Lesson 113 (Pre-Advance 1 Lesson 11)

This was the lesson that at the end of the class, the teacher informed us that the test would be in two weeks. The best part is that she would not be around and it would be another teacher administering the test (yes, that includes oral, and it will be recorded so she can view it). Great.

We finished the last 2 grammar points in the handout. We also went through the video script. This time, the video script wasn’t separate, but was stapled together with the handout, making the notes extra thick. We did not touch the textbook. The teacher said that in the next lesson we would finish up the chapter and do revision.


3. V-느라고

This is used when expressing the reason or cause for:

  1. not being able to do something (못 했어요), or
  2. not being able to do something with a good result (안 좋아요)

For the first case, it is about making a choice between two actions. There is an element of time involved, where you cannot do two things at once. If you do A, you are unable to do B. You can choose to either watch your favourite TV show, or do your homework.

For the second, there are not two actions. It is just a single action, where a negative result occurs.


  1. 어젯밤에 축구를 보느라고 숙제를 못했어요. (I could not do my homework last night because I was watching a soccer game.)
    • A choice between two actions (1)
    • For this usage, you expect to see 안 or 못 for the second action following -느라고 (which couldn’t be completed because of the first action before -느라고)
  2. 마이클 씨는 요즘 결혼 준비를 하느라고 정신이 없는 것 같아요. (Michael seems to be really busy these days because he is preparing for his wedding.)
    • Single action, but a negative result (2)
    • The negative result comes after -느라고

Usage Notes

  1. In any situation where you can use V-느라고, you can also use A/V-아서/어서/해서. V-느라고 would just be more specific (and in that sense, a better fit).
    • However, there are many situations where you cannot use V-느라고, but V-아서/어서/해서 would be correct. See the examples in the points to follow.
  2. Like with V-아서/어서/해서, V-느라고 cannot be used with imperative or propositive forms.
  3. Do not use a positive clause after V-느라고 as it will sound unnatural.
    • 데이트를 하느라고 기분이 좋아요. (X)
      • ⇨ 데이트를 해서 기분이 좋아요. (O)
      • ⇨ 데이트를 하느라고 너무 바빠요. (O)
  4. V-느라고 cannot be used with verbs that do not show the will of the subject. It cannot be used for things like traffic accidents or the weather (which are outside of your control).
    • 교통사고가 나느라고 회사에 지각했어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 교통사고가 나서 회사에 지각했어요. (O)
    • 요즘 스트레스를 받느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 요즘 스트레스를 받아서 잠을 못 잤어요. (O)
    • 비가 많이 오느라고 등산을 못 했어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 비가 많이 와서 등산을 못 했어요. (X)
  5. V-느라고 cannot be used with verbs that do not require a fixed time period. It does not work for things that are either a moment in time.
    • 늦게 일어나느라고 여행을 못 갔어요. (X)
      • Waking up does not requires a fixed time period; it is a moment in time.
        • ⇨ 늦게까지 자느라고 학교에 늦은 적이 있어요. (O)
        • Written this way is fine, because if the action is sleep, sleep takes up a period of time.
    • 집에서 늦게 나가느라고 버스를 놓친 적이 있어요. (X)
      • Going out (나가다) is also a short moment in time and so it is not appropriate.
      • ⇨ 집에서 늦게 나가서 버스를 놓친 적이 있어요. (O)
  6. The subject of both clauses must be the same.
    • 룸메이트가 시끄럽게 코를 고느라고 (내가) 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
  7. Do not use the past tense -았/었-, only the basic form.
    • 어제 숙제를 했느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (X)
      • ⇨ 어제 숙제를 하느라고 잠을 못 잤어요. (O)
  8. -느라고 can be used idiomatically with 고생하다/수고하다. Both have the meaning of hardship or trouble and (my own guess) is perhaps that is how it came to be able to be used with -느라고 since it is a negative result. (Note that I am not familiar with both of these expressions when I encounter them here.)
    • 야근하느라고 수고하셨어요. (Thank you for working overtime.)
      • “수고하셨어요!” is said at the end of a work day to acknowledge/thank everyone for their hard work, as a kind of “Well done!”
    • 청소하느라고 고생하셨어요.

4. 누구나, 언제나, 어디나, 무엇이나, 무슨 N(이)나

This is used when expressing “any” or “every” without exception. It combined with wh- nouns and pronouns (who, when, where, what).

You can replace 나 with 든지 and the meaning is the same. There is no difference in the usage (in terms of formality): 누구든지, 언제든지, 어디든지, 무엇이든지, 무슨 N(이)든지.


받침 X → -나 받침 O → -이나
누구 → 누구 무엇 → 무엇이나


  1. 이 공연은 누구나 볼 수 있으니까 어린이를 데리고 오셔도 돼요. (Anyone can see this performance, so you can bring your children.)
  2. 그 사람은 성격이 좋아서 누구하고나 친하게 지내요. (His personality is good, so he can get along with anyone.)
    • You can also have 누구한테나/누구에게나 for “to everyone”: 마리코 씨는 누구에게나 친절하기 때문에 우리 반 친구들이 누구나 좋아하는 사람이다. (Mariko is kind to everyone, so she is someone that is liked by everyone in our class.)
  3. 할머니가 만드신 음식은 무슨 음식이나 다 맛있어요. (Any food that grandmother makes is delicious.)
    • = 할머니가 만드신 음식은 무엇이나 다 맛있어요.
  4. 학교 근처에 어디나 마찬가지일 거예요. 월세가 싼 집 없어요. (Anywhere near the school will be the same. There are no houses with cheap rent.)
  5. 오토바이가 있으면 어디에나 빠르게 갈 수 있어요. (With a motorbike, you can go anywhere quickly.)


  • 3A Chapter 2 Worksheet p. 38 to 41
  • 3A Chapter 2 Textbook p. 58 to 60 (Reading and Writing)


  • Date: Feb 19
  • Students: 8 out of 11 (slightly different people not around each week)
  • Breakout room activities: Yes. I think it was the same person.

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