Lessons 1-10

I've been learning Korean for 3 months, and I thought it would be good to document my progress. But first, I should write down what I've gone through so far, so that in future I can just build on it.

It's always interesting to see how my language learning process changes from language to language. Part of it has to do with the language itself, and part of it has to do with the methods that I use, and perhaps, it might also be me.

I hope I did not make any typos; I'm still not used to typing with the Korean keyboard.

Grammar Summary

N is a noun.

  1. N1์€/๋Š” N2์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”. (N1 is N2.)
    • ์€/๋Š” is used to indicate the topic of the sentence.
    • ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š” is the conjugated verb "to be" (am/are/is) in an informal setting.
    • ์€/์ด์—์š” is used when the preceding noun has batchim.
      1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์€: ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ (The teacher)
      2. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์ด์—์š”: ํ•™์ƒ์ด์—์š”. ([I] am a student.)
    • ๋Š”/์˜ˆ์š” is used when the preceding noun has no batchim.
      1. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ๋Š”: ์ €๋Š” (I)
      2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์˜ˆ์š”: ์˜์‚ฌ์˜ˆ์š”. ([I] am a doctor.)
  2. N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹™๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ([I] am not N. [formal])
    • ์ด is used when the preceding noun has batchim.
      1. ํ•™์ƒ์ด ์•„๋‹™๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ([I] am not a student.)
    • ๊ฐ€ is used when preceding noun has no batchim.
      1. ์˜์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹™๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ([I] am not a doctor.)
    • The corresponding question is: N์ž…๋‹ˆ๊นŒ?
  3. N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. ([I] have N.)
    • Again, ์ด is used when the preceding noun has batchim, and ๊ฐ€ is used when preceding noun has no batchim.
    • The negation of this sentence is N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์—†์–ด์š”. ([I] do not have N.)
    • The question is simply: N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? (Do you have N?)
      1. ์‹ ๋ฌธ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”? ๋„ค, (์‹ ๋ฌธ์ด) ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Do you have a newspaper? Yes, I do.)
      2. ์‹œ๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, (์‹œ๊ณ„๊ฐ€) ์—†์–ด์š”. (Do you have a watch/clock? No, I do not.)
    • To ask what someone has, you say: ๋ญ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”? (What do you have?)
  4. ์ด๊ฑฐ๋Š”/๊ทธ๊ฑฐ๋Š”/์ €๊ฑฐ๋Š” N์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”. (This/that/that over there is N.)
    • ์ด๊ฑฐ is used for objects close to the speaker.
    • ๊ทธ๊ฑฐ is used for object close to the listener AND for objects that are out of sight.
    • ์ €๊ฑฐ is used for objects far from both the speaker and listener, but still within view of both.
    • The question is (while pointing at something): ์ด๊ฑฐ๋Š” ๋ญ์˜ˆ์š”? (What is this?)
    • ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š” is used when there is/isn't batchim (see point 1 above).
  5. N ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. (Give me N.)
    • There is no rule about whether N has or doesn't have batchim.
      1. ์ฑ… ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. (Give me the book.)
      2. ๋ชจ์ž ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. (Give me a hat.)
    • You can make the request more polite by adding ์ข€: N ์ข€ ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”.
      1. ๋ฌผ ์ข€ ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. (Please give me some water.)
    • When you pass someone something, you say: ์—ฌ๊ธฐ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Here you are.)
  6. N1ํ•˜๊ณ  N2 (N1 and N2 [informal/spoken])
    • This "and" (and the next formal version) only works with nouns.
      • You would use S1 ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  S2 for sentences, verbs, and adjectives.
    • This version is the same regardless of whether N1 has batchim or not.
    • ๋ฐ›์นจ O/X + ํ•˜๊ณ 
      1. ๋ถˆํŽœํ•˜๊ณ  ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผ (ballpoint pen and camera)
      2. ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ถˆํŽœ (camera and ballpoint pen)
  7. N1๊ณผ/์™€ N2 (N1 and N2 [formal/written])
    • ๊ณผ is used when N1 has batchim. (It's different from the earlier rules!)
      1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ๊ณผ: ๋ถˆํŽœ๊ณผ ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผ (ballpoint pen and camera)
    • ์™€ is used when N1 does not have batchim.
      1. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์™€: ์นด๋ฉ”๋ผ์™€ ๋ถˆํŽœ (camera and ballpoint pen)

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