notes on things I'm learning. currently: Korean

Lesson 73 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 3): Intermediate 1 Test

This test was one that, compared to the last ones, I definitely did not study much for.1 But maybe it could be that my previous method of studying that was inefficient. That is, aside from the usual Anki review.

That involved looking through the textbook grammar points, is what I didn't schedule this round due to work. I also only scheduled Quizlet for the second week before the test (usually I start 2 weeks before the test since that's when I'm made aware a test is coming up), not all the way to the week leading up to the test.

I have to say that this test is really much easier is than the last one.2


This was really so much easier, to the point that I couldn't believe the first 2 questions were just to select the right picture.

The other sections were more similar to the past listening tests, but I didn't have any trouble with the contents.

I have been using the Real-Life Korean Conversation For Beginners podcast by TalkToMeInKorean (and after I bought the book, the actual book as well). I also bought the Intermediate level book and boy, that one, the speed is much faster. But the listening test speed I found it manageable, and in fact a bit... slow, though the Beginners book is actually around there (or even slower).


Started with reading 5 sentences. I don't recall anything... hard about them, which made me really... wary.

Then the rest of it was responding to the question that the teacher asked. The caveat was that there are the various grammar from Chapters 1 to 4, and you had to use those to answer. It's quite straightforward, going down the list.

One grammar for one question.

  • The first one was to introduce yourself ((이)라고 하다)3, and say why you were learning Korean (-(으)려고).
  • The second one was what do you do in your free time (-거나).
  • The third one was about your hobby (-는 것)
  • The next question more of a check, asking if you have been to Korea. Then the actual question was about what you did there (-아/어 보다).
  • I think then it was the last question, using -지 않다

In order to use -(으)려고 which requires intention in the first question, I basically could not really say what I'd said in class that many lessons ago, which was closer to the actual truth: I did it because my friend asked me to (친구가 부탁해서 한국어를 배워요). So I gave a canned response.

For the second question, I said I watch television or read a book. I deliberately said it in the order because while revising I was second guessing how to pronounce 읽거나. By flipping it around I avoid the problem, since I've no problems with 보거나's pronunciation.

For the second last question, I was thinking a bit too hard. See, I had just finally finished the writing for Chapter 3 last night.4 The topic I wrote was about places I went to in Korea, and so there were actually things in my mind. I recall things like 남이섬 and 제주도 floating in my head, but in the end I said 놀이공원 (without naming either Everland or Lotte World). I can't recall if the question came after, but you also had to say what you did that. And then I forgot how to say rides (놀이기구). In my mind it was... was it 기구? 구기? And the teacher helped to supply the word which... I think threw me off? Because it felt like I had help and that was bad.

With that frame of mind, I messed up the last question, first because I wasn't actually... sure what the teacher had asked. Unlike for the rest.

I think the question was about some exercise that you don't do (I definitely heard 운동), or don't know how to do. The first thought was "yoga" but then I thought, eh, never mind, let's go with riding a bicycle (why on earth, I have no clue).

Then I panicked and said the wrong thing, saying "car" (차동차) instead of "bicycle" (차전거). So I said something like... 차동차를 타지 않아요. Which is like... rubbish. The teacher then asked me if I knew how to drive (using (으)ㄹ 줄 모르다) so I said that I knew how to. In fact, I only realised I said the wrong word (car instead of bicycle) much later. I remember when the teacher first asked me something like 운전할 줄 알아요? I was thinking... why on earth is she asking me about driving? 😓

And at the end, I totally forgot I had to manually leave the breakout room.


No problems here. My head didn't really hurt from reading the various texts, no idea why, because it's not as though I've been doing a lot of reading practice.

In fact, the longest (and last) passage was one that was directly lifted from one of the reading activities in the book. It was the one from Chapter 3.

I'd just looked at it yesterday because I was still struggling to finish the Chapter 3 writing assignment, and in the textbook, the writing assignment comes after reading.

I've checked the textbook, and in fact the the questions are the same. The only difference is that there's 4 options in the test, while the textbook had 3. However, the correct answers are the same.

The last distractor option for the second question, though, used 올해 ("this year") and I forgot what it meant. But I was saved by Writing (1) on the next page. because the last question asked for your wish this year. Anyway, I would still have stuck with the original (correct) answer if I'd not puzzled it out, but it was disconcerting to not know the meaning of a word.

Writing (1)

This is the non-essay part.

This has levelled up a bit, in that the answers are free response. You have to pick the right grammar to use, but you have to give your own answers to the questions. It's not just rearranging or combining some given sentences.

Writing (2)

The essay topics were ok. There were 2 (like in the Beginner 3 test). First one was about your hobby. The second was to write about a country you have visited.

There were some sub-questions, plus the grammar you had to use.

These were topics I definitely could have prepared for, but I didn't.

My weakness is my inability to write fast, simply because I'm not that familiar with using the grammar. If I have a lot of time, I can slowly write and make adjustments, or think of alternative ways to write things.

But when it's a test and I have limited time, my sentences revert to sad, simple sentences. (Same problem I had before with French and German... German less so since I only took A1 in university, and private lessons after that had no tests.)

With more practice (hah) and familiarity, it won't be a problem. I definitely take too long to do my homework writing assignments.


I think next lesson is rightfully Intermediate 2, even though this is still labelled as Intermediate 1B, Lesson 3.

The next lesson is in 2 weeks. It's kind of... nice to get a break from Korean but I'm kind of sad since I'd decided to take leave from work for the next 2 weeks.

Since this week was a test week, there isn't any homework. Next week is Labour Day, so there's no class either. I'll actually be planning how to make use of the TTMIK books I'd bought not too long ago to practise. On a normal working day I couldn't really squeeze in that study time using all the books I'd bought.

  1. I think I may have studied more for the Beginner 3 test than the Beginner 4. 

  2. Which, until today, I've not actually seen the detailed test report for. The score was much lower than the other tests, and looking at the listening score, I didn't really... look at much else. I clearly have issues, since I don't even like opening my homework to check for mistakes because then I'm greeted by my own stupidity. Except when it's the day of a test like today and I reluctantly open the file, and realise I don't have time to digest all the more serious mistakes. Recently at work I was basically told that I'm a perfectionist, which isn't wrong, but the example that the person brought up was in my mind not an instance of my perfectionist tendencies manifesting itself, so I was bothered by that. But, I digress. 

  3. Yes, I distinctly recall that all the grammar constructs were written without the N/V/A in front, I guess to make it a bit harder? 

  4. Yes, it's about a month overdue. 

Lesson 72 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 2): End Chapter 4 and Revision

Today's lesson was finishing up the textbook and then doing the revision. Apart from the usual revision sheet there was an additional Particle Summary handout that did a comparison of 은/는 and 이가. We did the usual revision sheet first.

It's refreshing to finally write this while everything is still fresh. There's no new homework and I've submitted the work due last week plus the backlog of Chapter 3 work (apart from the writing which I've not done yet... still). From the way the teacher talked about the homework at the end of the lesson, I suspect that I'm really not the only one who didn't submit last week's homework. I'd actually finished the work right before class started, but did not have enough time to take pictures of everything, let alone craft the message to explain the lateness.

For the textbook, we did Speaking 2, then moved on to the Listening, Culture Note, and Pronunciation.

Culture Note

The culture note was about markets, specifically open markets. Some were mentioned but I didn't catch their names. I know there's was a mention of how there's markets catered to different kinds of products, such as one for fresh fish, another for flowers, a third for food, and also one for dried food products.


Recall the pronunciation of ㅎ with a consonant that has an aspirated version. This is just a recap of that, or, to be more specific, the first half of that rule covered there.

When the final consonant 'ㅎ' is followed by an initial consonant 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ', then they are pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ].

While this chapter doesn't say about the reverse, this holds as well when 'ㅎ' is the initial consonant while 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ' are final consonants.

For what happens to consonants that don't have the aspirated version, see last chapter's pronunciation note.

Pronunciation of 'ㅅ' as the final consonant when followed by a vowel, but the next word is a separate word

A separate pronunciation topic came up in the Self-Check portion due to one of the sentences: 이 옷 어때요?

This is pronounced [이 오 더때요], that is, 'ㅅ' is prounounced [ㄷ].

It is the same for:

  • 맛없어요 [마덥서요]
    • This is 맛 + 없어요
    • 맛있어요 is actually an exception, because it's now considered not a separate word, hence it is [마시써요]
  • 못 와요 [모 돠요]
  • 옷 예뻐요 [오 뎨뻐요]

As noted above, this is only true if it's a separate word that starts with a vowel. 맛있어요 is [마시써요]. When it's considered the same word, including when you have the particle 이 following 옷, it's pronounced as [오시].

Particle Summary: 은/는 vs 이/가

You can think of this as an "add-on" to the uses discussed way back in Lesson 26. (I was shocked it was so long ago, that it has been almost a year.)

1. Key Message

The key message in a sentence with the subject particle 이/가 is the noun attached to the subject particle.

The key message of a sentence with 은/는 is the rest of the sentence. The part with 은/는 could possibly be omitted.

Example 1

가: 어느 나라 사람이에요?
나: 저 한국 사람이에요.

The key message is 한국 사람이에요.

Example 2

가: 여기에 한국 사람이 있어요?
나: 제 한국 사람이에요.

The key message here is that the speaker (I) is Korean, and it cannot be omitted.

Example 3

가: 은행이 어디에 있어요?
나: (은행) 우체국 옆에 있어요.

2. First Mention and Subsequent Mention

When you first mention something, you use 이/가.

If it's been mentioned before, use 은/는.

(Example 3 above follows this rule too.)

