Lesson 104 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 2)

This lesson, we covered the last two grammar points in Chapter 17.

We started with Quizlet, then covered the textbook, skipping p. 184 (the first grammar point) and going to the second on p. 185.1) Then we did Speaking 1, before going to the handout to cover the grammar points.


3. ‘ㅎ’ 불규칙

Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This applies to some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’. Some adjectives that end in the final consonant ‘ㅎ’ have an irregular conjugation. Mostly, these are adjectives for colours.

This irregular conjugation applies to the following:

  • 빨갛다 (to be red)
  • 파랗다 (to be blue)
  • 노랗다 (to be yellow)
  • 하얗다 (to be white)
  • 까맣다 (to be black)
  • 이렇다 (to be like this)
  • 그렇다 (to be like that)
  • 저렇다 (to be like that)
  • 어떻다 ([to be] how)

It does not apply to: 놓다, 넣다 (both are verbs); 좋다 (adjective, but regular).

Irregular Conjugation Rule

When the adjective is one of the irregular adjectives that have an adjective stem that ends in ‘ㅎ’.

  1. When endings beginning in vowels other than ‘아/어’ are added (usually this is 으), ‘ㅎ’ is dropped.
    • 빨갛다 + -(으)ㄴ → 빨
    • 파랗다 + -(으)니까→ 파라니까
  2. When endings beginning in ‘아/어’ are added, ‘ㅎ’ is dropped and ‘l’ is added.
    • 까맣다 + -아서 → 까마 + ㅣ + 아서 → 까매서
    • 하얗다 + -아요 → 하야 + ㅣ + -아요 → 하얘요
    • 이렇다 + -아요 → 이러 + ㅣ + -요 → 이래요[2]
  3. There is no change when the endings begin with consonants.
    • 노랗다 + -고 → 노랗고
    • 그렇다 + -습니다 → 그렇습니다

4. V-아/어 있다

This is used to indicate a continuing state of a completed action. It is often used with passive verbs. (The formation of passive verbs from their active counterparts is the topic of a future grammar point. For now, we learn the passive forms as they are.)

Previously, we learnt V-고 있다, which is the progressive form. When that form is used, it indicates that the action is in progress. However, for V-아/어 있다, the action is completed, but the state continues.

While it did not occur to me during the lesson (or even the lesson after), I am now wondering about the relationship between this and V-아/어/해 놓다. In both cases, the action is completed, but the state continues.

ㅏ,ㅗ O ㅏ,ㅗ X 하다
앉다 → 앉아 있어요 붙다 → 붙어 있어요 하다 → 해 있어요


  1. 선생님이 서 있어요. (The teacher is standing.)
  2. 학생들이 교실에 앉아 있어요. (The students are sitting in the classroom.)
  3. 불이 켜져 있어요. (The light is on.)
  4. 꽃이 피어 있어요. (The flowers have bloomed.)
  5. 어 있어요. (It is dead.)


Korean English Notes
백설 공주 Snow White
구름 cloud
까매지다 to get suntanned
닫히다 to be closed
쓰이다 to be written
놓이다 to be placed
쌓이다 to be piled up e.g. work, laundry
켜지다 to be turned on
피다 to bloom 꽃이 피어 있어요. The flowers have bloomed. (Note that it is 피어 and not combined as per usual into 펴.)
촛불 candlelight, candle flame 케이크에 촛불이 켜져 있어요.
서랍 drawer


  • Rest of Chapter 17 Worksheet (p. 158–161)
  • Handout p. 11–12
    • 11 was the one we did as the last activity so I did not know if she meant to do page 13 (the last page). Turned out it did not have to be done, but I was not the only one who submitted. We did p. 13 in the next lesson.
  • Quizlet V아/어 있어요 set


  • Students: 10 out of 11 (the girl who went to Kr from my original class was not there)
  • Breakout room activities: First was with one person, last 3 with another

  1. Since I am writing this after the next lesson is over, we also ended up skipping p. 188–189, where the next two grammar points were covered in the textbook. 

You'll only receive email when they publish something new.

More from journey
All posts