notes on things I'm learning. currently: Korean

Lesson 85 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 12): Intermediate 2 Test

Test week, so this will just be my ramblings about my thoughts about the test. Made stupid mistakes again, but I do not think I will do too badly. But we shall know for sure next week.


I think one student came in after the first question, so the teacher replayed it. Then from then on, each question was played twice before moving on to the next question.

This was different from before, where we would hear everything once through and then the second time would be another round through all the questions again.

I think I don’t mind this, but it was a bit of having hope crushed immediately if you missed something since the second chance expires almost immediately.

The first two questions were image questions, where you had to choose the correct image out of 4. However, when I initially saw the paper, I had thought it was 4 questions, and you had to pick out of 2 options. It has to do with the layout of the page, since the separation between questions is not much more when the options belong to the same question or not. (I guess it is somewhat of an occupational hazard that I am commenting on this now.)

So initially for the first question, I had selected the wrong option, as I picked the second, but the actual answer is the third, which is on the second row. I only noticed when we went to the second question, and I was looking at the second row of pictures, when I should have been looking at the third and fourth.

For the second question, in the first round, I wrote down some key word I heard. In the second, I wrote down something else. I thought it meant product (상품), but after I looked at what I had written, they were 소포 and then 포장 from the two rounds, so I changed my answer.

The next section had the usual 4 questions and answers, and you had to pick the correct answer. There was one I wasn't sure, but I ended up guessing.

There was also the section where there is a conversation going on, and then you had to pick the topic they were talking about. That had two questions.

Then, there was a section where there is a conversation, and you pick the right option. However, the first set actually had two questions and they were from two different conversations. Initially, I got confused as I thought the second question had to be answered as well.

Lastly, there were indeed two more conversations where there were two questions asked about each conversation. The teacher did mention for these that the questions had to be answered together.

Vocabulary & Grammar

I found this very easy, and it did not take long. Or at least, it felt that way.


I also found this relatively easy. Reading long passages don’t cause my brain to hurt. And I was also okay with kind of skimming and reading fast (because I wanted more time for writing) instead of reading every. single. word. as I did last time.


I think I was maybe the 4th person to do the oral. By the time it was time to do the oral, I was pretty much at the Writing section.

The oral was pretty easy honestly, in terms of how it was actually possible to prepare for with what we have. Plus, there was no conversation part, which really helped.

There were 3 main sections.

The first was, as usual, reading the sentences out loud. In fact, they made it easy in that the ones where you actually had to watch out for the pronunciation? The words were underlined.

The first one had a date, which was August 15. 15 is 십오, but I was so focused on the 5, that I actually said 오십 (50). The teacher kind of gave me a look and asked me to read it again.

I realised that was a very… German thing to do. In German the ones and tens are backwards. 15 is “fünfzehn”, and 5 is “fünf” and 10 is “zehn”. In the numbers bigger than 20, there is an “and” between them, but the logic remains.

The second one was actually the activity from Chapter 6, p. 144. The one where you had to use V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다 to say what you think happened in the aftermath of the party. You had to say 3 things.

The first thing I said was that they ate cake, then I said they danced, and then I decided for some strange reason, in a bid to cancel the dance thing, to say that they listened to music, because the only thing they had there was a music player (stereo system?) with the CD tray open.

So, “to listen” is 듣다, which irregularly conjugates. But I was thinking in my mind of 놀다 for some strange reason. So in my mind, 논 appeared, and so I said 든 or maybe even 돈, when it should be 들은. This is hilarious if not so sad.

My takeaway from this is that I need to add the conjugation cards to review them in Anki as a sanity check. The old style conjugation cards I had were bad because they required me to think of the endings and after a while it becomes very detached from what I had to do and I hated them whenever they came up for review. Thus, I decided not to create new ones for the new grammar anymore.

At the time, I thought the solution was to have Cloze cards, but those serve a different purpose (and I did not add enough of them, anyway). So I should have the conjugation cards, but I state what I want it to be conjugated to in Korean (instead of trying to do some translation). So the cards should be easy, and ideally, that means that the SRS algo does what it is supposed to and then I also do not see them too often.

The third activity was actually sort of within my calculations. I predicted there would be something that is about directions, and I was right. I had also sort of prepared for driving directions, but this one was exactly the activity we did before, on p.168, which is for walking.

The starting point is the subway station, and then I had to navigate to 대한은행, and then after that, the second place I was told to navigate to was 서울빌딩.

For some reason, I had a brain freeze after the first one. I struggled to say the very first sentence which was to get out of the station at Exit 1. Now that I reflect, I think I said 1번 출구로 when that made no sense, and my brain was tripping on that, because I think I was wondering if it should be 에서, since you are coming out of the station. 😓 But wait, the assumption is you are inside, so I guess you head towards the exit and so it is correct to use 로? 🥴

I think part of that was also that I was not sure if I missed any instructions, specifically, that the starting point had changed.


Again, in two parts. The first was to write the answers to some questions. There was also a selection of grammar that you had to use in your answers.

The grammar actually made it easy, because I realised that there was exactly the same number of grammars and number of questions. I had some trouble with two, but that soon became one and then none. For the last one I changed it a bit, but it works.

For the essay itself, well. I only checked the essay topic after I got to writing, so it was after my oral.

The topic was the one for the writing assignment in Chapter 8, which was the homework for two lessons before. However, because I was busy, I ended up only finishing the homework the night before the test and submitted it then. It was also to my surprise that the teacher marked it and returned it to me shortly (~2 hours) before the lesson the next day. And even more fortunately, I opened up the file to check my mistakes.

I did not memorise what I had written so there were some key differences, but I still had a pretty good grasp of what I had written there. (In fact, I did review the past essays from the other chapters too, since I suspected the topic will come from there, so I did have a good idea of those as well.)

I did make some mistakes, like forgetting the word for deadline (미감일). I wrote it as 감미일 in my draft, but then I thought, hmm, probably wrong, and even noted to flip it around. But then I stared at it a bit more, then thought 감미일 was right, and wrote it as 감미일 in the actual essay.

There was also some extra conditions, such as having to use some grammar (notably N(으)ㄹ때 and A/V-아/어 버리다) and emotion words. I sort of had some trouble with A/V-아/어 버리다. I think I did write 잊어버리다 (which was also in the homework essay I had submitted) but I thought it was kind of cheating, so I ended up adding one at the end of the essay, which I think might be the wrong use of it.


  • None, this is text week


  • Students: 5 out of 5

Lesson 84 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 11)

We completed the outstanding items in the textbook, then the rest of the lesson was focused on revision.

Class also ended 6 minutes early. This is the first time this has ever happened. I thought the teacher was going to use the time to ask us extra oral questions and I was kind of relieved that was not the case… but depending on how you look at it, it may actually be worse.

The revision sheet had vocab on the first page. After the vocab, we did Quizlet Live revision on the word sets (individual teams). After that, we reviewed the grammar. Then, the last two pages were exercises which I will go into a bit more detail later.

Culture Note

We actually read the culture note this time! It was about what you would say if you brought a gift to someone when you visited their house (in this context, visiting a Korean person’s house in Korea). Then what would they say?

So it turns out in the text, the mother of the Korean friend that the author (based on the pictures, the fictional author is probably Steven) visited said (in Korean, but I will just translate): “Why did you buy and bring such a gift?”

Then, the person was taken aback and did not know how to respond. Later on, the friend told the author that it is simply the way Koreans would say thank you for the gift.

The teacher said this is common in Asian cultures, and yes, the entire class already knew that the question was not really a Why-question in need of an answer.


This one is kind of related to the pronunciation topic back in SNU 1B, Chapter 13 that was covered in Lesson 50.

Over there, it was just discussing how to pronounce the station names, but this rule here gives a bit more detail.

When the final consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ’ are followed by ‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’, the initial consonant ‘ㅇ’ in ‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’ becomes [ㄴ], resulting in the sounds [니, 냐, 녀, 뇨, 뉴, 냬, 녜].

‘이, 야, 여, 요, 유, 얘, 예’ are basically the sounds that either is [i], or have the j semivowel sound. Which is actually the same sound as [i].1


  1. 배낭여행 [배낭여행]
  2. 무슨 일[무슨 닐]
  3. 한 약속[한 냑속]


Korean English
대답하다 to answer
표현하다 to express


The revision sheet had two main exercises. Basically, they were to identify if the sentences were correct in the usage of the two grammar being compared. If not, they should be corrected.

1. A/V-아서/어서 vs A/V-(으)니까


  • The second clause cannot be a suggestion.


  • The second clause should not be a polite excuse.

Links to the posts that introduce the grammar:

2. N(이)라서 vs N 때문에

  • N(이)라서 means “because (it is) N”
  • N 때문에 means “because of N”

Links to the posts that introduce the grammar:


  • None
  • However, I have not cleared last week’s homework yet. 😬 (Worse, I am not the only one, judging by what the teacher said at the end of the class.)


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, for the revision sheet only. Same group for both exercises (split 3/2).

  1. See Wikipedia’s Semivowel article for an explanation, if it matters. I did not cover this in any of my posts since when this was taught I had not started writing these posts, but in the foundation course, we were taught that 야 = 이 + 아 for example. Now that I think about it, maybe one of the Korean Alphabet posts (based on the First Step Korean course) might have this. Anyway, Wikipedia also says that what would be called “semivowels” are transcribed as vowels anyway in Hangeul orthography. 

Lesson 83 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 10)

We started this lesson with reviewing the Quizlet set for Chapter 8 (sentence). At the start of the class, it was just 3 of us who were present. Each one of us took turns to answer.

After that, it was to the video script sheet, and then to the textbook. For the video script, we only went through the dialogue, did not do any speaking for that portion.

We also listened to part of a song, 너 그럴 때면. While trying to find that video, I discovered it is a really old song, released in 1998.

I guess one reason for that is because we had the entire Chapter 8 in the textbook to cover, and that included both Speaking 1 and Speaking 2.

