Lesson 17 (Beginner 1B L1): Numbers and Dates Redux

Audrey didn't come for this lesson. I think she might be switching to the Wednesday class... even though it's 2 weeks behind. It's a hypothesis for now, but it will be more obvious in the next few weeks.

We spent about the first half of the class finishing up chapter 4, and then starting on chapter 5. We will be learning the past tense in chapter 5, and then after chapter 5, there will be a test.

There is also a vocab quiz in the next lesson on the temporal adverbs (pretty much that's what they are) and the days of the week.

Pronunciation

When ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, ใ……, ใ…ˆ are positioned after the final consonant ใ„ฑ, they are pronounced [ใ„ฒ, ใ„ธ, ใ…ƒ, ใ…† ,ใ…‰].

Examples:

  1. ์•ฝ๊ตญ [์•ฝ๊พน]
  2. ํ•™๊ต [ํ•™๊พœ]
  3. ์‹๋‹น [์‹๋•…]
  4. ์ฑ…๋ฐฉ [์ฑ…๋นต]
  5. ํ•™์ƒ [ํ•™์Œฉ]
  6. ๊ทน์žฅ [๊ทน์งฑ]

Grammar

1. ๋‚ ์งœ์™€ ์š”์ผ (Dates and Days)

A. Dates and Numbers, Round 2

We first learnt this in the foundation class. The teacher said that we would learn it again in Chapter 5. Well, today's the day. (Or, well, the day the lesson was held was the day, since now it's past that day.)

Last time, the score was Dates: 1, Students: 0

When we first learnt it, we were all confused. We did not fare much better this round, trying to figure out each other's birthdays, especially when the dates were the 20th, 21st, or 22nd of the month.

An explanation is in order, so I'll try my best.

The sentence for saying the date is: X์›” Y์ผ์ด์—์š”. (X-wol Y-i-ri-e-o.)

์›” means month, ์ผ means day, and ์ด์—์š” means is, so a translation would be: It is day Y (of) month X.

However, recall that:

  1. The word for the number one (1) is also ์ผ (il), exactly the same as the word for "day".
  2. There is a pronunciation rule that says if the next syllable starts with ใ…‡, then any batchim from the previous syllable is carried over. (See the pronunciation topic from Chapter 3, covered in the Lesson 14 post.)

If you have a date like the 1st of January (1์›” 1์ผ), then it becomes ์ผ์›” ์ผ์ผ์ด์—์š”, which is pronounced as [์ด๋คŒ ์ด๋ฆฌ๋ฆฌ์—์š”] - i-rol i-ri-ri-e-yo. (In Korean, like Chinese, you call the months by their numbers, so January is the first month, February the second month, and so on, until December which is the twelfth month.)

By itself, it doesn't seem that bad (if you manage to wrap your tongue around that excessive number of "r" sounds tere), but ์ด is not just a particle, it is the word for the number two (2) as well. The 2nd of January will sound like [์ด์›” ์ด๋ฆฌ๋ฆฌ์—์š”] - (i-wol i-ri-ri-e-yo).

This means that in order to correctly parse the correct date, you can't just hear that first syllable and call it a day, you must consider the next syllable as well.

The months of November and December are confusing as well. But to fully appreciate this, you need to understand the counting system in Korean. This follows the Chinese system. Eleven is literally "ten-one"; twelve "ten-two", that is, eleven is ์‹ญ์ผ (์‹ญ is ten, and ์ผ is one) and twelve is ์‹ญ์ด.

So you end up with ์‹ญ์ผ์›” and ์‹ญ์ด์›” as the names for November and December. They differ by a single ใ„น (r) sound.

That's just the months part. Now let's look at the days themselves. Remember I said something about 20, 21, and 22?

This system of counting also means that twenty is "two-ten", twenty-one is "two-ten-one", twenty-two is "two-ten-two"... and I think you can see where this is going.

  • 20 is ์ด์‹ญ
  • 21 is ์ด์‹ญ์ผ
  • 22 is ์ด์‹ญ์ด

Looks fine? Recall the full sentence: X์›” Y์ผ์ด์—์š”.

Let's consider some dates:

  • 20 November: ์‹ญ์ผ์›” ์ด์‹ญ์ผ์ด์—์š”. (shi-bi-rol i-shi-bi-ri-e-yo.)
  • 21 December: ์‹ญ์ด์›” ์ด์‹ญ์ผ์ผ์ด์—์š”. (shi-bi-wol i-shi-bi-ri-ri-e-yo.)
  • 22 December: ์‹ญ์ด์›” ์ด์‹ญ์ด์ผ์ด์—์š”. (shi-bi-wol i-shi-bi-i-ri-e-yo.)

While practising with the vocab cards in class, there was a of confusion when we forgot October is ์‹œ์›” (pronounced shi-wol. It's a little special, so instead of ์‹ญ it's ์‹œ). The first thing to my mind was April (์‚ฌ์›”; sa-wol) and someone else thought March (์‚ผ์›”; sa-mwol).