Example 1

엣날에 여자 아이 살았어요.
그 여자 아이 노래를 아주 잘했어요.

Example 2

저는 내일 스티븐 씨를 만나요. 스티븐 씨 우리 집 근체에 살아요.

Here, 스티븐 was mentioned in the first sentence, hence the use of 은/는. Note this was even though he wasn't the subject in that first instance!

3. Main Clause and Dependent Clause

If it's the main clause (sentence), you use 은/는. In the dependent clause, you use 이/가.

In the examples below, the main clause is written as per normal, while the dependent clause is written in italics.

Example 1: As a noun clause

한국어에 한자어 많다는 것을 배웠어요.

Example 2: As a noun modifier

This was first mentioned this back in Lesson 56 when the present tense noun modifier was inrtoduced.

좋아하는 음식 불고기예요.

Example 3: As a predicate clause

친구 머리 길어요.


Korean English Notes
세계 world
세계 여행 world tour
1등을 하다 to win first prize
돈을 벌다 to make money
유명하다 to be famous, popular 有名
바라다 to wish
필요하다 to be necessary
여러 가지 various, diverse 여러 가지 물선
굽이 높다 (shoe) heels are high
가격표 price tag
영수증 receipt
등산화 hiking boots
면접 job interview
훌륭하다 to be great (excellent, magnificent, superb, etc.) 조선에 훌륭한 왕이 있었어요. = There was a great king in Joseon.


  • Students: 4
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs.

Lesson 71 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 1): I wish I had more time

We completed the third and last grammar point for this lesson in the handout. After completing the handout, we did the video sheet, and then the textbook.

For the video sheet, we did not do breakout rooms to read the dialogue this time. I also think we only heard the audio and did not view the accompanying video. (It's clearly from the same sources as the video sheets from previous chapters, so I'm sure there's a video.)

For the textbook, we stopped just before Speaking 2. So we covered Speaking 1 (both exercises) and all the grammar in the textbook.

Speaking of the textbook, I realise I bent it from keeping it on my small table for too long and had stuff piled over it. It's a lesson to get this done and keep the textbook away. (But it's not just this post, but also the homework. I now have the writing for both Chapter 3 and 4 to do...)

It's confirmed that the test is 2 lessons from now. It would have been 2 weeks, but... it's almost time for the next lesson.

Next lesson, we will finish up with the textbook, and then do the revision.

Honestly, I hestitate to call this lesson Intermediate 1B Lesson 1 because the test is for Intermediate 1. I take that to mean that after the test, we are considered to be in Intermediate 2. I know "officially" (on the school's website) there are 2 terms for each level (A & B) but it seems to be fewer in practice.

For one of the students (the girl who joined) it's the first time she's taking the test.

On a rather random note, it's a new financial year and I can start to claim for my course again.


3. A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다

This is used to express a speaker's hope or desire.

The 으면 part should look familiar... and indeed it carries the meaning of "if".

The translation of a sentence like this can be thought of as "if the situation is like that, it would be good".


  1. 마음에 들었으면 좋겠어요. (I hope you like it.)
    • When you give someone a present, and you say that you hope that they like it.
  2. 집이 학교에서 너무 멀어요. 수업이 온라인이었으면 좋겠어요. (My house is too far from school. I wish the class was online.)
    • The verb here is 이다, past tense forms are 이었어요/였어요.
  3. 이번 주에 시험이 있어요. 공부할 시간이 더 있었으면 좋겠어요. (I have a test this week. I wish I had more time to study.)
  4. 내년에는 마스크를 안 썼으면 좋겠어요. (I wish that we don't have to wear masks next year.)
  5. 내년에는 코로나가 끝났으면 좋겠어요. (I wish that the Coronavirus situation is over next year.)

A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다 vs. A/V-으면 좋겠다

In the handout, it states that A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다 is used when something is less possible or most likely will not happen.

Using the past tense form, the speaker is speaking about a hypothetical situation, which is in contrast to the reality (e.g. having a lot of money compared with the reality not having a lot of money). Thus, it puts more emphasis on the wish, and generally indicates a kind of "stronger" wish.

I guess it's kind of like the difference between "I wish I have a lot of money" (돈이 많으면 좋겠어요) and "I wish I had a lot of money" (돈이 많았으면 좋겠어요). In English you also use the past tense for something that is like likely to happen in reality.

On the other hand, A/V-으면 좋겠다 is more of a "simple" wish. It's not wrong to use it.

However, the past tense form is more common.

HowToStudyKorean does delve into this topic.

Additional Usage Notes

  1. When talking to yourself, you would use 좋겠다.
    • Example: 여자 친구가 생겼으면 좋겠다. (I wish I had a girlfriend.)
  2. On social media, you might see in many cases where the 좋겠어요 part omitted in posts.
    • Example: 해외여행을 갔으면... (I wish I could go on an overseas trip.)


Korean English Notes
여자 친구가 생기다 to have a girlfriend 생기다 = 있다, but it is used for things that you newly have. Meaning that in the past, you didn't have it.
디자인 design 디자인이 정말 예뻐요.
내용 content
외롭다 to be lonely 외로운 사람 = a lonely person
옷값 price of clothes 옷값이 어때요? 좀 비싼 것 같아요.
나비넥타이 bow tie 나비 = butterfly
빨간 치마 red skirt
파란색 티셔츠 blue (coloured) shirt HowToStudyKorean explains the difference. Adding 색 makes it into a noun. By right, there should be a 의 after the 색, but it is more commonly omitted.
밤을 새다 to stay up all night
병이 나다 to fall sick
소망 wish 所望
정착하다 to settle down
partner; mate 종국이가 빨리 짝을 찾아 정착했으면 좋겠어.
변하지 않다 to remain unchanged
변함 change 지금처럼 변함없이 또 만나자. (Let's meet again without change like now.)


  • Students: 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random-ish pairs. (2 out of 3 activities I got the same partner.)

Lesson 70 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 8): I think this is better than that

The publishing of this post was slightly delayed since Listed was down again the same day (after I'd published the post for Lesson 69). It was also down when I was writing Lesson 69's post.

We ended chapter 3 by finishing up in the textbook (Listening & Speaking, Culture Note, Pronunciation), then started on Chapter 4.

For the Chapter 4 vocab, there was some additional pointers on the verbs related to wearing items, which I've included in the notes next to the respective verbs.

This chapter only has 3 grammar points instead of the usual 4, and we covered 2 of them in this lesson.

In the week leading up to this lesson, we received the notes for required for next term (for Chapters 4 to 6). The invoice was given the week before. From there, I can tell that we are going to have a test after Chapter 4 is done. If we add in a revision lesson, I would hazard a guess that the test is in 4 weeks, but it's possible (depending on how much we cover next week) it may be even be as soon as in 3 weeks. 😱

Listening and Speaking

There were some locations in Korea discussed in the first part. I am including them because it's a kind of cultural note.

Although the textbook mentions the places are in Korea, they are all specifically found in Seoul. The Hanok Village is also referring to the one found in Seoul.1

  1. 한옥마을 (Hanok Village)
  2. 한강공원 (Hangang [Han River] Park)
  3. 청계천 (Cheonggyecheon)
  4. 여의도공원 (Yeouido Park)

Culture Note

The first part in the textbook mentions a "Korean Wave", but we didn't talk about it.

As with the previous chapters in this book, we took turns reading the passage, which was about someone entering a Korean singing contest that they didn't win.

The part we were supposed to share was on any favourite Korean song or movie (or even drama), but I had none. (If there's anything of Korean origin that I read, it's webtoons.)


Recall the pronunciation of the initial consonant ㅎ when after a final consonant that has an aspirated version.

The sound becomes that of the stronger aspirated consonant version:

  • 백화점 [배점] as [ㄱ] + [ㅎ] → [ㅋ]
  • 못해요 [모요] as [ㄷ] + [ㅎ]→ [ㅌ]
    • ㅅ is [ㄷ] when it is the final consonant.

The pronunciation for this chapter is about when the final consonant before ㅎ does not have a double consonant version (or if there's no final consonant).

When the initial consonant 'ㅎ' is positioned between vowels or after the final consonants 'ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅇ', the pronunciation of 'ㅎ' becomes much weaker.

  • 은행 ~[으냉]2
  • 영화 ~[영와]
  • 결혼 ~[겨론]


1. A-(으)ㄴ/V-는/N-인 것 같다

This is used to express conjecture or presumption.

It is frequently used by Koreans when they want to express their opinion in a more gentle way. Instead of saying that something "is expensive" (비싸네요!), they would say it as "I think it is expensive" or "it seems expensive" (비싼 것 같아요.)

Conjugation is similar to last chapter's third grammar point.


  1. 수미는 요즘 (안) 바쁜 것 같아요.
    • I (don't) think Sumi is busy these days.)
  2. 지금 밖에 비가 (안) 오는 것 같아요.
    • I (don't) think it is raining outside now.
      • A scenario could be you are inside the shopping centre where there aren't any windows, but you see people holding wet umbrellas. Then you might conclude that it could be raining outside.
  3. 저 사람은 지연 씨 동생인 것 같아요.
    • It seems like that person is Jiyeon's younger sibling.
  4. 아닌 것 같아요. (아니다)
    • I don't think so.
  5. 그런 것 같아요. (그렇다)
    • I think so.


While the correct way is 같아요, in spoken language, it is sometimes pronounced as 같애요 [가태요].


  1. 어떤 것 같아요?
    • (Asking about state, how a person looks to be feeling)
  2. 뭐 하는 것 같아요?
    • (Asking about an action)

2. N보다

This is used when comparing two or more things or people.