For the textbook, we went from p.180–p.191. Yes, we even did the Listening. For p. 191, which was given as a written assignment (to write answers to the interview questions), we went through the questions.

I don’t think there is anything else to add for this lesson, since usually I would not cover everything we do in the textbook, if at all. I just feel kind of sad that this was delayed a week simply because the post before this was incomplete. Anyway, onwards to the post for this week, which should also be a short one.


Korean English Notes
옆집 the house next door i.e. your neighbour
N에 놓고 내리다 to put something somewhere; to leave something behind somewhere 가방을 지하철에 놓고 내렸어요.
계단 stairs 계단에서 넘어져 버렸어요.


  • Textbook Chapter 8, p. 191–193 (Writing for the Speaking part + Reading and Writing)


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the girl who went to Korea wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, mixed.

Lesson 82 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 9)

This is now two weeks overdue, since I got caught up with work and being on course the last two weeks.

We finished up the rest of the vocabulary for Chapter 8 (last week, we stopped at number 20), and then completed the entire handout. That’s right, we went through all 4 grammar points.


1. A/V-겠-

It is used to indicate the speaker’s supposition or conjecture based on the current situation or condition that the speaker is in.

This is frequently used when you sympathise with another person’s situation. If you think something sounds good, you would say 좋겠어요.

This grammar corresponds to “must”, “looks like”, “sounds“, or “appears”. The exact translation would probably be different depending on the context in which the reply was given.

Examples (with possible situations where such a reply could be warranted):

  1. 좋겠어요! (That sounds good!)
    • Friend says that they are going on vacation next week.
  2. 재미있겠어요. (That looks fun.)
    • You observe some people doing something and they are laughing.
  3. 힘들겠어요. (It must be hard.)
    • Someone tells you that they have to study after work every day.

1.1 Past Tense: A/V-았겠/었겠-

If you are speculating about past events or completed events by the subject, you need to use ‘-았겠/었겠-’:

  • 어제 손님이 많이 오셔서 정말 힘들었겠어요.

1.2 First Person Subject

In most of the examples, the speaker is speaking about the experience of someone else. If the speaking is talking about themselves, then ‘V-겠’ conveys a strong intention to do something soon.

  • 늦어서 죄송합니다. 내일 꼭 일찍 오겠습니다.

V-겠습니다 is the formal. For casual, you would use V-(으)ㄹ 게요, which we have already seen.

2. N 때문에

This is used to express a cause or reason.

It is translated as “because of N”.

That is how it differs from N(이)라서, which means “because (it is) N”. This is a potential pitfall to watch out for.

N 때문에 is used more commonly with negative situations. You could still use N 때문에 in a positive situation, but usually, you would use N 덕분에 (“thanks to N”) for something positive.1

덕분에 can also be used without the noun, for example, when someone asks if you are well. Then, you can reply: 네, 덕분에.


  1. 아이들 때문에 피곤해요.
  2. 일 때문에 바빠요.
  3. 감기 때문에 학교에 못 갔어요.

3. V-아/어 버리다

This one is fun. 버리다 by itself means “to throw away”, but this expression has two distinct feelings associated with it.

One is the feeling of relief from a burden by completing an action, while the other is a feeling of dissatisfation with the result of an action.

Important to note that in either case, the feeling comes from something happening, so you do not use 안 or 못 with this.2

Examples (dissatisfied with result):

  1. 표가 팔려 버렸어요.
  2. 자전거가 고장 나 버려서 자전거를 탈 수 없어요.
  3. 나나 씨가 아무 말도 없이 그냥 가 버렸어요.
  4. 친구의 전화번호를 잊어버렸어요.
  5. 시장에서 지갑을 잃어버렸어요.

For 4 and 5, they are a bit special in that there isn’t a space between the verb and the 버리다. Kind of like how 도와주다 is special for V-아/어 주다.

Previously, we have already learnt these verbs as one unit (잊어버리다 and 잃어버리다). This is the grammr behind them, and I guess also explains why 잊다 on its own also means “to forget”.

It was only when I saw the example sentences did I realise that the words were actually formed with this grammar.

Examples (relieved from burden):

  1. 숙제를 다 끝내 버렸어요.
  2. 필요 없는 옷들을 정리해 버렸어요.
  3. 집을 청수해 버렸어요.

4. A/V-(으)ㄹ 때, N 때

This is used to express the time when an action or state occurs, or its duration.

For nouns, it is actually N일 때, but it is much more common to leave out the 일.

I won’t go into the conjugation because it is essentially the same as the future tense noun modifier and slapping on 때 at the end. Plus, by this time, conjugation is not hard; it is when to use the grammar that is hard.


  1. 혼자 있을 때 뭐 해요?
  2. 친구하고 이야기할 때 기분이 좋아요.
  3. 한국어 공부가 어려울 때 스트레스를 받아요.
  4. 학생 때 공부를 못해요.

4.1 Comparison with 면

This question came to my mind some time in the last two weeks, not during the lesson itself: What is the difference between A/V-(으)ㄹ 때 (when) and A/V-(으)면 (when/if)?

Is it that 면 is also conditional (“if”) and not just “when”?

I did some Googling and this video came up. In essence:

  • 면 is used to refer to hypothetical situations
  • 때 is used to refer to an actual event. It means “time” (literally, “the time when…”)


Korean English Notes
운이 없다 to be unlucky
이사를 가다 to move out
졸다 to doze
잠(이) 들다 to fall asleep
놓치다 to miss (e.g. bus)
지나가다 to pass by
외우다 to memorise
넘어지다 to fall
방속국 broadcasting station
잘못 + V wrongly
종점 the last stop
미녀와 야수 Beauty and the Beast
버리다 to throw away
정리하다 to tidy up, organise 整理
용돈 pocket money, allowance
발표 presentation
거짓말을 하다 to tell a lie
장학금 scholarship
평소 usual day 버스 때문에 늦었어요. 버스가 평소보다 늦게 왔어요.
결석하다 to be absent (from school) 缺席
어젯밤 last night
참석하다 attend e.g. a wedding, 결혼식에 참석할 때
정장 suit, formal dress 正裝. 정장을 하다 = to dress up/formally
하루 종일 the entire day
프로젝트 마감일 project deadline


  • Worksheet Chapter 8, 전부 (all)
  • Quizlet Chapter 8 sentence set


  • Students: 5 out of 5
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. Mixed groups.

  1. I realised as I write this two weeks later (and not at the time of learning this) that it reminds me of à cause de and grâce à in French. The former is very much often used to assign blame, and hence for negative situations, while the latter is used for positive situations. On further reflection, it is not too different from English either. 

  2. I am too lazy to link to the post where 못 is discussed. 안 was probably introducted in the first few lessons where I had not started regularly posting yet, I think. 

Lesson 81 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 8)

We started with the video script for Chapter 8.

Then, we did revision on Quizlet for the sentence set. Each person took turns to answer (translate) one card from English to Korean. It’s actually pretty clear by how the rest answered that they didn’t study the set. I have added (since 2 weeks ago?) a Quizlet revision to do before the lesson each week, so it’s an extra thing apart from Anki.

After that, we went to the textbook. Started on page 166 (the fourth grammar point, V-다가).

I think the teacher missed out page 165, because last week I started to put one of my many spare Book Depository bookmarks in the textbook to mark the last page, and I’d left it there. Plus page 165 looks unfamiliar. We had done the textbook until page 164 last week because we started with the textbook, and only learnt the third grammar point V-(으)려면 later on.

From all the activities, I will just hazard a guess and say that the oral test will at least have one question (if not more) about giving directions. The practices we did today were all for directions on foot, but there’s one for a vehicle in the textbook too.

Culture Note

We talked about this, but we did not read the passage (just like for Chapter 7).

Many of the street names in Korea end in 로 (路, “road”). Some others end with 길 (“road”).

The book gave some examples, like 세중대로 and 충무로. These are roads named after famous people.

Of course, even someone as unculturally informed as myself is aware of King Sejong the Great, so the first road name was ok. When I first saw the second one, all I could think of was the webtoon I am reading, and the subway station that also bears that name (that appeared in said webtoon).

The discussion question was whether the roads in our country are named after people. Honestly, there are a lot (even the road I live on), but the fact is that most people (myself included) do not know who these people are.


Nothing really new, which is what I have come to expect…

When the final consonant sound [ㄱ] is followed by the initial consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㄱ] is prounounced as [ㅇ].


  1. 한국말[한궁말]
  2. 읽는[잉는]
  3. 한옥마을[하농마을]

Related rules were covered in:

  • Lesson 31
    • When the final consonant sound [ㅂ] is followed by a syllable that begins with ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㅂ] is prounounced as [ㅁ].
  • Lesson 58
    • When the final consonant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ] are followed by ‘ㄴ’ , they are pronounced as [ㅇ, ㄴ, ㅁ].
  • Lesson 65
    • When the final consonant sound [ㅂ] is followed by the initial consonants ‘ㄴ, ㅁ’, then [ㅂ] is prounounced as [ㅁ].


Chapter 7

Korean English Notes
고백하다 to confess
사인 sign, signature, autograph
길바닥 street, road
최근 여행 recent trip
출퇴근 시간 rush hour 출근 시간 + 퇴근 시간
약도 rough map

Chapter 8

Note that we did not finish going through the new words due to insufficient time this lesson.

