

Whew! The teacher said that chapter 7 is the hardest in this book that we are using. Chapter 8 will be easier. I don't know whether to be sad or happy? I need a break but I also like the challenge.


Korean English Notes
ํ‰์ผ weekday Sino-Korean word from ๅนณๆ—ฅ. I am not sure how (or even if) this differs from ์ฃผ์ค‘ (้€ฑไธญ) which was taught in the First Step Korean course.
๋™์‚ฌ verb Sino-Korean word from ๅ‹•่ฉž (ๅŠจ่ฏ), which is still the Mandarin Chinese term for it.
ํ˜•์šฉ์‚ฌ adjective Sino-Korean word from ๅฝขๅฎน่ฉž (ๅฝขๅฎน่ฏ), which is still the Mandarin Chinese term for it.
์ถ•๊ตฌ soccer


  1. Since we learnt the formal, we learnt also that to ask what someone is doing, instead of ๋ญ ํ•ด์š”? you ask ๋ฌด์—‡์„ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๊นŒ? We have already encountered ๋ฌด์—‡.
    1. What about ๋ญ˜? ๋ญ˜ came up in the First Step Korean course, but not once in this course I'm taking. Wiktionary says it's actually a contraction of both ๋ฌด์—‡์„ and ๋ญ๋ฅผ.
    2. Why is ๋ญ special in the sentence, in that the object particle is dropped? Is this another case of it being dropped because it's spoken language?
  2. Since I dug up that post above and answered the first question, the second question is also somewhat cleared up when a classmate asked about ์ € and ๋‚˜, but not entirely. The teacher said that ์ € is more polite and formal. ๋‚˜ very informal and is what children would speak in the home, it's also what you use for family and close friends. I think the point is that both ํ•ด์š”์ฒด and ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด are polite, they are simply used in different social situations (e.g. ํ•ด์š”์ฒด in a cafรฉ, ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด in the office). ๋‚˜ is really more for... the "not polite" (informal?) speech in that sense. I'm still not entirely clear about the "informal" and "casual" distinction. I believe I have not heard the teacher refer to ํ•ด์š”์ฒด as "informal" but only "casual". I don't know if they are meant to be different. It does not help that I think they are interchangeable (whether they are or not is my question) and have used them interchangeably, partly because it's always "formal" vs "informal" e.g. in French, so I took the "casual" to mean "informal" when it was presented in contrast to "formal". So TL;DR is, does "informal" and "casual" mean the same thing?

It's Raining

It started with the teacher messaging us on KakaoTalk about the weather (as it was raining) a day after the lesson we had on the weather.

Then she asked us what we are going to do today. I said I was studying and then exercising. I still have not replied to her follow-up question one day later on what I am studying (and I thought she asked what kind of exercise) I do because I forgot. (This post was meant to be posted yesterday when this happened but I forgot as well.)

I feel like I was somewhat scammed into studying Korean yesterday. Today, too.

Here is the list of new vocab that I added to Anki. Some are not entirely new, but they are not in my Anki deck, so I added them in and reproduced them here.


Korean English Notes
๋™๋„ค neighbourhood
์”จ์ต grin (์”จ์ต) was the text sent in the KakaoTalk notification, but the message is actually a Sticker (if that's what it's called) of a grinning face
์ง‘์•ˆ์ผ home-cooked food
์ž๋ง‰ subtitles
ํ™”์ดํŒ… Fighting! You know, what they always say... so this is how it's written.
๋งŒ๋‘ dumpling
๋ฒ„์„ฏ mushroom
๋‚จํŽธ husband
๋™์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to agree ๅŒๆ„

Lesson 28 (Beginner 2A L4): Beginning Chapter 7 with the Weather and One Class of Irregular Verbs

We finished chapter 6 and started on chapter 7 today. For chapter 6, all that was left was really the pronunciation, and then the self-check.

There will be a word (vocab) quiz next week. Perhaps it means that the vocab quiz will always be one week after we start a new chapter?

So today's post will have a lot of the vocabulary, from the chapter 7 list. We also covered the first grammar point, and it's interesting because this cleared up a question I had while doing exercises on Duolingo. (This is one of the reasons I don't like Duolingo.)