In English, you would use "than".

보다 is attached to the second noun being compared. You use the subject marker 이/가 for the first noun (which is the subject).

However, that doesn't mean the first noun must appear before the second noun in the sentence. We use the markers to distinguish them, not their place in the sentence.


  1. 오늘이 어제보다 더워요. (Today is hotter than yesterday.)
    • = 어제보다 오늘이 더워요.
  2. 월요일보다 화요일이 더 바빠요. (I am busier on Tuesday than Monday./Compared to Monday, I am busier on Tuesday.)
    • = 화요일이 월요일보다 더 바빠요.
  3. 치킨라이스보다 칠리크랩을 더 좋아해요. (I prefer chilli crab to chicken rice.)
    • = 칠리크랩을 치킨라이스보다 더 좋아해요.

I am not very sure about any difference in meaning when 더 ("more") is used compared to when it is omitted. In the first sentence, the sentence is translated with "hotter" even without 더 as the 보다 implies there is a comparison. I wonder if it's an emphasis thing?


Korean English Notes
유럽 Europe From textbook, skipped page.
낙타 camel From textbook, skipped page.
블라우스 blouse
스웨터 sweater
양복 suit
티셔츠 T-shirt
청바지 jeans
양말 socks
넥타이 tie necktie
장갑 gloves
스카프 scarf thin material
사이즈 size
가격 price
색깔 colour
길이 length 길다 means "to be long". This structure exists also for 높다 (to be high), 높이 refers to height (though not for people)
좀 크다 to be a little big
좀 작다 to be a little small
잘 맞다 to fit well This is a verb. V-는 form 맞는 should be familiar from listening tests...
밝다 to be bright
어둡다 to be dark
길다 to be long
짧다 to be short
마음에 들다 to like literally, to enter one's heart
마음에 안 들다 to not like
잘 어울리다 to match well
잘 안 어울리다 to not match well
교환하다 to exchange 交換
환불하다 to refund 退还
유행하다 to be in fashion 流行. This one's a verb. 유행이다 = to be prevalent, widespread
입다 to wear (clothes)
쓰다 to wear (hat, glasses)
신다 to wear (footwear) For shoes, socks.
하다 to wear (tie, necklace) For accessories. This is much more flexible than the three above which we have learnt before. For example you can use 하다 instead of 매다 for ties.
매다 to tie For ties. Not in textbook.
차다 to put on For watch. Not in textbook.
끼다 to wear (gloves, ring, glasses) That's right, this works for glasses as well. 끼다 is used for items that "fit on the body perfectly", such as gloves, rings, or even glasses, where you have to check whether the size fits. Contact lenses as well.
벗다 to take off For items where you would use 입다, 쓰다, or 신다.
풀다 to take off For items where you would use 하다, 매다, or 차다. This means "to untie" or "to unroll" (remember the culture note from Chapter 16?), and implies the action of taking off is not so easy.
빼다 to take off For items where you would use 끼다. Implies something that can be taken off easily. It also means "to exclude".
렌스 lens
목걸이 necklace
높이 height
마음이 아프다 to be heartbroken 마음이 아픈 것 같아요.
미치다 to be crazy 미친 것 같아요.
답답하다 to be frustrated 답답힌 것 같아요.
결혼식 wedding ceremony
해어지다 to break up


  • Students: 5 (1 absent due to work - the one who's younger than me)
  • Breakout room activities: No (possibly related to technical issues with the teacher's computer)

  1. Through some research of my own, I'm pretty sure the image in the textbook is of the Bukchon Hanok Village, specifically, of Gahoe-dong Alley (Harmony) looking up (or Uphill). This is based on a picture found in The Seoul Guide

  2. Interestingly enough, when the textbook writes out the pronunciation of the weaker 'ㅎ', it is still written as ㅎ. For example 은행 is still [은행], even though 'ㅎ' is weakened until it almost sounds like [으냉]. I choose to write it as the latter to make clear there is a difference, even if it may not be "correct". 

Lesson 69 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 7): Future Tense Noun Modifier and Polite Refusal

I had thought that I'd have time yesterday (since it was Good Friday) to complete the backlog of posts, but, that didn't happen. I was too tired. (I've actually not handed in the homework for this lesson and the previous lesson. I've already completed the previous lesson's, but this lesson's includes the writing assignment which I'm not done with yet. I thought to hand in all the Chapter 3 together but... eh, at this point... I'm kind of thinking it's too late...)1

In the week between Lesson 68 and 69, I received the message with the invoice to pay for the next lesson. I'd not realised it was already Lesson 7.

We finished the last grammar point in the handout, then went straight to the video handout. If I recall correctly, we also went through the cards in the Duration of Time Quizlet set as a class, before we finished the lesson covering the textbook.


4. V-(으)ㄹ

This is used to modify a noun and indicate a situation or action which has not yet occurred.

This is the future tense noun modifier.2 (We have seen the present tense noun modifier and the past tense noun modifier before.)

The conjugation itself is very straightforward. Essentially, we have done it when we learnt the future tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요.

  • 가다 → 갈
  • 먹다 → 먹을

If you look at it through the lens of comparing with the present and past forms, you will realise it's exactly the same as the past form, except you have ㄹ instead of ㄴ.

Basic Form Past 과거 Future 미래
읽다 읽은 읽을
만들다 만든 만들
듣다 들은 들을

The most tricky part is probably to do with the usage.

Consider the following sentence:

내일이 미나 씨 생일이에요. 그래서 미나 씨한테 생일 선물을 샀어요.

The translation is along the lines of: Tomorrow is Mina's birthday, so I bought her a birthday present.

More literally: Tomorrow is Mina's birthday, so I bought a birthday present to give to her.

The "give" action (줄) makes use of the future noun modifier, even though this is a past tense sentence. The present that I will give in future has already been bought. But because the giving is a future action at the current moment, you have to use the future noun modifier.

Using the past noun modifier (준) would change the meaning. Not only had I bought the present, but I'd already given it to Mina.

Video Handout

For the video handout, there was one thing of interest, which was this particular dialogue:

A: 30 미터쯤 돼요.
B: 30 미터나요? 무삽지 않았어요?

This 나 has no English translation. The teacher said it's used when you feel something is to much or many, that is, the value is higher than what you expected.

In this case the the context was about the height of a bungee jump. The speaker (B) was expressing some surprise that the height was 30 metres, as she was expecting it not to be so high.

I would take it that this grammar construct will appear one day in the textbook.

Refusing a Request Politely (Speaking 2)

This is not the Speaking 2 dialogue itself, but the practice after (on p. 80).

There is this expression 어떡하죠?

Literally translated, it means "What should I do?" but it is an expression used to refuse a request politely. It sounds gentler even than using 미안해요 (I'm sorry).

As an example, if someone invites you out for lunch and you have another appointment, you could say 점심에는 다른 약속이 있는데 어떡하죠?

The use of 어떡하죠 makes it clear to the listener that you are refusing their request.


Korean English Notes
자리 seat 버스에 사람이 많아서 앉을 자리가 없어요.
고르다 to choose
스파이더맨 Spider-Man
아이언맨 Iron Man
어벤져스 Avengers
국제 international
재즈 jazz
계란 egg Sino-Korean term (鷄卵). 달걀 is native Korean.
surely 그럼 다음에 꼭 같이 가요. Then, next time we must surely go together.
palace 덕수궁 was the palace being discussed.
가장 most
기억에 남다 to remain in one's memory
여러 나라 many countries
감독 director


  • Students: 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, Textbook Chapter 3 Speaking 2, Video handout

  1. I was writing this just before my Lesson 71 class, Listed was down when I started, and I thought I couldn't publish this even when I was done. But to prevent my brain from getting further muddled, I decided to complete this post before my lesson. While writing this post, I found out my class for this week is cancelled because the teacher is sick, meaning I have some extra time. And Listed was accessible soon after I received the news. 

  2. Despite the name, the future noun modifier can, for example, be used not only in a present tense sentence (which is not that shocking considering the present tense can be used for future events), but also in a past tense sentence. 

Lesson 68 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 6): I tried to write this earlier, but I was busy during the last 3 weeks

Due to some life events and work, I'm writing this after Lesson 70, so my memory is a bit hazy.


1. V-아/어 보다

This is used to express that the subject has tried or experienced something.

Recall V-아/어 보세요, which was used to suggest or recommend that someone try a certain action.

This is basically the "generic version", the basic form of that.

보다 can be conjugated with any sentence ending that we have learnt. such as 볼 거예요, 보고 싶어요, etc.

For the conjugation of the actual verb (the action you tried or experienced), V-아/어, is the same as the present tense form.


  1. 스카이 다이빙을 해 봤어요. (I've tried skydiving before.)
  2. 프랑스 음식 먹어 봤어요? 안 먹어 본 것 같아요. (Have you tried French cuisine? I think I've not tried it.)
  3. 번지 점프를 못 해 봤어요. (I've not tried bungee jumping before [but would like to].)

V-는 것 같아요

것 같아요 (from the second sentence) is covered in the next chapter. My friend was unsure about whether he'd eaten French cuisine, which was when the teacher introduced this expression to us. But since I'm writing this after Lesson 70, I've already learnt it.

What caught my attention is that it uses the past tense 본. When it was introduced, it was introduced as V-는 것 같아요, and all the examples were in the present tense.

Using the past tense noun modifier here makes sense, but I don't know if it would have crossed my mind otherwise.

안 vs 못

What's the difference between these two sentences?

  • 번지 점프를 해 봤어요.
  • 번지 점프를 해 봤어요.