Korean English Notes
감정 emotion
기분 mood 오늘 기분이 어때요?
기분이 좋다 to feel good
기분이 나쁘다 to feel unhappy
기쁘다 to be glad
슬프다 to be sad
즐겁다 to be joyful/enjoyable
외롭다 to be lonely
창피하다 to be embarrassed/embarrassing Spoken, some people say [챙피] but 창피 is correct.
당황하다 to be flustered (唐慌)
속상하다 to feel upset 숙 = insides/heart; 상하다 = to go bad (food). Literally, your insides go bad. Situations such as when you fail a test after studying hard, or you lost something.
답답하다 to be frustrated
고구마 sweet potato As a slang, used to describe a frustrating plot. It’s the stuck feeling you get when you eat sweet potato. See this site (KR) and Namu Wiki (KR)
사이다 Sprite As a slang, it’s describing a refreshing plot. The opposite of frustrating.
긴장되다 to be nervous
걱정되다 to be worried If you are worried about something: 저는 N이/가 걱정해요.
화(가) 나다 to be angry Just the feeling, there is no observable action.
화(를) 내다 to get angry; to lose one’s temper The anger can be seen because of some spoken words or actions.
짜증(이) 나다 to be annoyed Just the feeling, there is no observable action
짜증(을) 내다 to show irritation
고장(이) 나다 to break down
고장(을) 내다 to break
생각이 나다 to come into one's mind
퇴원하다 to be discharged from the hospital
입원하다 to be hospitalized; to be admitted to a hospital
스트레스를 받다 to get stress
스트레스를 풀다 to release stress 풀다 implies something was stuck. 코를 풀다 = to blow one’s nose; 문제를 풀다 = to solve a problem


  • Textbook Chapter 8, p. 171–172 (Reading & Writing)
  • Quizlet Chapter 8 word set


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the only guy left in the class wasn’t here; think he had work)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. Got 2 different people for the 2 activities.

Lesson 80 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 7)

We started the lesson going through the Quizlet (word) deck together as revision. Not one by one, and not using Quizlet Live.

After that, we started with the textbook, from the start of the chapter (p. 158) to just before the third grammar point (p. 164) that had not yet been covered.

Then, we completed the rest of the handout, finishing up with the last 2 grammar points for this chapter.


3. V-(으)려면

This is used to indicate intention and is followed by a clause regarding the condition under which the intention will occur.

Simply put, the meaning is “if you intend to do something, …”

Previously, we have encountered some grammar structures that use 려 or 면 (2 and 4 are most relevant here):

  1. V-(으)려고 하다
  2. V-(으)면
  3. V-(으)면서
  4. V-(으)려고
  5. V-(으)면 되다

려 indicates intention; 면 indicates a condition (“if”). V-(으)려면 is short for V-(으)려고 하면.

받침 X, ㄹ + -려고 받침 O + 으려고
가다 → 가려고 읽다 → 읽으려면


  1. 일찍 도착하려면 일찍 나가요.
  2. 행복하게 살려면
  3. 한국 신문을 읽으려면 사전이 필요해요.

The tricky part is because when translated to English, V-(으)려고 and V-(으)려면 can both be translated as “to”, as in, “in order to”.

If it helps:

  • V-(으)려고 has the same meaning as V-고 싶어서
  • V-(으)려면 has the same meaning as V-고 싶으면

4. V-다가

This is used to indicate an interrupted action followed by another action.

It can be translated as “while”, similar to V-(으)면서.

However, with V1-(으)면서 V2, the two actions (V1 and V2) happen at the same time. With V1-다가 V2, the first action (V1) was not completed, but rather interrupted by the second action. (V2)

  • 밥을 먹으면서 전화를 받았어요. ⇒ You were eating and received a call at the same time. You continued to eat while answering.
  • 밥을 먹다가 전화를 받았어요. ⇒ You were eating and received a call. You stopped eating to answer the call.

V-다가 is also frequently used with giving directions, which is why it appears in this chapter. This is because you frequently have to switch directions (you cannot keep going in the initial direction) or change to another mode of transport in order to arrive at your final destination.


  1. 쭉 가다가 오른쪽으로 가세요.
  2. 아까는 눈이 오다가 지금은 비가 와요.
  3. 영화가 정말 재미없어서 보다가 잤어요.


Korean English Notes
위치 location 位置, like if you are buying something at a department store (a place–곳), then where is the department store located e.g. Orchard Road is the 위치.
스포티파이 Spotify
6개월 이용권 6 month voucher/subscription (as a gift) 구독 = subscription, but if you are giving, say, a 6-month sub to Spotify as a gift, then you would say 스포티파이 6개월 이용권.
손목시계 watch
요가매트 yoga mat
(밸런스) 짐볼 exercise ball gym ball, Swiss ball, balance ball, etc.
폼롤러 foam roller
학생증 student ID (card)
복도 corridor
복도 끝 end of the corridor 복도 끝에 화장실로 가세요.
life; living 지금 삶에 만족하다 = to be satisfied with your current life
깊이 생각하다 to think deeply
그만두다 to stop, to cease, to quit e.g. to stop attending a course, to quit a job
공연 performance
건강해지다 to become healthy
스트레스를 풀다 to relieve stress
정상 summit 산 정상까지 올라갔어요?


  1. 베이징에서 오는 비행기가 몇 시에 도착하는지 아세요?
  2. 요금이 얼마인지 아세요?
  3. 오늘 숙제 뭐인지 아세요? (뭔지 아세요)
  4. 한국 친구를 사귀려면
    • 한국 교환 학생 프로그램에 가 보세요/참여해요.
    • 한국 친구를 사귀려면 한국 문화 동호회에 가입하세요.
    • 한국 친구를 사귀려면 온라인으로 언어 교환을 해 보세요.
  5. 행복하게 살려면
    • 너무 자주 걱겅하지 마세요.
    • 지금 삶에 만족하세요.
    • 너무 깊이 생각하지 마세요.


  • Workbook for Chapter 7, p. 138–141 (end)
  • Quizlet Chapter 7 sentence set


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the only guy left in the class wasn’t here)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. Semi-random. (Was with one person for the first activity, then another person for the rest.)

Lesson 79 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 6)

We started the lesson reviewing the Quizlet sentence set for Chapter 6. We each took turns to answer (translate the English sentence to Korean). Fortunately, I remembered to review before the lesson. Since it seems like Quizlet is becoming more actively reviewed, I‘ve added a Quizlet review task to do before my lesson each week.

Culture Note

We didn’t read the passage in class. It is about the Korea post, the postal service. The only thing discussed was the logo. The logo is of a swallow in flight. If I didn’t understand the explanation wrongly, it is because in the past messages used to be sent by messenger birds.

The teacher commented that the mailboxes here (where you put your mail in to send the mail) are big. Plus, there’s 2 slots, one for local and one for overseas/international mail. The ones in Korea are much smaller and only for domestic mail.

I try to think when was the last time I had to mail a letter. It must have been years. I wonder if people just a few years younger than me have ever taken note of the mailboxes? I don’t know when was the last time I have seen one… in fact, if you ask me, I do not even know where the nearest one to my house is.

I only know where (what I think is) the nearest post office is, which also has a mailbox, but… not a clue as to where the mailbox is.


Another familiar pronunciation rule.

As early as Lesson 17, we learn about this rule for final consonant ㄱ (though it also applies to the sound [ㄱ], so the final consonant can also be ㄲ or ㅋ). In Lesson 41, we learn that the same applies for final consonants [ㅂ, ㄷ].

(We have also seen this before in part in Lesson 47 and Lesson 20.)

The full rule: When the initial consonants ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅈ’ follow the final cononant sounds [ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ,], ‘ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ, ㅈ’ are pronounced as [ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, ㅉ].


  1. 학교 [학꾜]
  2. 꽃집 [꼳찝]
  3. 택비 [택삐]
  4. 늦게 [늗께]
  5. 밥도 [밥또]


1. A/V-(으)ㄹ 것 같다

Recall last lesson, where we learned V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다? And I noted that there is a “future tense” version?

Well, here it is. This is the whole family of them:

However, it is important to note that there are actually two meanings to this. One is the future tense version of the ones we have seen (as expected).

The other is to indicate a subjective guess or presumption, made with little to no evidence. For this second meaning, it can be used for present and even past events.1


  1. 내일은 비가 올 것 같아요.
    • Implies a kind of blind guessing. If you were more certain (e.g. you saw the weather forecast), then you would use the future tense: 내일은 비가 올 거예요.
  2. 부모님과 같이 가면 인사동이 좋을 것 같아요.
    • This is a present event, but is a blind guess.
  3. 벌써 집에 도착했을 것 같아요.
    • This is a past event, but is a blind guess where the evidence is either weak or non-existent. If there were some evidence, then it would be 도착한 것 같아요 (using V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다).
  4. 이 옷이 민지 씨한테 잘 어울릴 것 같아요.
    • Again, this is someone giving their opinion based on little to no evidence for a present event, i.e. the person hasn’s actually seen Minji wearing the clothes. If the speaker has seen Minji wearing the clothes, then the correct expression would be 잘 어울리는 것 같아요 (using V-는 것 같다).

2. V-는지/A-(으)ㄴ지/N인지 + 알다[모르다]

This form is very similar to V-는데, A-(으)ㄴ데, and N인데, where the only difference is you have 지 instead of 데.

This is used when asking or responding to a question about knowing a certain fact or method.2

The thing to note is that the interrogative words such as who and when, etc. are all considered nouns, so they would be followed by 인지, e.g. 누구인지, 언제인지.


  1. 누구인지 아세요?
  2. 어떻게 가는지 아세요?
  3. 어디에 쓰는지 아세요?
  4. 유명한지 모르겠어요.
  5. 나나 씨가 작년에 어디를 여행했는지 아세요?