After today, the score is Dates: 2, Students: 0. The subtle differences really trip me up. It will probably take some time to internalise.

(I long for the day when I will read this post again in the future and laugh at myself, that this was a problem at all.)

B. Days of the Week

We also went over the days of the week. I learnt it before some time back on my own (when I was still taking the Foundation class) by adding it to my Anki deck. It was not covered in class at the time.

It started when I could read enough Hangeul and realised that the Quizlet deck for our class, which is held on Saturdays, says ํ† ์š”์ผ (to-yo-il) and I thought... it sounds like Japanese word for Saturday, which is ๅœŸๆ›œๆ—ฅ (do-yล-bi). Specifially, ํ†  (pronounced more like "toe" than the English "to") and ๅœŸ (pronounced more like "doe" than... "do") are really similar.

And so I found out back then, that Korean use the same system for naming days of the week as in Japanese, which came from Chinese (though now it's not used in Chinese, we just count the days of the week like we count the months and days of the month).

This simplifies things a lot in terms of what I need to memorise because I still remember my Japanese days of the week - which I learnt close to 15 years ago - thanks to this poem (mnemonic devices do work, silly as they are, or rather, they work because they are silly):

Monday GETS you money, (ๆœˆๆ›œๆ—ฅ; ge-tsu-yล-bi)
Tuesday gets you a CAR, (็ซๆ›œๆ—ฅ; ka-yล-bi)
Wednesday gets you something SWEET, (ๆฐดๆ›œๆ—ฅ; sui-yล-bi)
Thursday MOCKS you, (ๆœจๆ›œๆ—ฅ; mo-ku-yล-bi)
Friday is the KING of the week, (้‡‘ๆ›œๆ—ฅ; kin-yล-bi)
Saturday gets you DOnuts, (ๅœŸๆ›œๆ—ฅ; do-yล-bi)
Sunday finds your NICHE. (ๆ—ฅๆ›œๆ—ฅ; ni-chi-yล-bi)

(I am severely irritated by all this transliteration, and am sorely tempted to use IPA, but I guess that would hurt readability... though... that's only if I'm not the one reading it. Since this is more of my notes to myself, it shouldn't matter if I use IPA. ๐Ÿค”Maybe I should use IPA next time...)

There's a very nice entry on Wiktionary for Sunday that shows the (Classical) Chinese, Japanese, and Korean forms. There's links to the other Japanese days of the week there too.

Now, yes, the pronunciation for Monday and Sunday are rather off from the Japanese for Korean, but it's easy (for me) to recall because I know that Monday is ๆœˆ, and ๆœˆ means "moon", and also "month". Thus its Korean equivalent is simply ์›”, the word for "month". So Monday is ์›”์š”์ผ. Similarly for Sunday, the word for it is ๆ—ฅ, which means "sun", and also "day", so Sunday is ์ผ์š”์ผ.

These are the 2 days of the week that share an obvious same meaning as their respective words in English.

Monday means "day of the moon". I only considered this when I thought how much the French word for Monday (lundi) looks rather much like the French word for "moon" (lune). It's also apparent in Italian, lunedรฌ, and luna. However, for the Romance languages, they derive the word from Latin more directly, but in the Germanic languages it kind of takes a detour.

This is more apparent if you consider the words for Sunday in English/German (Germanic languages), meaning "day of the sun", and French/Italian (Romance languages), where it means "day of the Lord".

Though, this is for this word, English is called the most romantic (is that the right word?) of the Germanic languages for a reason, due to the strong influence of Latin for many words, mostly through French.

Interestingly, Chinese has these two names for Sunday if you are going by the ๆ˜ŸๆœŸ way of naming days of the week: ๆ˜ŸๆœŸๆ—ฅ (xฤซng-qฤซ-rรฌ) and ๆ˜ŸๆœŸๅคฉ (xฤซng-qฤซ-tiฤn). Heh, that would be a topic all on its own. Here's a teaser.

In Korean (and Japanese, and some other East Asian languages), the words for Tuesday to Saturday look like they are named after some elements (at one point I think someone told me they were a cycle, like how fire ็ซ - Tuesday - is beaten by water ๆฐด - Wednesday). But in English they are more directly named after Roman gods.

However, if you dig further, you find that actually, they are all named after said Roman gods, or more specifically, the celestial objects named for those gods!

Phew! That was a rather deep rabbit hole that I dug myself into, but I had fun. But I think that's enough for now! There's still other things to cover.

2. N (Time) ์—

This is used to indicate the time that something happens.

You add ์— to a noun (N) that indicates time to indicate that something takes place at a given time.

์— can be translated (for this context of time) as at, on, in, etc.