안 is neutral. 못 implies that it's something the speaker wanted to try, but never had the chance to.

2. N 동안

This is used to indicate a duration (period) of time.

It's another thing I had seen in Duolingo and am glad to cover this in class.

In English, this can be translated as for (as in for a month) or during (as in during winter).

Nothing too difficult with the conjugation of this one.

In terms of pronunciation, when used in a sentence, it usually sounds more like [똥안].

The tricky part is remembering when to use native Korean or Sino-Korean numbers.

You use native Korean numbers for:

  • 시간 (hour)
  • 달 (month)

You use Sino-Korean numbers for:

  • 분 (minute)
  • 일 (day)
  • 주일/주 (week)
  • 개월 (month)
  • 년 (year)

Between 달 and 개월, usually Koreans have no preference for a number from 1 to 4. However, from 5 onwards, they prefer 개월. This is 개월 (个月) and not simply 월. Recall that 일월 means January. 일개월 means one month.

For 1 day and 2 days, 하루 and 이틀 are more common than 일일 and 이일 because these two sound alike.

There is no difference between 주일 and 주.


  1. 곰은 겨울 동안 겨울잠을 자요. (Bears hibernate during winter.)
  2. 얼마 동안 한국어를 공부했어요? (For how long have you studied Korean?)
  3. 여름 방학 동안 집에서 쉬면서 책을 많이 읽었어요. (While resting at home during the summer vacation, I read a lot of books.)

3. A-(으)ㄴ데, V-는데, N인데

This is used to provide background information in the first clause that is relevant to the second clause. It functions as a lead-in to the next clause.

Unfortunately, there isn't an English translation for this one

In the first clause you would add 은데, 는데, 인데, and in the second clause you could have an additional explanation, asking a question, giving a suggestion, or even requesting.

This is one where examples probably help.


  1. 요즘 태권도를 배우는데 아주 재미있어요. (Recently I've been learning Taekwondo and it's very interesting.)
  2. 배가 아픈데 약 있어요? (My stomach hurts, do you have medicine?)
  3. 이것은 송평인데 추석에 먹어요. (This is Songpyeon [rice cake], and it is eaten during Chuseok [mid-autumn festival].)
  4. 많이 쌌는데 이제 갈까요? (You've bought a lot, shall we go?)

Past Tense

For the past tense form, you add -았/었 followed by 는데. This applies for both verbs and adjectives.

This should not be confused with the past tense noun modifier!

  1. 가다:
    • 간데 (X)
    • 갔는데 (O)
  2. 먹다:
    • 먹은데 (X)
    • 먹었는데 (O)
  3. 작다:
    • 작았는데 (O)
  4. 크다:
    • 킀는데 (O)

데 is a sentence ending. It isn't a noun.

Now: 이제 and 지금

In the last example sentence, it makes use of 이제, which also means "now":

  • 많이 쌌는데 이제 갈까요?

What's the difference between 이제 and 지금 when both can be translated "now"?

이제 implies an action starting from now. 지금 implies (right) now.

Let's say you are being nagged by your mother to do your homework. If you say 지금 해요, it implies that you were already doing the homework when she nagged at you.

On the other hand, 이제 해요 means that you will start to do your homework from now, after she has nagged at you. You weren't doing it before.


Korean English Notes
카트 kart go-kart
레이싱 racing
고래 whale
겨울잠 hibernation "winter sleep". to hibernate = 겨울잠을 자다
하루 one day
이틀 two days
송편 Songpyeon rice cake
사막 desert
대학원 graduate school
올해 this year
놀이기구 ride in an amusement park
삼바 축제 samba festival
발레 공연 ballet performance
이집트 Egypt
브라질 Brazil
러시아 Russia
몽골 Mongolia
스페인 Spain
크게 쓰다 to write big


  • Students: 5 (1 absent due to work - the lady who is older than me)
  • Breakout room activities: Chapter 3 handout p. 6, Textbook Speaking 1

Lesson 67 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 5): End Chapter 2

In this lesson1, we covered the rest of Chapter 2 in the textbook, then the video supplement handout. Finally, we started on Chapter 3 (vocab only). The lesson ended slightly over time, about 4 minutes over.

We started with Quizlet, in particular the sentences for Chapter 2. Initially, before all the students had joined the Zoom call, we were taking turns to translate each card from English to Korean. Later on, we kind of did it together. I realise I'm not very good at this so clearly I have not practised the sentences well enough.

The video supplement worksheet had 3 dialogues, followed by a short tongue twister section. We listened to the dialogues and filled in the blanks (though the answers were printed on the next page). After that, we practised with a partner. Because my handout was missing the last page2, when we did the practice, I had the teacher in the breakout room since she was sharing her screen for me to view it.

Culture Note

There is a passage to read, which is what we did. This is similar to Chapter 1. I took a peek at Chapter 3, and this seems like it would be the theme from now on.

The passage (and the first section with some images of online club banners) mentions a 태사모. From the image clearly it's a Taekwondo club, 태 = 태권도. 모 = 모임 (meeting), and 사 = 사랑 (love). So it's a club for Taekwondo lovers. (It's covered in the passage, but the teacher had asked us if we knew what it was before reading it.)

The point for discussion was the activity clubs popular in our country. We didn't really talk about this when we got here because we discussed it during the Listening section, where the teacher asked what club we would join if we had time. (She rightly realised that lack of time was a problem for us.)


This is an extension of the last pronunciaton rule from the previous 1B book, Chapter 16, covered in Lesson 60.

The only difference is that now the consonant ㅈ is mentioned, because in this chapter we learnt the V-(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다 grammar.

The Rule: When you have '-을/ㄹ' (i.e. any ㄹ grammar) followed by the initial consonants 'ㄱ, ㅅ, ㅈ', then 'ㄱ, ㅅ, ㅈ' are pronounced as their respective double consonant counterparts [ㄲ, ㅆ, ㅉ].


  1. 갈 거예요 [갈꺼에요]
  2. 만들 수 있어요 [쑤이써요]
  3. 피아노를 칠 줄 알아요 [쭐알아요]


Chapter 2

Korean English Notes
악기 musical instrument
연주하다 to perform; to play
악기를 연주하다 to play a musical instrument
기린 giraffe Tongue twister vocab
경찰청 police headquarters; National Police Agency Tongue twister vocab
쇠창살 iron grating Tongue twister vocab
검찰청 prosecutor's office 检察厅. Tongue twister vocab

Chapter 3

Korean English Notes
경험 experience 經驗 (经验)
전시회 exhibition 展示會
콘서트 concert
음악회[음아쾌] (classical music) concert Doesn't apply to K-pop, for example. That would be
연국 theatre play
뮤지컬 musical
축제 festival
불꽃놀이 fireworks 불 = fire; 꽃 = flower; 놀 = play
배낭여행 backpacking trip
아르바이트 part-time job short form is 알바
스쿠버 다이빙 scuba diving +하다
번지 점프 bungee jumping +하다 (notice it's 프 not 빙)
사물놀이 [서물로리] Korean traditional percussion quartet
온천 hot spring 温泉
박물관 museum
미술관 art museum
공연장 performance hall 공연하다 = to perform
놀이공원 amusement park
벚꽃 cherry blossom
출장 business trip
생선회 [생서놰] raw fish
겄다 오다 to have gone (somewhere) went somewhere and came back, e.g. to the toilet, or to school/work
빌려 주다 to lend
중요하다 to be important 重要
존경하다 to respect; to admire 尊敬
특히 especially
상을 받다 to win an award 상 = 賞
대회에 나가다 to enter a contest 대회 = 大会

  1. Also, I can't believe it's already the fifth lesson. I double checked when I saw the title, and my first reaction was, That can't be right. 

  2. Later on, when we started on Chapter 3 and I dug out all the papers for Chapter 3 from the envelope it was delivered in, I noticed there was a loose sheet that was torn in the upper left hand corner, where it should have been stapled. It looked like it was for Chapter 3's extra handout (the torn bit seems to fit), but the content was for Chapter 2. Seems like it was misplaced; could have been me when I reorganised the sheets. I can't remember. 

Lesson 66 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 4): I know how to... or not

Started with Quizlet, first individual since we were 5 in a class... not that Quizlet can't make teams with uneven numbers. But then the last student joined the class before the end and we did the second round in groups of 3.

We finished up the handout (covering the last 3 gramma points), and then started on chapter 2 in the textbook.

For the last grammar point, we played a game of 20 questions (스무고개, literally "20 hills").

As in the last lesson, which also had many speaking activities with another student and involved breakout rooms, the teachers gave us different partners for each activity.


2. V-(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다

This is used to expess that the subject knows (알다)/does not know (모르다) how to do something.


  • 받침 O + -을 줄 알다/모르다
    • Example:
      • 읽을 줄 알다/모르다 (읽다)
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다
    • Examples:
      • 수영할 줄 알다/모르다 (수영하다)
      • 스케이트를 탈 줄 알다/모르다 (스케이트를 타다)
      • 만들 줄 알다/모르다 (만들다)

Pronunciation: 줄 알아요 sounds like [쭈라라요].

I wonder if there are any cases where you can't make use of V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다/없다, which has a meaning that is pretty close to this?

3. V-(으)ㄴ

This is used to modify nouns that indicate a situation or an action that is completed.

Essentially, this is the past noun modifier. (See present tense noun modifier for verbs in Lesson 56.)


  • 받침 O + 은
    • Examples:
      • 먹은 (먹다)
      • 읽은 (읽다)
      • 들은 (듣다)
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + ㄴ
    • Examples:

4. A/V-지 않다

This is used to negate an action or the state of the verb or an adjective.