Chapter 6

Korean English Notes
모레 the day after tomorrow
그저께 the day before yesterday
간판 store sign, signboard 看板
의미 meaning, sense 意味
소식 news 消息. 반가운 소식
제비 swallow (bird) symbol of the post office in Korea * to verify
전하다 to tell, to convey

Chapter 7

Korean English Notes
사거리 4-way intersection
삼거리 3-way intersection
신호등 traffic light 信号灯
지하철역 subway station 地下铁驿
버스 정류장 bus stop 停留场
쭉 가다 to go straight
왼쪽으로 돌아가다 to turn left
건너다 to cross 건너가다/건너오다
좌회전하다 to turn left 左回转, for driving
우회전하다 to turn right 右回转, for driving
출구 exit 出口
올라오다 to come up
알려주다 to inform
사고가 나다 have an accident
이름을 붙이다 to name after
지하도 underpass 地下道
육교 overpass 陆桥
횡단보도 crosswalk 横断步道
택시 정류장 taxi stop
나가다 to go out
오른쪽으로 돌아가다 to turn right
세우다 to stop
직진하다 to go straight 直进, for driving
걸어오다 to come on foot
한참 for a long time
내려가다 to go down
학생회관 students centre 学生会馆
잊다 forget
기념하다 to commemorate 纪念
기념품 souvenir, memento
기념일 anniversary
지나다 to pass
N 근처 near N
2번 출구 Exit 2
705번 버스 Bus 705
잡채 japchae 雜菜. mixed dish of boiled bean threads, stir-fried vegetables, and shredded meat

Also, I finally discovered that I could use Quizlet’s Export function to get the words from there, instead of typing out all of them. This is as these last two chapters I had to use to make a new set for the sentence set since the original ones had rich text.


  • Workbook for Chapter 7, p. 132–137
  • 단어 공부: Quizlet Chapter 7 word set


  • Students: 4 out of 5 (the older lady was unwell, and last week was the last lesson for my friend)
  • Breakout room activities: 1

  1. Actually, doesn’t this sound kind of familiar

  2. There are definitely more uses than just 알다/모르다. I think it’s used similarly in these sentences from one of my TTMIK books (which I’ve added to Anki and happened to review today): 이 서점에 가고 싶은데 어떻게 가는지 가르쳐 주세요. / 어제 친구가 어떻게 하는지 가르쳐 줬는데 벌써 잊어버렸어요. Both have the verb as 가르쳐 주다. 

Lesson 78 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 5)

We started the lesson diving straight into the last two grammar points for this chapter. Then, we reviewed the Quizlet sentence deck (in full this time), before looking at the video script. Finally, we finished up with the textbook. We got all the way to the Speaking and Listening page (p. 147), but only did the first (preparation) section without the listening yet.

This is the last lesson of the term, which is also the last lesson for my friend.


4. V-(으)면 되다

This is used to explain a rule or a situation.

The words for this one are all familiar. The V-(으)면 means “if”.

The 되다 we have seen in V-아야/어야/해야 되다, which carries the meaning of “can”.

In some contexts, this can be used as a suggestion (e.g. 약을 벅으면 돼요 to suggest to a sick person to take their medication), but this is a much lighter suggestion than V-아야/어야/해야 되다.


  1. 가: 내일 아침에 일찍 와야 돼요? 나: 아니요, 9시까지 오면 돼요.
  2. 가: 외국인등록증도 필요해요? 나: 아니요, 여권만 있으면 돼요.
  3. 가: 한국 친구를 만들고 싶은데 어떻게 하면 좋을까요? 나: 한국어를 배우면 돼요.

5. V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다

This is used to express the speaker’s presumption about past events.

Back in Chapter 4, we saw V-는 것 같다.

This is simply the past tense version, evident from V-(으)ㄴ. (Yes, there is also a future tense version, and it is V-(으)ㄹ 것 같다, since the future tense noun modifier is V-(으)ㄹ. The teacher said we will learn this next time.)

  • 비가 오는 것 같아요. = I think it‘s raining (now).
  • 비가 온 것 같아요. = I think it rained (earlier).


  1. 엔디 씨는 벌써 점심을 먹은 것 같아요.
  2. 유진 씨는 늦게까지 논 것 같아요. (놀다)
  3. 배가 아파요. 아까 먹은 짐심에 문제가 있었던 것 같아요.
    • For 있다/없다, there is no such thing as 있은/없은 (X). Instead, you have 있었던/없었던.
      • For the present tense, it’s 있던/없던.

Video Script

Only two dialogues this time around. Both from the same source, the one with the real humans acting and not the cartoon. The second had no blanks.

We just did 1 round of reading through both scripts with a partner after listening it together.


Korean English Notes
버튼 button
누르다 to press
고민 worry, concern
교환 학생 프로그램 student exchange programme
참여하다 to participate
두드러기 hives, (nettle) rash 두드러기가 나다 = to break out in a rash
가렵다 to be itchy 갑자기 얼굴에 두드러기가 나고 가려워요.
알레르기 allergy
주사를 맞다 to get an injection
예방주사/백신 vaccine
하루치 one day’s portion 약은 하루치만 드시면 돼요.
출입국관리사무소 immigration office
따라가다 to follow
지피에스 GPS GPS is fine too.
전부 all; everything 全部
환율 exchange rate
달러 dollar 미국 달러
위안 yuan (CNY)
yen (JPY)
유로 euro (EUR)
파운드 pound Both the unit of weight and currency. 파운드 스털링 = pound stirling (the currency); 영국 파운드 seems to be acceptable as well
내리다 to go down opposite of 오르다
언택트 contactless Konglish, “un-tact” (as in “contact”). 언택트 택배 = contactless delivery
택배 기사 delivery man
방문하다 to visit 访问
품명 (names of) goods 品名
수량 quantity 數量
신청하다 to request 申請. 택배 신청하혀고 정화드렸습니다.
등록하다 to register 登錄
접수하다 to accept; to receive 接受
우편 mail
배치 시험 placement test
바로 right away


  • Workbook for Chapter 6, p. 107–109 (Grammar 4. V-(으)면 되다 and 5. V-(으)ㄴ 것 같다 sections) [end]
    • Last week’s was not marked; I think the teacher missed out the message and KakaoTalk would have deleted it from the server so I have to resend anyway.
  • Textbook Reading and Writing for Chapter 6
    • Writing assignment is modified to be about SG instead of Korea.
  • Quizlet sentences


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random.

Lesson 77 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 4)

We started with Quizlet, individual teams, 2 rounds. From English definition, pick the Korean word. Surprisingly, I won both without much effort, which is probably because of the absentee this week. The university student girl did better the second week for the last chapter, but the first week, the one who won all the rounds was the student who was absent.

We did the second grammar points for Chapter 6. After covering the second grammar point, we did the textbook from the start of Chapter 6 (p. 136) until the end of Speaking 1 (p. 141 ), just before the third grammar point on page 142. That was followed by the third grammar point, and then reviewing part of the Quizlet sentences set, which feature the conjugations from the third grammar point.

My guess is that it is likely we will get the writing homework for the next lesson, but Chapter 6 will only be done the week after. This is because we have two more grammar points (for a total of five in this chapter) and the video script, as well as the remainder of the textbook.

The day after this lesson, we got the invoice for the next term.


2. N(이)라서

This is used to indicate the reason for the following phrase.

N(이)라서 = N이에요/예요 + 그래서.

This is nothing new; we have seen this way back in Lesson 46 while covering A/V-아서/어서/해서. It was in our handout, but was not in the textbook.

  • 받침 O + 이라서
  • 받침 X + 라서


  1. 친구 생일이라서 파티에 가야 돼요.
  2. 다음 주에 휴가라서 화사에 안 가요.

Remember that the second clause cannot be a suggestion or request, just like with A/V-아서/어서/해서.

3. ‘르’ 불규칙

Previously, we have seen some other irregular conjugations:

  1. ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙
  2. ‘ㄷ’ 불규칙
  3. ‘ㅡ’ 탈락
  4. ‘ㄹ’ 탈락

This is the irregular 르 conjugation.

For most verb and adjective stems that end in 르, 르 is omitted, and an additional ㄹ is added to form ㄹ ㄹ.

This rule is actually similar most similar to the third one, ‘ㅡ’ 탈락, where you have 바쁘다 → 바빠요. That change applies when there is -아/어 in the ending.

Similarly, this one only applies to endings with 아/어.


  1. 모르다 → 몰라
  2. 다르다 → 달라
  3. 오르다 → 올라
  4. 빠르다 → 빨라
  5. 부르다 → 불러
  6. 서두르다 → 서둘러

Again, note that if you have ㅏ,ㅗ then it conjugates to 라 (ㄹ + 아), and then for the other vowels you have 러 (ㄹ + 어).

In a sense, this is nothing that new too. We definitely have seen verbs that follow this rule before (1, 2, and 4 should be very familiar).

However, the rule was never articulated before this.


Korean English Notes
운전면허증 driver‘s licence
저울 scale; balance
올리다 to put/place on top of
들다 to contain; to enter Used in the past tense if you are talking about containing something (as that thing already went in, so to speak. Recall that 마음에 들다 (“to like”) literally means “to enter into (one’s) heart”.
모르다 to not know
다르다 to be different
오르다 to rise
빠르다 to be fast
자르다 to cut 머리를 자르다 = to get one’s hair cut
부르다 to sing, call; to be full This has two distinct meanings, where one is a verb and the other is an adjective. 배부르다 also means “to be full”.
서두르다 to hurry
생격 personality; character


  • Workbook for Chapter 6, p. 104–107 (Grammar 2. N(이)라서 and 3. ‘르’ 불규칙 sections)
    • I think the teacher made a mistake as p. 107 is the first page of the fourth grammar point, so it should be until p.106 (I only did to 106).
    • The third grammar point only had 1 page of exercises, while usually each grammar point has two.


  • Students: 5 out of 6 (the older lady was absent as she was unwell)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random.

Lesson 76 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 3)

We started the lesson with Quizlet again. 3 rounds this week. The first 2 rounds were individual, and the last was group (pairs). There were only 4 students in the class for this lesson, so it was 2 v 2.

For all 3 rounds, it was picking the Korean given the English definition. The newest student (the girl) won the first 2 rounds. I was in a team with my friend and we won the last round by a bit.

Last week it was the older lady (not that old mind) that won both rounds.

The teacher seemed to have lost the notes for our class, so the notes she had on where we had stopped was 2 weeks ago. After that, she seemed to find something but I suspect it’s for the Wed class as I know that class is close to us but slightly behind, since it was the pronunciation for Chapter 3. Anyway, after that, she went to Chapter 5 (the correct chapter) but thought we were ahead and had done up until the pronunciation, but we had stopped just before Speaking 2. The others were silent and I eventually was the one who said that we were not quite at the pronunciation part.