Time nouns include:

  1. Dates (e.g. on the 9th of September = 9์›” 9์ผ์—)
  2. Years (e.g. in 2019 = 2019๋…„์—)
  3. Months (e.g. in December = 12์›”์—)
  4. Days of the week (e.g. on Friday = ๊ธˆ์š”์ผ์—)
  5. "Weeks" (e.g. on the weekend ์ฃผ๋ง์—, in this week ์ด๋ฒˆ ์ฃผ์—)
  6. "Named days" (e.g. on Christmas = ํฌ๋ฆฌ์Šค๋งˆ์Šค์—)
  7. Time (e.g. at 1 o'clock = ํ•œ ์‹œ์—) - this we have not learnt, but will learn in future.

You don't use this particle with the words ์–ด์ œ (yesterday), ์˜ค๋Š˜ (today), ๋‚ด์ผ (tomorrow). This is like how in English, you don't say "on yesterday, I...", but simply "yesterday, I...".

Some example sentences:

  1. 2์›” 14์ผ์— ํŒŒํ‹ฐ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (There is a party on 14th February.)
  2. ์›”์š”์ผ์— ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐ€์š”. (I'm going to school on Monday.)
  3. 7์›”์— ๋…์ผ์— ๊ฐ€์š”. (I'm going to Germany in July.)
  4. ์ด๋ฒˆ ์ฃผ์— ์ผํ•ด์š”? (Are you working this week?)
  5. ๋‚ด์ผ ์€ํ–‰์— ๊ฐ€์š”. (I'm going to the bank tomorrow.)
  6. ๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ๋ง์— ๋ญ ํ•ด์š”? (๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ๋ง์—๋Š”) ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”. (What are you doing next weekend? I'm meeting my friend [next weekend].)
    • It's optional to say ๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ๋ง์—๋Š”, so you can simply answer ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”.
    • ์—๋Š” (instead of only ์—) is used to indicate a time that was mentioned before.

Vocabulary

Korean English
์ด์ฒœ 2000
์ด์ฒœ์ด์‹ญ 2020
์ด์ฒœ์ด์‹ญ๋…„ the year 2020
์ผ์š”์ผ Sunday
์›”์š”์ผ Monday
ํ™”์š”์ผ Tuesday
์ˆ˜์š”์ผ Wednesday
๋ชฉ์š”์ผ Thursday
๊ธˆ์š”์ผ Friday
ํ† ์š”์ผ Saturday
์ผ์›” January
์ด์›” February
์‚ผ์›” March
์‚ฌ์›” April
์˜ค์›” May
์œ ์›” June
์น ์›” July
ํŒ”์›” August
๊ตฌ์›” September
์‹œ์›” October
์‹ญ์ผ์›” November
์‹ญ์ด์›” December
์–ด์ œ yesterday
์˜ค๋Š˜ today
๋‚ด์ผ tomorrow
์ง€๋‚œ์ฃผ last week
์ด๋ฒˆ ์ฃผ this week
๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ next week
์ฃผ๋ง weekend
์ง€๋‚œ์ฃผ๋ง last weekend
์ด๋ฒˆ ์ฃผ๋ง this weekend
๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ๋ง next weekend
์‹œํ—˜ test
์„ ๋ฌผ gift
์ƒ์ผ birthday
์ƒ์ผ ์นด๋“œ birthday card
ํ˜ผ์ž alone
Nํ•˜๊ณ  with + noun
์นœ๊ตฌํ•˜๊ณ  with a friend/friends
๊ฐ™์ด [๊ฐ€์น˜] together
์•ฝ์† [์•ฝ์™] appointment; promise
์‹œ๊ฐ„ time
์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ์ฐ๋‹ค to take a photo
์‚ฐ์ฑ…ํ•˜๋‹ค [์‚ฐ์ฑ„์นด๋‹ค] to take a walk
์ด๋ฅผ ๋‹ฆ๋‹ค to brush one's teeth
์„ธ์ˆ˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to wash (one's) face
๋๋‚˜๋‹ค [๋ˆ๋‚˜๋‹ค] to be finished
๋ฏธ์•ˆํ•˜๋‹ค to be sorry
๋ฌด์Šจ N what + noun
๋ˆ„๊ตฌ who
์–ธ์ œ when
๋ฉฐ์น  what date
๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ so

Questions

  1. I'm not quite sure what is going on with the spacing for the last week/next week/last weekend/next weekend words.
    1. It looks like "last" (์ง€๋‚œ) seems to stick to the "week" (์ฃผ), but "this" (์ด๋ฒˆ) and "next" (๋‹ค์Œ) do not, so you have ์ง€๋‚œ์ฃผ, but ์ด๋ฒˆ ์ฃผ and ๋‹ค์Œ ์ฃผ. This is from the Quizlet deck. Why are they different?
    2. It gets more confusing because in the handout, they are all written with a space between (i.e. ์ง€๋‚œ ์ฃผ). :/

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