  • 방이 크지 않아요. = 방이 커요.

In meaning, it is similar to putting 안 in front, and in most cases, they are equivalent. (The textbook treats them as interchangeable, but the teacher did point out some differences in certain situations.)

Note that the spelling of 않 in V-지 않아요 is different from 안.

The conjugation is very straightforward; simply add -지 않다 to the verb stem (after removing 다).


  • 춥지 않아요. (It's not cold.)
  • 어제 비가 오 지 않았어요. (It did not rain yesterday.)
  • 내일을 늦지 않을 거예요. (Don't be late tomorrow.)


Naturally, because 안 is shorter, it's used more commonly in speech than A/V-지 않다.

A/V-지 않다 is used mostly in a formal setting, in written language, or when you are delivering a message and want it to come across more gently. The negative meaning is very strong when 안 is used.

There are 2 spoken situations where you might use A/V-지 않다 instead.

  1. You want to express something that is more neutral to negative, than really negative. This is related to the point about how the negative meaning comes across very strongly with 안. Saying something like 안 어려워요 pretty much implies it's easy, while saying 어렵지 않아요 means that it's not that hard, maybe somewhere halfway on the scale between easy and hard.
  2. You want people to agree with your opinion. It's a kind of rhetorical question. An example is with questions such as "Isn't it delicious?" or "Isn't it hot?", and you expect the person to say yes. You would ask, 맛이지 않아요? or 덥지 않아요? If you asked something like 안 더워요? the context would be in a situation where the weather is hot but your friend is wearing a jacket, and you are genuinely curious whether it's hot or not.

The teacher said that there is something similar with . It has an equivalent -지 못하다.

Since 못 has the meaning of being unable to do something, I think it only applies to verbs. That would also mean that it has the same meaning as V-(으)ㄹ 수 없다.

It didn't occur to me to ask during the lesson, since I was only reminded of this fact when I was writing this post, and searching up the links to my past entries on 못, which led me to the Lesson 58 post above.


Korean English Notes
고장이 나다 to break down; to have a breakdown
이주 전 two weeks ago
어징어 squid
고개 hill
스무고개 20 questions The game where you can ask up to 20 yes/no questions to guess an object.
둥글다 to be round
쓰다 to use Third etymology, after "to write" and "to wear (on the head)"
형광펜 highlighter (pen)

Lesson 65 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 3): Introductions Still

A new student joined the class, but because two were absent, we only had 4 students (including me). Ended up having to introduce myself, which was quite terrible because I'm bad at it.

We finished up chapter 1 and started on chapter 2.

For chapter 1, there was Speaking 2, Listening, Culture Note, Pronunciation, and Self-Check left.

Culture Note

The culture note was about names, specifically Korean names. Usually they are 3 characters, with the first being the family name. It's pretty much the same as with Chinese names.

There was a short passage to read. I forgot that 의 was to be pronounced [에] in 친구들의 이름. 😓

We also did discuss a little on common first and last names here. First names no one said anything, but I thought that the new student's name was quite common. For the last names there were a few given for common ones. The teacher said when she first came here she didn't know how to pronounce "Ng", which is a pretty common surname too.


The rule states that when the final consonant sound [ㅂ] is followed by the initial consonants ㄴ or ㅁ, then [ㅂ] is prounounced as [ㅁ].

Nothing new, it's exactly the same rule from chapter 7 in the SNU 1A book, covered in Lesson 31. (I had compiled a list for my last test, so it was easy to dig out.)

Even by the time that rule was covered back then, it was also mentioned before in at least 2 other lessons:

  1. Lesson 23 on the numbers
  2. Lesson 29 with formal speech

If there's any difference, it's only in the examples. Since we have learnt more words since then and more grammar, there aren't only examples with syllables that end with ㅂ, but also those that end with the [ㅂ] sound.


Korean English Notes
취미 hobby
여행 travelling
독서 reading 독서하다 to make it a verb. Also, unlike the Chinese 读书, this only means "reading a book", it doesn't have the "study" meaning.
외국어 foreign language
낚시 fishing 낚시하다
요리 cooking
운동 exercise
동호회 club Social club where people enjoy hobbies together. If in school, it's called 동아리, such as 사진 동아리 for photography club.
연습실 practice room
회비 membership fee
음악 감상 listening to music 감상 = 欣赏, appreciation
열화 감상 watching a movie
모임 gathering
모이다 to gather; meet 모여요
모음 collection
인형을 모으다 to collect dolls 모아요
음악을 듣다 to listen to music
춤을 추다 to dance (a dance)
그림을 그리다 to draw (a drawing)
꿈울 꾸다 to dream (a dream)
야구하다 to play baseball
인터겟을 하다 to browse the Internet
N에 가입하다 to join a website/club
회원가입 Join as member Label on a button ("Sign up" essentially, it's a "Join as member" button)
아주 very
별로 (+ 안) (not) particularly Always used with negatives. 별로 안 좋아해요. 별로 없어요. 별러 잘 못해요. Exception: 별로예요. (= It's not that good.) This last one isn't technically proper Korean but it's commonly used.
전혀 (+ 안) (not) at all
코미디 comedy
공포 horror
액션 action
로맨스 romance
판타지 fantasy
공상 과학 science fiction or just "SF" works too


1. V-는 것

This is used to change a verb phrase into a noun phrase.

In a sentence like "I like drawing", this is what you need to translate the "drawing" part: 저는 그림 그리는 것을 좋아해요.

The conjugation is very simple, just tack on -는 것 to any verb stem. Just note that for ㄹ verbs the ㄹ is removed due to ㄹ elimination.


  • 가다 → 가는 것
  • 먹다 → 먹는 것 [멍는]
  • 놀다 → 노는 것

In spoken Korean, recall that you have 이거 to say "this one", though the proper form is 이것.

Similarly, over here, frequently 거 is said in place of 것. (것 is the proper way, and must be used when written.)

You can also do combinations, something like with 뭐 and 뭘:

  • 거 + 을 → 걸
  • 거 + 이 → 게

However, you can also just simply use 거 when speaking.

This solved my Duolingo mystery with when to use 게. I could guess 거 + 은 → 건 (this is unverified, not covered here), 거 + 을 → 걸, but didn't know that 거 + 이 = 게.

Another thing to note is that in this construction, if the verb has an object before it, the object particle 을/를 is usually omitted:

  • 제 취미는 책 읽는 거예요. (제 취미는 책 읽는 것이에요.)
  • 저는 드라마 보는 걸 좋아해요. (저는 드라마 보는 것을 좋아해요.)
  • 그림 그리는게 재미있어요. (그림 그리는 것이 재미있어요.)


Well, still had to introduce myself this lesson, so we weren't done with introductions. Chapter 2 is on hobbies, which is also one of the things you might mention about yourself in a self-introduction. At least we did when the previous student joined (the one who has since transferred to another class).

Lesson 64 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 2): Introductions, Continued

This is a short post, and yet I did not sit down to write it until now, a week after the lesson. (It's the second day of the Lunar New Year, which is a public holiday, so there's no lesson today.)

Given the pace last lesson, I thought we'd finish the chapter this week. But as I mentioned, there was an additional sheet this time.

It turns out that they were dialogues taken from different shows, and related to the first chapter. The longest was only 3 lines. Those on the first page were all related to introductions. On the second page was a longer dialogue to do with the "or" grammar point.

We started with just listening to the audios (without watching the accompanying video) and looking at the transcript. After that, we were split into breakout rooms to practise each of the conversations. Only after returning to the main room did we see the video. Going through all this took almost half an hour.

In the textbook, we completed up to p. 33, stopping just before the second Speaking section.

However, the homework (which I've not completed) is the Reading and Writing from this chapter.


Korean English Notes
말씀드리다 to speak (humble) humble form of 말다, like how 드리다 is the humble form for 주다
최신형 the latest model
변호사 lawyer 辯護士
상사 superior; boss 上司, at work
하숙 boarding house
하숙생 boarder at a boarding house
전학 transfer (to another school) 轉學
설거지를 하다 to do the dishes
취미 hobby
Chinese zodiac sign e.g. 닭띠 = year of the Rooster; 돼지띠 = year of the Pig

Lesson 63 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 1): Introducing Oneself, Again

We got back the test via KakaoTalk before the lesson. It's been a week but I've been busy so I've not sat down to look at it. This post is also more than a week late. It's fortunate that there's no class this week due to CNY, so I can get a breather.

The lesson started with going through common mistakes, but it wasn't a lot, so I would conclude that I did much worse on the listening component than the rest.

In this lesson, we started by looking at the topics in the 2A textbook. Then, we covered the entire Chapter 1 handout, and the homework was thus the entire worksheet. I suspect that the next lesson will cover the textbook, but there's also another additional one sheet which seems to be some kind of dialogue.

The teacher said that this is a warm-up chapter that's easier than the last one, which is why we were going so fast.


1. N(이)라고 하다

This is used to introduce yourself in a formal manner (an alternative way of doing so instead of saying "I am..."), or used to indirectly quote something that one has heard from others.

The verb here is translated "to be called". So this is the equivalent of introducing yourself as "I am called (name)" rather than saying "I am (name)".

As you can tell from the form, you would have to add 이 after words that have Batchim.

It's not only for people's names, but also for things, such as when you are telling people what something is called in another language.


  • 저는 나나라고 해요.
  • 이것은 한국어로 '가방'이라고 합니다.

Some related points is how to include in your introduction where you are from:

  • 저는 독일에서 온 한스라고 해요. (I am Hans [who comes] from Germany.)
    • 온 is "from"
    • I translated it using "to be" instead of "to be called" because in English it is awkward to say "I am called Hans from Germany" as it sounds like your name is "Hans from Germany".