I think it’s useful for me to keep my own records for this too. Though even without the records I have a good idea of what we did because I tend to write quite a bit in my book. I’m not sure why no one said anything. For the lesson just before the last test, the teacher also went back 2 chapters for the speaking, for that I did not say anything as I (and the rest of the class) thought it was intentional for revision.


p. 124

For the first listening (듣기 일번), I did not read the options carefully. Was not sure, but if I’d read the first option carefully I would have eliminated that too, leaving the correct answer as the third option. I knew the second one was wrong. Quite sad, because this was played twice and I did not catch what was said to verify the third option as correct.

For the second, it was ok, even though it was to fill in things. I think the only thing I didn’t catch was the phone number, but that was not necessary.

Culture Note

This one was about different kinds of lodging available when you travel to Korea. The short text was about someone staying in a Hanok (a traditional Korean style home).

Apparently, these can be quite modern on the inside. The teacher said that she has not stayed in one, despite being Korean.


This is a rule I thought we covered before, but I guess I’ve not formally written about it.

However, we have enountered at least one word that uses this rule: 음료수

음료수 is in Lesson 58’s vocabulary section, the pronunciation is noted there.

The rule states that when the initial consonant 'ㄹ' follows the final consonants 'ㅁ, ㅇ', then 'ㄹ' is pronounced as [ㄴ].


  1. 음료수 [음뇨수]
  2. 대통령 [대통녕]
  3. 입장료 [입짱뇨]
  4. 등록금 [등녹끔]


1. N(으)로

We have seen N(으)로 before. At that time, it was used together with movement verbs 가다/오다.

When we talked about transport, though it wasn’t a formal point, N(으)로 was also used to talk about changing transport (see N(으)로 갈아타다).

When used in the above two ways, N(으)로 was used as a direction marker.

For this lesson’s grammar point, N(으)로 is used differently. It is used to indicate the method or means by which something is done.

When used this way, it can be translated to English as “with”, “by”, “using”, “via”, etc.

It is used in conjunction with a means of transportation (e.g. bus, taxi), a means of communication (e.g. phone, email), instruments (e.g. pen, pencil), and parts of the body (e.g. hands).

Conjugation is straightforward. It’s exactly the same as what we have seen before for N(으)로 when used as a direction marker.

  • 받침 O + 으로
  • 받침 X, ㄹ + -로


  1. 소포를 보냈어요. (I sent the parcel by ship.)
  2. 연필 그림을 그려요. (I draw with a pencil.)
  3. 숟가락으로 밥을 먹어요. (I eat my meal using a spoon.)

Small Note

This was in one of the exercises and I walked into the trap. After that I felt a sense of déjà vu, as I think I’ve walked into a similar trap like this before.

We were given the question and had to write the answer (the noun to use given).

  • 가: 화장실이 어디에 있어요?
  • 나: 왼쪽으로 있어요. (X)

This usage of N(으)로 is actually the direction marker usage (i.e. the one from Lesson 49, not this lesson).

Because it is used that way, there needs to be movement, and so the verb has to be a movement verb like 가다.

  • 나: 왼쪽으로 가세요. (O)

I fell for this the last time we were taught it as well. Sigh. Time to make this an Anki card in order to review it.


Chapter 5

Korean English Notes
여행 상품 tour package 상품 literally means “product”, but here it’s referring to a tour package.
당일 that day 당일로 춘천에 가려고 해는데 어떤 여행 상폼이 있어요?
빈방 vacancy 이번 주 토요일에는 빈방이 없습니다.
콘도 condo
펜션 pension rental cottage
민박 private rental a private residence taking lodgers, something like an Airbnb.
한옥 Hanok traditional Korean style house
전통적 traditional
분위기 atmosphere; ambience
대통령 president
등록금 registration/enrollment fee 등록 = registration/enrollment. So this is a fee for registering for a course.
종류 kind; type e.g. type of drinks, 종류의 음료수
탄산음료 carbonated drinks
이온음료 sports drinks
음력 lunar calendar 陰曆

Chapter 6

Korean English Notes
신분증 identification card This is a big category, not just a national IC. If you are a traveller, your passport is your 신분증. If you are staying long-term in Korea, you will have an alien registration card as your 신분증.
외국인 등록증 alien registration card
주민등록증 resident permit card This is the IC equivalent, identification card.
도장 stamp Not the stamp you put on your letters, but a kind of seal.
통장 account book
현금 cash
현금 카드 debit card
신용 카드 credit card
입금 deposit 입금하다 = to deposit money (Sino-Korean)
돈을 넣다 to deposit money Native Korean term
놓다 to put/place on a flat surface e.g. bag on chair, phone on table
넣다 to put in/inside e.g. food in fridge, money in bank
낳다 to give birth This isn’t related to putting things like the previous two, but these three verbs look similar and differ only by a vowel.
출금 withdrawal 출금하다 = to withdraw money (Sino-Korean)
돈을 찾다 to withdraw money Native Korean term
환전 currency exchange 환전하다 is only used when you are exchanging currency. However, 돈을 바꾸다 is more general, and can be used when you are breaking a note into smaller denominations.
돈을 바꾸다 to exchange money
송금 wire transfer
창구 counter e.g. at the bank
현금 인출기 ATM
돈을 보내다 to send money
우표를 붙이다 to put on a stamp 붙이다 is indeed pronounced as [부치다], same as 부치다 (below). Take care to use the right one.
주소를 쓰다 to write an address
봉투 envelope
봉투에 넣다 to put in an envelope
편지를 부치다/보내다 to send a letter
(우편)엽서 postcard
엽서를 부치다/보내다 to send a postcard
소포 package
소포를 포장하다 to wrap a package
받는 사람 receiver
보내는 사람 sender
잃어버리다 to lose (an item)
차비 (car) fare
택배 door-to-door delivery This refers to a courier service and for things that typically take 1–2 days for delivery. This does not apply to things like food deliveries that take place almost instantly. Those are simply 배달, example 음식 배달, 꽃배달.
가져오다 to bring (an item) 가져오다 for people/animals (pets)
경비실 security office e.g. in an apartment building
맡기다 to leave 나한테 밑겨요! = Leave it to me! This verb has many other meanings if you check the dictionary (e.g. leave, put, check (in); deposit (money). The core meaning of the verb is to give someone something to take care of temporarily. Examples would include letting your friend hold your bags while you go to the bathroom (친구한테 가방을 맡겨요), letting the neighbour babysit your kids (옆집 아줌마한테 아이를 맡겨요), or assign work to someone while you are away (XX 씨한테 이 일을 맡겨요


  • Workbook for Chapter 6, p. 100–103 (Vocabulary and Grammar 1. N(으)로 sections)


  • Students: 4 out of 6 (the univ student guy and the girl who went to Korea were absent)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, one. Speaking 2 in Chapter 5.

Lesson 75 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 2)

We started this lesson with Quizlet, after the teacher asked the student who went to Korea last week on a few things about her situation there.

Quizlet was individual (no groups), 2 rounds:

  • Given English word, select Korean definition
  • Given Korean word, select English definition

Then, we finished the last grammar point for this chapter. Compared to the ones from the previous lesson, this one was considerably easier.

After that, it was the video script (this is what the teacher calls it, so I’ll use this name from now on), and then the textbook.


4. V-고 나서

This is used to indicate that an action or event has been completed, and another action or event follows.

It is very similar to V-고 that was introduced way back in Lesson 19.1

The 나서 portion can be omitted, but adding it clarifies that the fact that the first action has been completed and ended before the second.


  1. 일을 하고 나서 숴어요. (I rest after finishing work.)
  2. 어제밤에 텔레비전을 보고 나서 잤어요. (Last night, I slept after watching television.)
  3. 마리코 씨가 가고 나서 스티븐 씨가 왔어요.

Video Script

There were a total of 5 dialogues for this chapter. In total, they took up 3 pages.

We listened to the dialogue while watching the video. The teacher usually will replay the part just before the blanks a few times for us to hear it again.

After that, the teacher played another version of the videos that came with subtitles.

After going through dialogues 1–3, we split into pairs to practise reading dialogue 1 and 3. (2 is a shorter dialogue that we skipped.)

After that, repeat for dialogues 4–5, listening and watching the videos without subs, then watching with subs. The second time around the breakout room was with a different partner.


For the textbook, we covered from the start of the chapter until page 121, which is the page before Speaking 2. It covered all the grammar points.

However, we skipped the activity on page 119 that comes after Speaking 1.

The activities are getting a bit harder, especially when they require thinking of a response. I think I should review the textbook before the lesson and prepare in advance. For one of the activities it was really hard for me to think of anything on the spot. I’m sure there will only be more of these in future.


Korean English Notes
결정하다 to decide
문장 sentence
준비물 things to prepare
치약 toothpaste
비누 soap
속옷 underwear
짐을 풀다 to unpack luggage 짐을 싸다 = to pack luggage
착하다 to be nice, to be kind Seems that this is kind of old. Native Korean. Not sure of difference with 친절하다
외모 appearance
마음이 넓다 to be broad-minded, to be generous
여권이 나오다 to issue a passport
서류 document
신분증 identification card
가족여행 family vacation
연휴 long weekend continuous holiday 連休
잘 꾸미다 to dress well; to present well
패키지여행 package tour 패키지여행을 하다
자유여행 free travel 자유여행을 하다
게스트하우스 guesthouse
유스호스텔 youth hostel
보너스 bonus 보너스를 받다
마치다 to bring something to an end 한국어 공부를 마치고 나서 대학원에 가려고 해요.
화장을 하다 to put on make-up


  • Complete the workbook for Chapter 5
  • Reading & Writing (in Textbook) for Chapter 5


  • Students: 6 out of 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random

  1. There was another -고 that does not imply sequential order, but the one in this chapter is closer in meaning to the very first one. 

Lesson 74 (Intermediate 2 Lesson 1)

I think I’ll use the actual lesson number from now on instead of trying to follow the term A & B system, so this is Lesson 1. And stop with the titles, unless I have a really good one for that week.