The title of chapter 7 is: ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ? It means "How is the weather?" and uses the formal speech conjugation. Obviously, this chapter will be about the weather and also formal speech.

In informal speech, you can ask the question as: ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋•Œ์š”?


This chapter's pronunciation rule is about the pronunciation of ใ…Ž.

Specifically, when ใ…Ž is the initial consonant in a syllable*, it is pronunced normally. However, if it is the final consonant (batchim), and the next syllable starts with ใ…‡, the ใ…Ž becomes slient.

For example, ์ข‹์•„์š” is pronounced as [์กฐ์•„์š”].

I kind of knew this before this was mentioned, but not as an explicit rule.

This applies also to syllable blocks with 4 letters which have ใ…Ž.

For example, ๋งŽ์•„์š” is prononuced [๋งˆ๋‚˜์š”]. This combines with the other pronunciation rule that if the next syllable starts with ใ…‡, the batchim is carried over covered in Lesson 14's post.

*I think it's not just initial consonant in a syllable, but also in a word (or compound word), because there are cases such as in ์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ, although not explicitly a rule, is pronounced more like [์ „ํ™”๋ฒ„๋…ธ], with the ใ…Ž in ํ˜ธ disappearing almost completely...


Korean English Notes
๋‚ ์”จ weather
๋ฅ๋‹ค to be hot only used for weather
๋œจ๊ฒ๋‹ค to be hot e.g. food, drink
์ถฅ๋‹ค to be cold only used for weather
์ฐจ๊ฐ‘๋‹ค to be cold e.g. food, drink
๋”ฐ๋œปํ•˜๋‹ค to be warm This has a positive connotation, such as it's warm in cold weather. If you find it's warm and uncomfortable, the correct adjective is ๋ฅ๋‹ค (to be hot).
์‹œ์›ํ•˜๋‹ค to be cool
๋ง‘๋‹ค to be clear (sunny) ์ข‹๋‹ค can also be used to describe good weather.
ํ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to be cloudy
๋ฐ”๋žŒ์ด ๋ถˆ๋‹ค to be windy lit. wind to blow
๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค๋‹ค to be rainy lit. rain to come
๋ˆˆ์ด ์˜ค๋‹ค to be snowy lit. snow to come
๊ณ„์ ˆ season Sino-Korean word from ๅญฃ็ฏ€ (ๅญฃ่Š‚)
๋ด„ spring
์—ฌ๋ฆ„ summer
๊ฐ€์„ autumn
๊ฒจ์šธ winter
๊ฐ€๋ณ๋‹ค to be light weight
๋ฌด๊ฒ๋‹ค to be heavy
์‰ฝ๋‹ค to be easy Careful with present tense (informal) conjugation: ์‰ฌ์›Œ์š”. It sounds like ์‰ฌ์–ด์š” (rest). The ์›Œ sound has to be distinctive.
์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค to be difficult
๋งต๋‹ค to be spicy
๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค to be near
์š”์ฆ˜ these days recently, nowadays
๋‹จํ’ autumn foilage refers to the leaves that are red/orange/yellow in colour
๊ฝƒ flower
์ˆ˜์˜์žฅ swimming pool
๋ฐ”๋‹ค sea
์‚ฐ mountain
์ƒ์„  fish This refers to fish that you buy in the supermarket for eating, i.e. dead fish (seafood)
๋ฌผ๊ณ ๊ธฐ fish This refers to fish that are alive and well, e.g. your pet fish, the ones that swim in an aquarium or in the ocean. It's sort of ironic because it literally means "water meat", but this is not to describe the fish that is eaten, whereas words like ๋ผ์ง€ ๊ณ ๊ธฐ, ๋‹ญ๊ณ ๊ธฐ are pork and chicken (meat) for eating
์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋‹ค to talk ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐ means "story", so this is literally to share a story.
์ž…๋‹ค to wear
์•„์ฃผ very e.g. ์•„์ฃผ ๋”์›Œ์š”. (It's very hot.)
์กฐ๊ธˆ a little e.g. ์กฐ๊ธˆ ์–ด๋ ค์–ด์š”. (It's a little difficult.)