The other thing is the verb 부르다 (to call), which in the present tense in conjugated to 불러요. You would use it ask others to call you by a certain name, or to say how your friends call you, for example:

  • 그냥 리키라고 부르세요. (Just call me Ricky.)
  • 친구들은 저를 리키라고 불러요. (My friends call me Ricky.)

2. V-(으)려고

Grammar is getting a bit more challenging, less due to conjugation, but the situation and context of use.

This is used to indicate that someone has the intention to do something. It looks very similar to V-(으)려고 하다, and it was briefly mentioned when we learnt V-(으)러 가다/오다 in Lesson 59.

When talking about "intention", it means it is for something planned, something done with purpose. You wouldn't use it to give a simple reason or explanation.

If you are giving a simple reason, you would use A/V-아서/어서/해서.


  • 내일 아침에 먹으려고 빵을 샀어요.
  • 한국 사람하고 한국어로 한국어를 이야기하려고 공부해요.

3. V-거나

This is used to indicate a series of options. It is essentially "or", used for linking verbs, the way V-고 links verbs with the meaning of "and". (We will see the version of "or" for linking nouns in the next grammar point.)


  • 저는 주말에 텔레비전을 보거나 책을 읽어요.
  • 아침에 빵을 먹거나 우유를 마셔요.

4. N-(이)나

This is used to indicate options among a group of similar things. It has to be the same verb.


  • 이나 주스를 마셔요.
  • 딸기 바나나를 살 거예요.
  • 운동이나 쇼핑을 해요.

For the last example, it's allowed because it's the same "action" although 운동하다 and 쇼핑하다 are technically two different verbs. But these verbs are formed using nouns (운동 and 쇼핑) and they can also be written as 운동을 하다 and 쇼핑을 하다.


Korean English Notes
성명 full name 성 = surname
성별 sex; gender
생년월일 date of birth
직업 job
국적 nationality
종교 religion
천주교 Roman Catholic; Roman Catholicism
성당 church (Catholic)
기독교 Christian (Protestant); Christianity
교회 church (Protestant)
불교 Buddhist; Buddhism
Buddhist temple
열락처 contact information
주소 address
전화 telephone
언어 language
평일 weekday
소설책 novel
매일 every day
매달 / 매월 every month
매년 every year
항상 always
자주 often
가끔 seldom
초대를 받다 to receive an invitation
(이름을) 부르다 to call (a name)
거실 living room
살을 빼다 to lose weight
해외여행 overseas trip
갑자기 suddenly
돈을 모으다 to save money (for sth) 모아요
통장 bankbook
사진관 photo studio
외식을 하다 to eat out
줄을 서다 to stand in line 서다 = to stand
잊어버리다 to forget
뛰어가다 to run
시간이 나다 to have time 있다 is also fine

I accidentally clicked the "email subscribers" button (like I did a few weeks ago) for this post while trying to update it.

Lesson 62 (Beginner 4A Lesson 5): Beginner 4 Test

This was harder than I thought it would be. I'm also very certain this will be the test I do the most poorly on so far.

I'm not looking forward to next week.

Honestly I wasn't happy with myself after the test. Before the test, I finally went through some of the homework for these chapters. Seeing the dumb mistakes I made right before the test probably did affect my confidence too. (My fault for not checking the homework earlier, I'll admit that.)

I was anxious in the days leading up to the test. Part of that was because I had less time to prepare. 2 weeks' notice isn't enough for me, but recall I wasn't expecting this test. For Test 2, I realised 2 weeks wasn't enough, and for Test 3 I had started preparing in advance. (For Test 1, which was long ago and in-person, the teacher—still the other teacher at the time—told us more than a month in advance I think.)

In terms of the format, it's been similar to the past tests. The test paper was sent via email this time instead of KakaoTalk. The teacher sent the instructions to the chat the day before the test, since the new students wouldn't know.

My printer decided to act up and it took me longer than usual to print. I almost joined the class late. In fact, I might have been the last one.


Listening was scary. There were something like 5 questions thereabout that I was unsure of, because I couldn't catch exactly what was being said and hence couldn't decipher what was going on. I'm not sure where I can find more comprehensible input to practice on, but listening more would be a start.


I wasn't the first person to do the oral test this time, unlike the last 2 times. I noticed the teacher started with the newest student, then the second newest student. Then it was probably 1 or 2 more students before it was my turn. My turn was about 50 mins after the start of the lesson.

This oral test was easier than the last oral test. The sentences were easier to read. The teacher had told us last week that we should prepare the describing people part for the oral test and it was exactly that, there were 2 people we had to describe from the image. The same image.

Then the third part consisted of 4 English words. You have to make sentences in Korean to say whether you could do the activity or not. Meaning you needed to have the vocab to know what the thing was, and the appropriate Korean verb for it. (There were some sports involved.) The 4 things... well, I could do all of them, but the first one was something that I could sort of do, or used to do, so I thought really hard as well. On the last one I also started second-guessing myself because it felt too easy, everything was just (으)ㄹ 수 있어요... If there was something I could not do at least I could use the 못 construct... which is used more in spoken language than (으)ㄹ 수없어요.

Finally, the last part, was also similar to something we did in class. You had to talk about what you would do if you had a lot of money. Unfortunately, I overthought this and thought it was the same as the activity in class where after you said you would do X if you had money, then you had to say what else you would do if you had X, etc. So I was hesitating because the last time the questioning went on for 3 more times after the first, but I only managed 2 with my original answer.

I thought really hard, and I was also conflicted because I suddenly had another thought about what I could do with a lot of money, of something else to buy. In the end I went with my original answer. Then the teacher asked me to say something else that isn't something to be bought. That also threw me off, and I took more time to think about some activity. I eventually settled on saying that I would travel.


My head hurt from reading 4 chunks of text. I also felt that I was reading too slowly. It's a lot of text to answer 1-2 questions below. I'm definitely not used to reading so much text in a paragraph.

I've been avoiding finding material to read, since, well, it's not been a very big problem when in the beginner class but... well, it's time to realise that I'm heading to intermediate, it's been a year, so I need to realise that I have to take this more seriously. My Korean is no longer at the beginner level, not really.

I don't know of any simple Korean books or material to read apart from some that I've seen before on HowToStudyKorean.com


The writing has 2 parts. The first part had some questions where you had to reorder the sentence based on the words and another section for joining 2 sentences with the right connectors. For some reason, I really struggled with the reordering question. And it's not even that hard, or it shouldn't be, because it's not as though any conjugation is required. The words are given exactly as they should be.

Then the second part is the essay. The essay topic, like before, was not that unpredictable as it was something that we'd actually written about before. Unfortunately, it was the one topic that required vocab that I did not really memorise and hence could not use: Name of attractions and places in my country, but in Korean. Well, that's been fixed, I've put in the words I used in my original essay into Anki. Definitely my writing speed can be improved, as usually I take far too long to do my writing assignments. For the test this time, I noted I had 15 minutes thereabout to write. And I think a lot of the time was wasted because I was slow to read.

Additionally, the amount of words we are required to write seem to have increased from last time. There were 2 pages of squares to write on too.

We were given until 20 minutes after the lesson to submit the paper. It's more generous than the last round I think? It was until 15 minutes the last time.

Lesson 61 (Beginner 4A Lesson 5): Revision for Beginner 4 Test

We went through the self-check in the textbook, then the revision notes.

The first part was vocab, and we made use of Quizlet Live (individual teams, no groups).

For the exercises, the notable thing to revise is describing different people based on what they wear and some characteristics (height, hair length), perhaps even their actions. The teacher did say this would be in the speaking test. (It was a written exercise in the revision sheet.)

To say that someone has long hair, you can say:

  • 나나 씨는 머리가 길어요. (O)
  • 나나 씨는 머리가 길고 치마를 입었어요. (O)

But not:

  • 나나 씨는 긴 머리가 있어요. (X)

There was no homework this week as we finished all the exercises in the revision sheet.

I guess there really is no Beginner 4B. After the test, we will be starting the new book (2A), which should be considered intermediate.


Korean English
아메리카노 Americano
사이주 size
자켓 jacket

Lesson 60 (Beginner 4A Lesson 4): While writing this post...

In this lesson, we finished Chapter 16. I was actually surprised by the speed at which the teacher went through the lesson at the end. When I joined the class, the teacher was having the make-up session with the 2 newest students which did not attend last week. Usually, the make-up session is 30 minutes long and it's before the usual lesson time, but that was when classes were still in person... maybe the other students who missed class just never wanted to take up this offer after we transitioned to online classes.

There was a short review, and we had to each say a sentence of somewhere we went and why (grammar 3 from last week).

Then, we dived right in to the last grammar point for this chapter, which is another 으 grammar. Before the teacher pointed it out, I had not realised all the grammar that we covered for this chapter were all 으 grammar.

Then, we went to the textbook. We started with grammar point 3 (on p. 181 and not numbered as such in the textbook) and then did grammar point 4 as well (on p. 182). We did the activity as well, which took some time.

It was a game of charades of sorts. There were 6 of us in the class, so we were divided into groups of 3. We were sent into breakout rooms. One person was to do the expression and the other 2 were supposed to guess, so we were supposed to decide who was going to do what. At the point it wasn't clear how many sentences we had to do, and we had thought the person doing the expression had to come up with the sentences.

When we got back to the main room, the 2 people who were going to do the expression did a game of rock-paper-scissors, and the winner (not my team) got to decide whether they wanted to go first or later, and they chose later.