I got back the test results a day before this lesson. I did not check the marks until the day itself. It was okay, better than the Beginner 4 train wreck.

But it turns out my definition of a “train wreck” is nothing as bad as my friend’s.

After this lesson, my friend told me this was his last term as he wants to focus on studying for his Master’s. But part of the reason is also because it is getting harder and he is falling behind. He said something along the lines that he felt the teacher took pity on him and gave him a passing mark this time, and the comments written was encouraging him.

I told him I did worse for the Beginner 4, and he told me if the first digit is not a 7, then it is not bad. (I got 80+ so it was definitely “good” by his standards. I do not think it is so much a matter of the raw score alone, but it also depends on the test. Still, I believe I could have done better for the listening back then.)

Ah, well. The class having 5 people will not be good for the pairing, but… I guess that should not be the first thing I think about?

A fresh chapter begins—Chapter 5. This is also about travel. The second travel chapter and we are still in a pandemic.

We covered the first 3 (of 4) grammar points of this chapter in the handout.


1. A/V-(으)ㄹ까요?/N일까요?

This is used to ask for the listener’s opinion about something unknown to or wondered about by the speaker.

It should look very familiar, as we have seen V-(으)ㄹ 까요? (“Shall we…?”) way back then.

The usage here is different. When used in this way, the sentence would be more accurately translated “Do you think he/she/…?” rather than “Shall we…?”


  1. 내일 날씨가 맑을까요? (Do you think the weather will be clear tomorrow?)
  2. 나나 씨가 이 음식을 좋아할까요? (Do you think Nana will like this food?)
  3. 주말인데 식당을 예약할 수 있을까요? (It’s the weekend, do you think I can make a reservation at the restaurant?)

Our next grammar point is how you would answer such a question.

2. A/V-(으)ㄹ 거예요/N일 거예요

This should also look familiar. V-(으)ㄹ 거예요 is the future tense.

But here, this is used to express one’s assumption or opinion about a certain situation in a less direct way. This is frequently used as a response to a question with assumption, that is, A/V-(으)ㄹ까요?/N일까요?

To further express uncertainty, ‘아마’ is used together with A/V-(으)ㄹ 거예요/N일 거예요.


  1. 내일 비가올 거예요. (I think it will rain tomorrow.)
  2. 네, 아마 좋아할 거예요. (Yes, she probably will like it.)
  3. 마리코 씨가 이 다라마를 알까요? —아마 모를 거예요. (Do you think Mariko knows this drama? —Maybe she doesn’t.)

3. A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까

This is used to indicate that the preceding clause is the reason for or basis for the following clause.

It is most frequently used for giving a personal opinion, suggestion, or request.


  1. 불고기가 맛있으니까 불고기를 드세요. (The bulgogi is delicious, so please eat it.)
  2. 집이 여기에서 머니까 빨리 가야 돼요. (Your house is far from here, so you have to go quickly.)

However, it also works for simple statements.


  1. 구두를 신고 걸으니까 발이 아파요.
  2. 월요일이나까 길이 많이 복잡해요.

If you notice, these are sentences where you could also use A/V-아서/어서/해서/N(이)라서.

  1. 구두를 신고 걸어서 발이 아파요.
  2. 월요일이라서 길이 많이 복잡해요.

So what’s the difference?

The first, of course, is that you can use A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까 for sentences where the second clause is a suggestion or recommendation. You cannot do this with A/V-아서/어서/해서/N(이)라서 .

Another is that you can use the past tense form with A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까, but not with A/V-아서/어서/해서/N(이)라서.

  • 한국에 살았으니까 한국어를 잘해요. (I can speak Korean well because I lived in Korea.)

With A/V-아서/어서/해서/N(이)라서 you can express the past tense, yes, but it cannot be differentiated from a case with the present tense.

Finally, you should not use A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까 for providing reasons or excuses for an action in a polite manner.

There's a reason why 만나서 반갑습니다 is a set phrase. Not 만나니까 반갑습니다. Similarly, you will say 늦어서 죄송합니다 and not 늦으니까 죄송합니다.

It’s not grammatically wrong to use it. However, you have to be very careful when using A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까 for excuses because it can come off as being rude. This is especially if you are speaking with a senior. Between friends, it is generally not an issue.

If you are giving a suggestion and you want to be polite, then instead of using A/V-(으)니까/N(이)니까, you can use A-(으)ㄴ데, V-는데, N인데. This is an extra tidbit from the teacher, not covered in the textbook. The textbook does not mention this at all.


Korean English Notes
기간 period 여행 기간
교통편 transportation
숙소 accommodation
일정 schedule
숙박비 room charge 비 (费) and 료 (料) are all the fees.
식비 food expenses
요금 charge; fee
항공료 airfare
입장료 entrance fee
여행자 보험료 traveler’s insurance fee
여행지 travel destination
항공권 flight ticket This is the formal name. Same as 비행기표.
좌석 seat This is the Sino-Korean word. Same as 자리 (native Korean).
일등석 first class
비즈니스석 business class
일반석 economy class
왕복 round trip
편도 one way
출발 departure
도착 arrival
출국 날짜 departure date
귀국 날짜 return date
1박 2일 2 days 1 night
전통 문화 traditional culture
추천하다 to recommend
다양하다 to be various
자세하다 to be detailed 자세한 일정 = a detailed schedule
생각하다 to think
느끼다 to feel
돈을 모으다 to save money literally, to collect money
담배를 끊다 to quit smoking 끊다 = to quit, to cut off. Same for games (to quit playing games).
포함되어 있다 to be included 식비가 포함되어 있어요. / 한 분에 10만 원인데 교통비와 숙박비가 포함되어 있습니다.
아마 maybe Frequently used with -(으)ㄹ 거예요.
길이 막히다 to have heavy traffic =길이 복잡하다
이용하다 to use
알려 주다 to inform
성인 adult
매표소 ticket office
다녀오다 go and come back
날짜 date
일기 예보 weather forecast
친하다 to be close, familiar (with sb.) 친한 친구 = close friend. 줄리앙 씨가 아키라 씨 전화번호를 알아요. 두 사람이 친해요.
싸게 사다 to buy something cheaply, at a bargain
무료 free of charge
V-지 말다 to stop V-ing V-지 마세요… TIL the basic form. Due to the elimination the ㄹ is gone.
촌스럽다 old-fashioned 옷이 촌스럽다


The homework was just the workbook. It was honestly more difficult that before, and it took me something like 2 hours to complete.

There were a few sections that required you to create your own answers, so it is no longer just a simple application of the grammar rule with the vocabulary words supplied.

I think I should update my time estimates for the homework to 1.5 hours minimum. It’s still 30 minutes, which is a joke.


  • Students: 5 (One was on a plane to Korea)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs.

Lesson 73 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 3): Intermediate 1 Test

This test was one that, compared to the last ones, I definitely did not study much for.1 But maybe it could be that my previous method of studying that was inefficient. That is, aside from the usual Anki review.

That involved looking through the textbook grammar points, is what I didn't schedule this round due to work. I also only scheduled Quizlet for the second week before the test (usually I start 2 weeks before the test since that's when I'm made aware a test is coming up), not all the way to the week leading up to the test.

I have to say that this test is really much easier is than the last one.2


This was really so much easier, to the point that I couldn't believe the first 2 questions were just to select the right picture.

The other sections were more similar to the past listening tests, but I didn't have any trouble with the contents.

I have been using the Real-Life Korean Conversation For Beginners podcast by TalkToMeInKorean (and after I bought the book, the actual book as well). I also bought the Intermediate level book and boy, that one, the speed is much faster. But the listening test speed I found it manageable, and in fact a bit... slow, though the Beginners book is actually around there (or even slower).


Started with reading 5 sentences. I don't recall anything... hard about them, which made me really... wary.

Then the rest of it was responding to the question that the teacher asked. The caveat was that there are the various grammar from Chapters 1 to 4, and you had to use those to answer. It's quite straightforward, going down the list.

One grammar for one question.

  • The first one was to introduce yourself ((이)라고 하다)3, and say why you were learning Korean (-(으)려고).
  • The second one was what do you do in your free time (-거나).
  • The third one was about your hobby (-는 것)
  • The next question more of a check, asking if you have been to Korea. Then the actual question was about what you did there (-아/어 보다).
  • I think then it was the last question, using -지 않다

In order to use -(으)려고 which requires intention in the first question, I basically could not really say what I'd said in class that many lessons ago, which was closer to the actual truth: I did it because my friend asked me to (친구가 부탁해서 한국어를 배워요). So I gave a canned response.

For the second question, I said I watch television or read a book. I deliberately said it in the order because while revising I was second guessing how to pronounce 읽거나. By flipping it around I avoid the problem, since I've no problems with 보거나's pronunciation.

For the second last question, I was thinking a bit too hard. See, I had just finally finished the writing for Chapter 3 last night.4 The topic I wrote was about places I went to in Korea, and so there were actually things in my mind. I recall things like 남이섬 and 제주도 floating in my head, but in the end I said 놀이공원 (without naming either Everland or Lotte World). I can't recall if the question came after, but you also had to say what you did that. And then I forgot how to say rides (놀이기구). In my mind it was... was it 기구? 구기? And the teacher helped to supply the word which... I think threw me off? Because it felt like I had help and that was bad.

With that frame of mind, I messed up the last question, first because I wasn't actually... sure what the teacher had asked. Unlike for the rest.

I think the question was about some exercise that you don't do (I definitely heard 운동), or don't know how to do. The first thought was "yoga" but then I thought, eh, never mind, let's go with riding a bicycle (why on earth, I have no clue).

Then I panicked and said the wrong thing, saying "car" (차동차) instead of "bicycle" (차전거). So I said something like... 차동차를 타지 않아요. Which is like... rubbish. The teacher then asked me if I knew how to drive (using (으)ㄹ 줄 모르다) so I said that I knew how to. In fact, I only realised I said the wrong word (car instead of bicycle) much later. I remember when the teacher first asked me something like 운전할 줄 알아요? I was thinking... why on earth is she asking me about driving? 😓

And at the end, I totally forgot I had to manually leave the breakout room.