From this chapter onwards, we will start to look at some exceptions in terms of conjugation, that is, irregular verbs, starting with this first rule.

1. ใ…‚ ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™

When some verbs or adjectives end in the final consonant 'ใ…‚' are followed by a vowel (i.e. the next syllable begins with 'ใ…‡'), 'ใ…‚' changes to '์šฐ'.

The teacher says that verbs are very rare, 99.9% of the time, this rule applies to adjectives.

This is why it is ๋”์›Œ์š” and ์ถ”์›Œ์š”, even though the infinitive forms are ๋ฅ๋‹ค and ์ถฅ๋‹ค.

We had encountered ๋”์›Œ์š” and ์ถ”์›Œ์š” back in the foundation class when learning the Korean alphabet. Later, when we went on to learn the present tense conjugation in Lesson 12, and how ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๋‹ค conjugates to ๋ฐฐ์›Œ์š”, I thought ๋”์›Œ์š” had the infinitive form of ๋”์šฐ๋‹ค (and similarly, ์ถ”์šฐ๋‹ค for ์ถ”์›Œ์š”).

This was why I was stumped with my Duolingo exercises. The thing about Duolingo is it generally uses the formal conjugation (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) instead of (ํ•ด์š”์ฒด). So in the lesson on adjectives, I was scratching my head as to why it was ...์ถฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. We had not (and still have not, but will in this chapter) learnt about conjugating to the formal form, though we encountered a few "stock" phrases/sentences with it before. My cursory research told me this form has the โ€”แ†ธ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค ending. But I was sure that it should only be the ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค part, so where did the other ใ…‚ (in ์ถฅ) come from? And it turns out... it's part of the infinitive form all along.

(To be clear, I'm using the term "infinitive" rather loosely, since ์ถฅ๋‹ค is an adjective. But as I mentioned before, adjectives seem to be in "verb" form, as evidenced from their translations, e.g. ์ถฅ๋‹ค is "to be cold" and not just "cold". This is just my mental model of all this, which, as I've just shown above, can be completely wrong.)

Let's look at some examples of this rule with different conjugations:

  • ๊ฐ€๋ณ๋‹ค (to be light): ๊ฐ€๋ฒผ์›Œ์š” (is light)
  • ๋ฌด๊ฒ๋‹ค (to be heavy): ๋ฌด๊ฑฐ์›Œ์š” (is heavy)
  • ๋งต๋‹ค (to be spicy): ๋งค์› ์–ด์š” (was spicy)
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค (to be hot): ๋ฅ๊ณ  (hot and...)
  • *์ž…๋‹ค (to wear): ์ž…์–ด์š”

For ์ž…๋‹ค (to wear), it is ์ž…์–ด์š” (not ์ด์›Œ์š”) in the present tense. The rule does not apply. This is because it is a verb, and, in most cases, this rule does not apply to verbs.

It's important to realise that 'ใ…‚' changes to '์šฐ' when the next syllable starts with 'ใ…‡' as there will be many new grammar forms to attach it too.

In the last exercise we did, the teacher gave us some grammar parts(?) that we mostly did not know and asked us to combine them based on this rule, using ๋ฅ๋‹ค.

- ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์–ด์š” = ๋”์›Œ์š”

  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)ใ„ด = ๋”์šด (์œผ is removed)
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์–ด์„œ = ๋”์›Œ์„œ
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)๋ฉด = ๋”์šฐ๋ฉด
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์—์š” = ๋”์šธ ๊ฑฐ์—์š”
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค = ๋ฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์ง€๋งŒ = ๋ฅ์ง€๋งŒ

In bold are the ones that we have learnt or are going to learn soon. The others I have no clue what they are.

In this chapter, we will learn the last two in the list. The last one we will learn next week (it's the second grammar point of this chapter) - but I did use it in my writing assignment homework for last week since it was useful. It's the construction for connecting contrasting clauses, i.e. "but". But... that is for the next post, next week.