So basically the expresser in each team gets 4 sentences all based on the grammar (V-(으)면서, the 4th grammar point) and they had to act it out as best as they could. The teacher also sent the 4 sentences to the opposing team members so they could see what was going on.

There was also an overall timer, so once the expresser is sent the 4 sentences, the timer starts.

In the end, the other team won. It was not too bad given that not every person had to act. I would have hated that.

Then, we did the listening, culture note, and pronunciation. Reading and writing were left for homework. We were running late so we didn't do the self-check.

And at the end... surprise! There is a test in 2 weeks. Next week is the revision lesson, and the following week is the test.

The test will cover Chapters 14-16. That's right, only 3 chapters. So it turns out my guess last year that the next test would only be in February is wrong, because it was based on the wrong assumption that the test would cover at least 4 to 5 chapters.

So if I had to refine my criteria for determining tests, the tests can span chapters across books, but only books that are of the same level. Hard to believe but... the next term after the test means that we're moving on to intermediate level.

When the teacher mentioned that next week would be a revision lesson, I was confused since I knew I did not receive any revision notes or test papers. It turns out that we were to pay for the next term this week, and the revision notes would be sent along with the new textbook.

Now, this term, instead of being 7 lessons, has shrunk to 6. The next term now starts on what was previously the 7th lesson of this term. Because of that, next term we have the balance of 1 class and so the cost of 1 lesson is taken off the total. It's actually pretty similar to what happened last time, except it's being represented somewhat differently.


4. V-(으)면서

This is used to express two actions that occur at the same time or period. The actions are performed by the same subject.


  • 받침 O + -으면서
    • Examples: 먹으면서 (먹다), 읽으면서 (읽다), ...
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -면서
    • Examples: 운동하면서 (운동하다), 만들면서 (만들다), ...


  1. 밥을 먹으면서 텔레비전을 봐요. (I watch television while eating.)
  2. 운전화면서 전화하지 마세요. (Don't talk on the phone while you are driving.)
  3. 언니가 케이크를 만들면서 노래해요. (My elder sister sings while making a cake.)

Usage Notes

  1. The subject of both clauses must be the same. If the subjects of both clauses are different, a different grammar is used: -는 동안.
    • 동생이 텔레비전을 보는 동안 제가 책을 읽었어요. (O)
    • My younger sibling was watching television while I read a book.
  2. Tense is not added to the verb preceding '-(으)면서'.
    • 어제 줄리양 씨는 노래를 했으면서 기타를 쳤어요. (X)
    • 어제 줄리양 씨는 노래를 하면서 기타를 쳤어요. (O)
    • Yesterday, Julian sang while he played the guitar.

Culture Note

The culture note was about housewarming gifts in Korea.

After a person moves in, two common gifts in Korea are toilet paper and laundry detergent.

In the case of toilet paper, that is because the action of unrolling the toilet paper is called 풀다. This verb also has another meaning, which is "to solve". So, giving a person toilet paper is wishing that they would be able to solve all their problems as easily as they unroll and use the toilet paper.

If this is too "cheap" a gift (especially for the younger generation), then they might gift something else in addition to the paper.

In the case of laundry detergent, it's that it produces a lot of bubbles. And that translates to wishing that they would become rich (become 부자, 부자 되다), as in, their wealth "bubbles over".


The pronunciation rule for this chapter makes explicit the rule that we have seen as early as when we learnt the future tense, and then again for the first 2 grammar points in this chapter. (Though I didn't point out the pronunciation in the last post due to laziness more than anything.)

When you have '-을/ㄹ' (i.e. any ㄹ grammar) followed by the initial consonants 'ㄱ, ㅅ', then 'ㄱ, ㅅ' are pronounced as their respective double consonant counterparts [ㄲ, ㅆ].


  1. 갈 거예요 [갈꺼에요]1
  2. 할 수 있어요 [할쑤이써요]
  3. 먹을게요 [머글께요]


Korean English Notes
배웅하다 to see off e.g. when you accompany someone to and see them off at the airport.
넷플릭스 Netflix
아무 any; anyone 아무 것도 안 하면서 기다렸어요. = I didn't do anything while waiting for you.
팝콘 popcorn
집들이 housewarming party
직접 directly; on one's own e.g. 직접 이야기해요 means to speak to someone in-person. Context here is a method of how one might invite someone to a party.

  1. The textbook writes it as [갈꺼요], but since the teacher said that it's pronounced as [에], I'm sticking with that. 

Lesson 59 (Beginner 4A Lesson 3): I will do ~; I am going (in order) to ~

A lesson after a two-week break is always a tiny bit nerve-wrecking for me. There were only 4 of us this lesson; both of the newer students didn't attend. The newest student had informed the teacher, but the other one had not. It seems that the girl is staying in our class since she was in the lesson.

We started out with vocabulary revision using Quizlet Live. The first 2 rounds were in groups (pairs), while the last 2 were individual.

Naturally, that meant that there was some additional revision. The exercise we did last lesson on saying what we can do is taken from the textbook. We sort of did it again. "Sort of" because the teacher did let me off in the end, and I didn't have to come up with something when I was the last, when we went round robin. I only had to answer the question.

The other speaking activities we did were in relation to the grammar that we learnt in the lesson.

For the second grammar point of the chapter, it was the birthday party exercise from the textbook (p. 178). We each had to ask and someone had to volunteer and answer with ... 게요. At the start, no one did, so the person who asked had to do it: 없어요? 그럼 제가 ... 게요.

For the third grammar point of the chapter, we had to come up with what we did, and then after one round of that, it was what we were going to do.

Fortunately the homework for this week was just the workbook, so I'd completed it within the same day.


2. V-(으)ㄹ게요

Translated, this is "I will do ~" or "let me do ~".

It is used to express the speaker's strong intention or promise to the listener to do a certain action, as a result of hearing what the listener has said.

As such, it can only be used with a first person subject (singular or plural), and only for statements (not questions).

For the conjugation:

  • 받침 O + -을게요
    • Examples: 읽을게요 (읽다), 받을게요 (받다), ...
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄹ게요
    • Examples: 갈게요 (가다), 만들게요 (만들다), ...


    • 가: 내일 일찍 오세요. (Please come early tomorrow.)
    • 나: 네, 일찍 올게요. (Yes, I will come early.)
    • 가: 전화가 오네요. 전화 좀 받아 주세요. (There is a call. Please answer the phone.)
    • 나: 네, 제가 받을게요. (I will answer.)
    • 가: 누가 케이크을 만들 거에요? (Who will make the cake?)
    • 나: 제가 만들게요.(I will make it.)

Comparison with Future Tense

How does this compare with the future tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요?

For V-(으)ㄹ게요, there is a relationship with the listener and the subject's intention or thought is expressed while taking the listener into consideration.

Let's look at one of the earlier examples.

  • 가: 내일 일찍 오세요. (Please come early tomorrow.)
  • 나: 네, 일찍 올게요. (Yes, I will come early.)

In this situation, the speaker 나 did not intend to come early at first. But after hearing what the other person has said, he decides on the spot to do something. The decision to come early is related to what was said before.

By contrast, say if you had this exchange (which uses the future tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요):

  • 가: 내일 일찍 올 거예요. (I will come early tomorrow.)
  • 나: 그래요? 알았어요. (Really? I see.)

Here, there is no relationship with the listener. The subject's intention or plan is expressed unidirectionally. That is, he has already decided that he is going to come early and is sharing this fact to the listener. It is not based on anything the listener said.

Usage Notes

This is a summary of what has been said.

  1. This expression can only be used with verbs that express the will of the subject. It cannot be used with adjectives, or verbs where the subject cannot be the first person (e.g. 비가 오다, where the rain is not due to your intention).
  2. Only subjects in the first person can be used. In other cases, you use the future tense.
  3. The expression cannot be used in questions. You would also use the future tense for questions.

3. V-(으)러 가다/오다

This is used to express the purpose of going (가다) or coming (오다).

For the conjugation:

  • 받침 O + -으러
    • Examples: 읽으러 (읽다), 받으러 (받다), ...
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -러
    • Examples: 보러 (보다), 만들러 (만들다), ...

My biggest problem with this right now is the pronunciation. 러 is not a character that appears frequently, and so feels very foreign on my tongue. It's very easy to mispronounce, I guess as 려? I am honestly not sure.


  1. 도서관에 책을 읽으러 가요. (I am going to the library to read a book.)
    • The order can be switched: 책을 읽으러 도서관에 가요.
  2. 신년회하러 친구 집에 갈 거예요. (I am going to my friend's house for a new year's party.)
  3. 우리 집에 저녁 먹으러 오세요. (Please come to my house for dinner.)

Usage Notes

  1. Only movement verbs can be used after -(으)러, so 가다, 오다, 다니다 are acceptable.
    • For non-movement verbs, it uses another grammar -으려고 that will be covered in the next chapter.
      • From the first look, it reminds me of V-(으)려고 하다... which if I had to take a stab and guess, is a specific form of this other grammar. After all, V-(으)려고 하다 is used for something planned, that is, it is also for expressing intent or purpose. Wiktionary calls this -으려고 connective form "Motive".
  2. This can be used with all the different tenses of the movement verb, so past tense (갔어요), future tense (갈 거예요), expressing desire (가고 싶어요), etc.
  3. Obviously, you cannot use movement verbs before -(으)러 as it would make no sense. 가러 가다 is like saying "to go to go".