No problems here. My head didn't really hurt from reading the various texts, no idea why, because it's not as though I've been doing a lot of reading practice.

In fact, the longest (and last) passage was one that was directly lifted from one of the reading activities in the book. It was the one from Chapter 3.

I'd just looked at it yesterday because I was still struggling to finish the Chapter 3 writing assignment, and in the textbook, the writing assignment comes after reading.

I've checked the textbook, and in fact the the questions are the same. The only difference is that there's 4 options in the test, while the textbook had 3. However, the correct answers are the same.

The last distractor option for the second question, though, used 올해 ("this year") and I forgot what it meant. But I was saved by Writing (1) on the next page. because the last question asked for your wish this year. Anyway, I would still have stuck with the original (correct) answer if I'd not puzzled it out, but it was disconcerting to not know the meaning of a word.

Writing (1)

This is the non-essay part.

This has levelled up a bit, in that the answers are free response. You have to pick the right grammar to use, but you have to give your own answers to the questions. It's not just rearranging or combining some given sentences.

Writing (2)

The essay topics were ok. There were 2 (like in the Beginner 3 test). First one was about your hobby. The second was to write about a country you have visited.

There were some sub-questions, plus the grammar you had to use.

These were topics I definitely could have prepared for, but I didn't.

My weakness is my inability to write fast, simply because I'm not that familiar with using the grammar. If I have a lot of time, I can slowly write and make adjustments, or think of alternative ways to write things.

But when it's a test and I have limited time, my sentences revert to sad, simple sentences. (Same problem I had before with French and German... German less so since I only took A1 in university, and private lessons after that had no tests.)

With more practice (hah) and familiarity, it won't be a problem. I definitely take too long to do my homework writing assignments.


I think next lesson is rightfully Intermediate 2, even though this is still labelled as Intermediate 1B, Lesson 3.

The next lesson is in 2 weeks. It's kind of... nice to get a break from Korean but I'm kind of sad since I'd decided to take leave from work for the next 2 weeks.

Since this week was a test week, there isn't any homework. Next week is Labour Day, so there's no class either. I'll actually be planning how to make use of the TTMIK books I'd bought not too long ago to practise. On a normal working day I couldn't really squeeze in that study time using all the books I'd bought.

  1. I think I may have studied more for the Beginner 3 test than the Beginner 4. 

  2. Which, until today, I've not actually seen the detailed test report for. The score was much lower than the other tests, and looking at the listening score, I didn't really... look at much else. I clearly have issues, since I don't even like opening my homework to check for mistakes because then I'm greeted by my own stupidity. Except when it's the day of a test like today and I reluctantly open the file, and realise I don't have time to digest all the more serious mistakes. Recently at work I was basically told that I'm a perfectionist, which isn't wrong, but the example that the person brought up was in my mind not an instance of my perfectionist tendencies manifesting itself, so I was bothered by that. But, I digress. 

  3. Yes, I distinctly recall that all the grammar constructs were written without the N/V/A in front, I guess to make it a bit harder? 

  4. Yes, it's about a month overdue. 

Lesson 72 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 2): End Chapter 4 and Revision

Today's lesson was finishing up the textbook and then doing the revision. Apart from the usual revision sheet there was an additional Particle Summary handout that did a comparison of 은/는 and 이가. We did the usual revision sheet first.

It's refreshing to finally write this while everything is still fresh. There's no new homework and I've submitted the work due last week plus the backlog of Chapter 3 work (apart from the writing which I've not done yet... still). From the way the teacher talked about the homework at the end of the lesson, I suspect that I'm really not the only one who didn't submit last week's homework. I'd actually finished the work right before class started, but did not have enough time to take pictures of everything, let alone craft the message to explain the lateness.

For the textbook, we did Speaking 2, then moved on to the Listening, Culture Note, and Pronunciation.

Culture Note

The culture note was about markets, specifically open markets. Some were mentioned but I didn't catch their names. I know there's was a mention of how there's markets catered to different kinds of products, such as one for fresh fish, another for flowers, a third for food, and also one for dried food products.


Recall the pronunciation of ㅎ with a consonant that has an aspirated version. This is just a recap of that, or, to be more specific, the first half of that rule covered there.

When the final consonant 'ㅎ' is followed by an initial consonant 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ', then they are pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ].

While this chapter doesn't say about the reverse, this holds as well when 'ㅎ' is the initial consonant while 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ' are final consonants.

For what happens to consonants that don't have the aspirated version, see last chapter's pronunciation note.

Pronunciation of 'ㅅ' as the final consonant when followed by a vowel, but the next word is a separate word

A separate pronunciation topic came up in the Self-Check portion due to one of the sentences: 이 옷 어때요?

This is pronounced [이 오 더때요], that is, 'ㅅ' is prounounced [ㄷ].

It is the same for:

  • 맛없어요 [마덥서요]
    • This is 맛 + 없어요
    • 맛있어요 is actually an exception, because it's now considered not a separate word, hence it is [마시써요]
  • 못 와요 [모 돠요]
  • 옷 예뻐요 [오 뎨뻐요]

As noted above, this is only true if it's a separate word that starts with a vowel. 맛있어요 is [마시써요]. When it's considered the same word, including when you have the particle 이 following 옷, it's pronounced as [오시].

Particle Summary: 은/는 vs 이/가

You can think of this as an "add-on" to the uses discussed way back in Lesson 26. (I was shocked it was so long ago, that it has been almost a year.)

1. Key Message

The key message in a sentence with the subject particle 이/가 is the noun attached to the subject particle.

The key message of a sentence with 은/는 is the rest of the sentence. The part with 은/는 could possibly be omitted.

Example 1

가: 어느 나라 사람이에요?
나: 저 한국 사람이에요.

The key message is 한국 사람이에요.

Example 2

가: 여기에 한국 사람이 있어요?
나: 제 한국 사람이에요.

The key message here is that the speaker (I) is Korean, and it cannot be omitted.

Example 3

가: 은행이 어디에 있어요?
나: (은행) 우체국 옆에 있어요.

2. First Mention and Subsequent Mention

When you first mention something, you use 이/가.

If it's been mentioned before, use 은/는.

(Example 3 above follows this rule too.)

Example 1

엣날에 여자 아이 살았어요.
그 여자 아이 노래를 아주 잘했어요.

Example 2

저는 내일 스티븐 씨를 만나요. 스티븐 씨 우리 집 근체에 살아요.

Here, 스티븐 was mentioned in the first sentence, hence the use of 은/는. Note this was even though he wasn't the subject in that first instance!

3. Main Clause and Dependent Clause

If it's the main clause (sentence), you use 은/는. In the dependent clause, you use 이/가.

In the examples below, the main clause is written as per normal, while the dependent clause is written in italics.

Example 1: As a noun clause

한국어에 한자어 많다는 것을 배웠어요.

Example 2: As a noun modifier

This was first mentioned this back in Lesson 56 when the present tense noun modifier was inrtoduced.

좋아하는 음식 불고기예요.

Example 3: As a predicate clause

친구 머리 길어요.


Korean English Notes
세계 world
세계 여행 world tour
1등을 하다 to win first prize
돈을 벌다 to make money
유명하다 to be famous, popular 有名
바라다 to wish
필요하다 to be necessary
여러 가지 various, diverse 여러 가지 물선
굽이 높다 (shoe) heels are high
가격표 price tag
영수증 receipt
등산화 hiking boots
면접 job interview
훌륭하다 to be great (excellent, magnificent, superb, etc.) 조선에 훌륭한 왕이 있었어요. = There was a great king in Joseon.


  • Students: 4
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs.

Lesson 71 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 1): I wish I had more time

We completed the third and last grammar point for this lesson in the handout. After completing the handout, we did the video sheet, and then the textbook.

For the video sheet, we did not do breakout rooms to read the dialogue this time. I also think we only heard the audio and did not view the accompanying video. (It's clearly from the same sources as the video sheets from previous chapters, so I'm sure there's a video.)

For the textbook, we stopped just before Speaking 2. So we covered Speaking 1 (both exercises) and all the grammar in the textbook.

Speaking of the textbook, I realise I bent it from keeping it on my small table for too long and had stuff piled over it. It's a lesson to get this done and keep the textbook away. (But it's not just this post, but also the homework. I now have the writing for both Chapter 3 and 4 to do...)

It's confirmed that the test is 2 lessons from now. It would have been 2 weeks, but... it's almost time for the next lesson.

Next lesson, we will finish up with the textbook, and then do the revision.

Honestly, I hestitate to call this lesson Intermediate 1B Lesson 1 because the test is for Intermediate 1. I take that to mean that after the test, we are considered to be in Intermediate 2. I know "officially" (on the school's website) there are 2 terms for each level (A & B) but it seems to be fewer in practice.

For one of the students (the girl who joined) it's the first time she's taking the test.

On a rather random note, it's a new financial year and I can start to claim for my course again.


3. A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다

This is used to express a speaker's hope or desire.

The 으면 part should look familiar... and indeed it carries the meaning of "if".

The translation of a sentence like this can be thought of as "if the situation is like that, it would be good".


  1. 마음에 들었으면 좋겠어요. (I hope you like it.)
    • When you give someone a present, and you say that you hope that they like it.
  2. 집이 학교에서 너무 멀어요. 수업이 온라인이었으면 좋겠어요. (My house is too far from school. I wish the class was online.)
    • The verb here is 이다, past tense forms are 이었어요/였어요.
  3. 이번 주에 시험이 있어요. 공부할 시간이 더 있었으면 좋겠어요. (I have a test this week. I wish I had more time to study.)
  4. 내년에는 마스크를 안 썼으면 좋겠어요. (I wish that we don't have to wear masks next year.)
  5. 내년에는 코로나가 끝났으면 좋겠어요. (I wish that the Coronavirus situation is over next year.)