Korean English Notes
빌려주다 to lend 빌리다 is to borrow.
끊다 to hang up (the phone) Other meanings: to give up (a habit), to abstain from; to cut, to sever
약속 promise Previously, learnt the other meaning, which was appointment.
송년회 year-end party 送年會
신년회 new year party 新年會
예배하다 to worship, to attend religious service 禮拜 (礼拜)
안경을 맞추다 to get a pair of glasses made to be fitted for glasses
달팽이 snail
토끼 rabbit
배달하다 to deliver; to make a delivery
주문하다 to order

Lesson 58 (Beginner 4A Lesson 2): Can or Can't

I have a love-hate relationship with the lessons where we start a new chapter. On one hand, it's positive because it feels like progress, and usually learning vocabulary means there's less speaking. On the other hand, less speaking means I'm allowed to stay within my comfort zone. New vocabulary also means that I have extra work to do that week in importing everything to Anki.

The Quizlet importer Anki extension with audio support makes it easier on me, as I don't need to get the audio from Forvo. I'd actually installed this extension some time ago, but never tried it out until I used it by mistake instead of the usual one the last time, because in the menu both of these have the same name "Import from Quizlet".

Granted, a real person speaking is better, but since it's just a word and not a whole sentence I don't mind. Anyway, having a computer read a whole sentence for the Quizlet sentences decks is also better than not having any before. I guess if I want real native audio it's from listening to more people actually speak...

We started by finishing up the remaining sections of Chapter 15, which included Listening and Speaking (did not really do the Speaking which was "talk about your honeymoon"), Reading and Writing, Culture Note, and Pronunciation.

The Reading of the Reading and Writing section of Chapter 15 was homework for the last lesson, and Writing is the homework for this lesson. But we went through the Reading component in class too.

After covering the first grammar point for Chapter 16, we looked at 3 different sentences from various K-dramas where the actors said different lines that used this grammar.

I realised we had no breakout sessions this lesson. In terms of speaking, we still had some activities.

First, we had to say something we couldn't live without. This was related to the first K-drama sentence where the guy asked the girl if she could live without him. (I've put the sentences below under the grammar point itself.)

The second speaking activity (after watching the K-drama scenes), we had to say one thing we could or couldn't do and ask the next person if they could do that, then the next person would answer and ask another thing (order as decided by the teacher). The teacher gave the example of playing the piano, which is 피아노를 치다. The first few students who went stuck with the musical theme and went with guitar and drums (where the verb is still 치다, lit. "to hit") until the teacher banned us from using the verb. I went last (I think the teacher was being nice to me) and in the end I mentioned riding again.

Also, I realised that with Chapter 16, we are on the last chapter of the book, not sure why no new materials sent with this term. There aren't any revision notes, and it's too early for a test. There should be a new set of notes sent soon, I think, because it takes about 3 lessons to finish a chapter, and if this is first week, then we should only have enough for 2 more lessons.

Culture Note

The culture note this time is... not really a culture note?

It's about various cities (travel destinations) in Korea, and there's a flow chart. Depending on whether you answer "yes" or "no", you proceed to the next question, and at the end, there is a suggestion on where you should go.

If you answered "no" to everything, the suggestion is a cheeky "rest in your hotel room".


Back in the post for Lesson 56, I did cover a bit on the pronunciation, but said I'd go into more detail when we actually cover the pronunciation topic for the chapter:

The thing to watch out for basically are the pronunciations, particularly the first 3 above. For the last one, remember that there's more than a few final consonants (all coronals) that will give the /d/ sound and undergo the same transformation.

Essentially in all 3 cases, the stops/plosives of the final consonants become their nasal counterparts (still voiced, with place of articulation unchanged).

The rule (as given in the textbook) is: When the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] are followed by 'ㄴ', they are pronounced as [ㅇ, ㄴ, ㅁ].

As I've said, the stops (or plosives) turn into their nasal counterparts.

If you look at the IPA (see this table, under the row final allophones), these are the original sounds:

  1. [ㄱ] is [k̚]: Voiceless velar stop with no audible release
  2. [ㄷ] is [t̚]: Voiceless alveolar stop with no audible release
  3. [ㅂ] is [p̚]: Voiceless bilabial stop with no audible release

Note that it is [ㄱ] and not just 'ㄱ', [ㄷ] and not just 'ㄷ', and [ㅂ] and not just 'ㅂ'. This means it applies to the whole ㄱ-family and ㅂ-family since they make the same sound in the final consonant position. As for [ㄷ], well, that includes all the coronals.

All obstruents (stops, affricates, fricatives) become stops with no audible release at the end of a word: all coronals collapse to [t̚], all labials to [p̚], and all velars to [k̚].

If followed by 'ㄴ', they change into:

  1. [ㅇ] which is [ŋ]: Voiceless velar nasal
  2. [ㄴ] which is [n]: Voiceless alveolar nasal
  3. [ㅁ] which is [m]: Voiceless bilabial nasal


  1. 먹는 [멍는]
  2. 읽는 [잉는]
  3. 맛있는 [마신는]
  4. 춥네요 [춤네요]

This rule was also (indirectly) mentioned before when learning the grammar A/V-네요.


1. V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다/없다

Literally translated, this is can/be able to (있다) or cannot/be unable to (없다).

It is used to express ability (disability) or a possibility (impossibility).

V-(으)ㄹ 수 없다 is identical in meaning to 못 V.

  • 이 영화를 볼 수 없어요 = 이 영화를 못 봐요

Because 못 V is a much more concise way of expressing the same idea, Koreans usually use it when speaking. You mostly see the V-(으)ㄹ 수 없다 form only in formal writing.

However, there is no shorter way to express V-(으)ㄹ 수 있다, and so it is used even in speech.

The conjugation is pretty much as you'd expect based on the form:

  • 받침 O + -을 수 있다/없다
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -ㄹ 수 있다/없다


  1. 동생은 매운 음식을 먹을 수 있어요. (My younger sibling can eat spicy food.)
  2. 일본어를 할 수 없어요. (I can't speak Japanese.)
    • (= 일본어를 못 해요.)
  3. 저는 케이크를 만들 수 있어요. (I can make a cake.)

Bonus Examples (from the K-drama scenes):

  1. 너. 나 없이 살 수 있어? (Can you live without me?)
  2. 사랑 없는 결혼, 할 수 있어요? (Can you accept a marriage without love?)
  3. 나 너무 믿 지마. 나는 니 옆에 계속 있어 줄 수가 없어. (Don't trust me too much. I can't always stay by your side.)
    • The 가 after 수 is an emphasis on the "can't".

And yes, they were all said by a guy to a girl. Probably male lead to female lead, I don't know. I don't watch K-dramas so I don't even know what shows they were or who the actors were.


Korean English Notes
눈사람 snowman
모임 gathering
계획하다 to plan
연락하다 [열라카다] to contact Whenever you have ㄴ and ㄹ, [ㄴ] changes to [ㄹ]. This is even if the order is reversed, such as in 설날 [설랄].
준비하다 to prepare
축하하다 to celebrate
초대하다 to invite
식사하다 to have a meal For 식사, you always use 하다, never 먹다.
선물하다 to give a present
들어오다 to come in; to enter Not to be confused with 들아오다 (to return)
시간을 보내다 to spend time
사 가다 to buy and bring The grammar is actually 사(서) 가다. You can also have something like 만들어(서) 가다.
돈을 찾다 to withdraw money
춤을 추다 to dance 춤 can be replaced to indicate a different type of dance.
이사(를) 하다 to move (house)
별일 [별릴] something special 별 is from 别 in 特别. 일 is "matter" as we previously saw. 별일 있어요? = This is asking if there's any "news" in the person's life such as a new house, job, etc.
휴일 holiday One day. Otherwise it's 휴가.
답장 reply
음료수 [음뇨수] beverage
부자 the rich 富者
점수 score
세제 laundry detergent 세 is something clean, like 세수 is to wash your face.
열심히 hard, diligently1
일찍 early1
늦게 late1 늦다 can be either a verb ("I'm late" as in "I arrive late") or adjective ("the hour is late"). Depending on which, then you either have 늦는 or 늦은 for verb and adjective respectively when it's a noun modifier.
조금 a little1
많이 a lot1 많은 + N (as noun modifier)
빨리 quickly1 빠른 + N (as noun modifier)
천천히 slowly 1
by the way
인어공주 The Little Mermaid This came from an example sentence where the kids were saying they can watch this movie, and the accompanying picture had a movie poster which included this movie they could watch. (They couldn't watch 007, 공공칠.)
기어가다 to crawl
믿다 to believe in something; to trust someone
위험하다 to be dangerous

Note: This was originally published on December 24, but something weird happened and this post got replaced with the Mindshift Week 3 post, which had become privately published. (I had previously re-published the Mindshift post as I'd noticed a typo in it, or more accurately, I think it was a ' instead of a " to close something I'd quoted. Maybe I mis-clicked.) Once I re-published the old Mindshift Week 3 post to the blog (publicly), that was fixed and the post could be accessed from the old URL (it's handy to have an archive to check). Essentially, the blog had 2 copies of the Mindshift Week 3 post, one published on the original date back in April, and another on December 24. Then, I naturally deleted the copy that was published on December 24. This note ended up looking like it was never published before (as I had the option of publishing it to another Listed blog). I republished it and it got a new URL. But hey, it's Christmas, so blessed Christmas. :D

  1. All these are adverbs. Adverbs are placed right before the verb. They should not be separated from the verb by a noun. Only noun modifiers come before nouns. 많이 음식을 먹었어요 is wrong. It's 음식을 많이 먹었어요. Or you can say 많은 음식을 먹었어요. 많이 is an adverb; 많은 is a noun modifier. Also, yay, footnotes are fixed.