A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다 vs. A/V-으면 좋겠다

In the handout, it states that A/V-았/었으면 좋겠다 is used when something is less possible or most likely will not happen.

Using the past tense form, the speaker is speaking about a hypothetical situation, which is in contrast to the reality (e.g. having a lot of money compared with the reality not having a lot of money). Thus, it puts more emphasis on the wish, and generally indicates a kind of "stronger" wish.

I guess it's kind of like the difference between "I wish I have a lot of money" (돈이 많으면 좋겠어요) and "I wish I had a lot of money" (돈이 많았으면 좋겠어요). In English you also use the past tense for something that is like likely to happen in reality.

On the other hand, A/V-으면 좋겠다 is more of a "simple" wish. It's not wrong to use it.

However, the past tense form is more common.

HowToStudyKorean does delve into this topic.

Additional Usage Notes

  1. When talking to yourself, you would use 좋겠다.
    • Example: 여자 친구가 생겼으면 좋겠다. (I wish I had a girlfriend.)
  2. On social media, you might see in many cases where the 좋겠어요 part omitted in posts.
    • Example: 해외여행을 갔으면... (I wish I could go on an overseas trip.)


Korean English Notes
여자 친구가 생기다 to have a girlfriend 생기다 = 있다, but it is used for things that you newly have. Meaning that in the past, you didn't have it.
디자인 design 디자인이 정말 예뻐요.
내용 content
외롭다 to be lonely 외로운 사람 = a lonely person
옷값 price of clothes 옷값이 어때요? 좀 비싼 것 같아요.
나비넥타이 bow tie 나비 = butterfly
빨간 치마 red skirt
파란색 티셔츠 blue (coloured) shirt HowToStudyKorean explains the difference. Adding 색 makes it into a noun. By right, there should be a 의 after the 색, but it is more commonly omitted.
밤을 새다 to stay up all night
병이 나다 to fall sick
소망 wish 所望
정착하다 to settle down
partner; mate 종국이가 빨리 짝을 찾아 정착했으면 좋겠어.
변하지 않다 to remain unchanged
변함 change 지금처럼 변함없이 또 만나자. (Let's meet again without change like now.)


  • Students: 6
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random-ish pairs. (2 out of 3 activities I got the same partner.)

Lesson 70 (Intermediate 1A Lesson 8): I think this is better than that

The publishing of this post was slightly delayed since Listed was down again the same day (after I'd published the post for Lesson 69). It was also down when I was writing Lesson 69's post.

We ended chapter 3 by finishing up in the textbook (Listening & Speaking, Culture Note, Pronunciation), then started on Chapter 4.

For the Chapter 4 vocab, there was some additional pointers on the verbs related to wearing items, which I've included in the notes next to the respective verbs.

This chapter only has 3 grammar points instead of the usual 4, and we covered 2 of them in this lesson.

In the week leading up to this lesson, we received the notes for required for next term (for Chapters 4 to 6). The invoice was given the week before. From there, I can tell that we are going to have a test after Chapter 4 is done. If we add in a revision lesson, I would hazard a guess that the test is in 4 weeks, but it's possible (depending on how much we cover next week) it may be even be as soon as in 3 weeks. 😱

Listening and Speaking

There were some locations in Korea discussed in the first part. I am including them because it's a kind of cultural note.

Although the textbook mentions the places are in Korea, they are all specifically found in Seoul. The Hanok Village is also referring to the one found in Seoul.1

  1. 한옥마을 (Hanok Village)
  2. 한강공원 (Hangang [Han River] Park)
  3. 청계천 (Cheonggyecheon)
  4. 여의도공원 (Yeouido Park)

Culture Note

The first part in the textbook mentions a "Korean Wave", but we didn't talk about it.

As with the previous chapters in this book, we took turns reading the passage, which was about someone entering a Korean singing contest that they didn't win.

The part we were supposed to share was on any favourite Korean song or movie (or even drama), but I had none. (If there's anything of Korean origin that I read, it's webtoons.)


Recall the pronunciation of the initial consonant ㅎ when after a final consonant that has an aspirated version.

The sound becomes that of the stronger aspirated consonant version:

  • 백화점 [배점] as [ㄱ] + [ㅎ] → [ㅋ]
  • 못해요 [모요] as [ㄷ] + [ㅎ]→ [ㅌ]
    • ㅅ is [ㄷ] when it is the final consonant.

The pronunciation for this chapter is about when the final consonant before ㅎ does not have a double consonant version (or if there's no final consonant).

When the initial consonant 'ㅎ' is positioned between vowels or after the final consonants 'ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅇ', the pronunciation of 'ㅎ' becomes much weaker.

  • 은행 ~[으냉]2
  • 영화 ~[영와]
  • 결혼 ~[겨론]


1. A-(으)ㄴ/V-는/N-인 것 같다

This is used to express conjecture or presumption.

It is frequently used by Koreans when they want to express their opinion in a more gentle way. Instead of saying that something "is expensive" (비싸네요!), they would say it as "I think it is expensive" or "it seems expensive" (비싼 것 같아요.)

Conjugation is similar to last chapter's third grammar point.


  1. 수미는 요즘 (안) 바쁜 것 같아요.
    • I (don't) think Sumi is busy these days.)
  2. 지금 밖에 비가 (안) 오는 것 같아요.
    • I (don't) think it is raining outside now.
      • A scenario could be you are inside the shopping centre where there aren't any windows, but you see people holding wet umbrellas. Then you might conclude that it could be raining outside.
  3. 저 사람은 지연 씨 동생인 것 같아요.
    • It seems like that person is Jiyeon's younger sibling.
  4. 아닌 것 같아요. (아니다)
    • I don't think so.
  5. 그런 것 같아요. (그렇다)
    • I think so.


While the correct way is 같아요, in spoken language, it is sometimes pronounced as 같애요 [가태요].


  1. 어떤 것 같아요?
    • (Asking about state, how a person looks to be feeling)
  2. 뭐 하는 것 같아요?
    • (Asking about an action)

2. N보다

This is used when comparing two or more things or people.

In English, you would use "than".

보다 is attached to the second noun being compared. You use the subject marker 이/가 for the first noun (which is the subject).

However, that doesn't mean the first noun must appear before the second noun in the sentence. We use the markers to distinguish them, not their place in the sentence.


  1. 오늘이 어제보다 더워요. (Today is hotter than yesterday.)
    • = 어제보다 오늘이 더워요.
  2. 월요일보다 화요일이 더 바빠요. (I am busier on Tuesday than Monday./Compared to Monday, I am busier on Tuesday.)
    • = 화요일이 월요일보다 더 바빠요.
  3. 치킨라이스보다 칠리크랩을 더 좋아해요. (I prefer chilli crab to chicken rice.)
    • = 칠리크랩을 치킨라이스보다 더 좋아해요.

I am not very sure about any difference in meaning when 더 ("more") is used compared to when it is omitted. In the first sentence, the sentence is translated with "hotter" even without 더 as the 보다 implies there is a comparison. I wonder if it's an emphasis thing?


Korean English Notes
유럽 Europe From textbook, skipped page.
낙타 camel From textbook, skipped page.
블라우스 blouse
스웨터 sweater
양복 suit
티셔츠 T-shirt
청바지 jeans
양말 socks
넥타이 tie necktie
장갑 gloves
스카프 scarf thin material
사이즈 size
가격 price
색깔 colour
길이 length 길다 means "to be long". This structure exists also for 높다 (to be high), 높이 refers to height (though not for people)
좀 크다 to be a little big
좀 작다 to be a little small
잘 맞다 to fit well This is a verb. V-는 form 맞는 should be familiar from listening tests...
밝다 to be bright
어둡다 to be dark
길다 to be long
짧다 to be short
마음에 들다 to like literally, to enter one's heart
마음에 안 들다 to not like
잘 어울리다 to match well
잘 안 어울리다 to not match well
교환하다 to exchange 交換
환불하다 to refund 退还
유행하다 to be in fashion 流行. This one's a verb. 유행이다 = to be prevalent, widespread
입다 to wear (clothes)
쓰다 to wear (hat, glasses)
신다 to wear (footwear) For shoes, socks.
하다 to wear (tie, necklace) For accessories. This is much more flexible than the three above which we have learnt before. For example you can use 하다 instead of 매다 for ties.
매다 to tie For ties. Not in textbook.
차다 to put on For watch. Not in textbook.
끼다 to wear (gloves, ring, glasses) That's right, this works for glasses as well. 끼다 is used for items that "fit on the body perfectly", such as gloves, rings, or even glasses, where you have to check whether the size fits. Contact lenses as well.
벗다 to take off For items where you would use 입다, 쓰다, or 신다.
풀다 to take off For items where you would use 하다, 매다, or 차다. This means "to untie" or "to unroll" (remember the culture note from Chapter 16?), and implies the action of taking off is not so easy.
빼다 to take off For items where you would use 끼다. Implies something that can be taken off easily. It also means "to exclude".
렌스 lens
목걸이 necklace
높이 height
마음이 아프다 to be heartbroken 마음이 아픈 것 같아요.
미치다 to be crazy 미친 것 같아요.
답답하다 to be frustrated 답답힌 것 같아요.
결혼식 wedding ceremony
해어지다 to break up


  • Students: 5 (1 absent due to work - the one who's younger than me)
  • Breakout room activities: No (possibly related to technical issues with the teacher's computer)

  1. Through some research of my own, I'm pretty sure the image in the textbook is of the Bukchon Hanok Village, specifically, of Gahoe-dong Alley (Harmony) looking up (or Uphill). This is based on a picture found in The Seoul Guide

  2. Interestingly enough, when the textbook writes out the pronunciation of the weaker 'ㅎ', it is still written as ㅎ. For example 은행 is still [은행], even though 'ㅎ' is weakened until it almost sounds like [으냉]. I choose to write it as the latter to make clear there is a difference, even if it may not be "correct".