Lessons 1-10

I've been learning Korean for 3 months, and I thought it would be good to document my progress. But first, I should write down what I've gone through so far, so that in future I can just build on it.

It's always interesting to see how my language learning process changes from language to language. Part of it has to do with the language itself, and part of it has to do with the methods that I use, and perhaps, it might also be me.

I hope I did not make any typos; I'm still not used to typing with the Korean keyboard.

Grammar Summary

N is a noun.

  1. N1은/는 N2이에요/예요. (N1 is N2.)
    • 은/는 is used to indicate the topic of the sentence.
    • 이에요/예요 is the conjugated verb "to be" (am/are/is) in an informal setting.
    • 은/이에요 is used when the preceding noun has batchim.
      1. 받침 O + 은: 선생님은 (The teacher)
      2. 받침 O + 이에요: 학생이에요. ([I] am a student.)
    • 는/예요 is used when the preceding noun has no batchim.
      1. 받침 X + 는: 저는 (I)
      2. 받침 X + 예요: 의사예요. ([I] am a doctor.)
  2. N이/가 아닙니다. ([I] am not N. [formal])
    • 이 is used when the preceding noun has batchim.
      1. 학생이 아닙니다. ([I] am not a student.)
    • 가 is used when preceding noun has no batchim.
      1. 의사가 아닙니다. ([I] am not a doctor.)
    • The corresponding question is: N입니까?
  3. N이/가 있어요. ([I] have N.)
    • Again, 이 is used when the preceding noun has batchim, and 가 is used when preceding noun has no batchim.
    • The negation of this sentence is N이/가 없어요. ([I] do not have N.)
    • The question is simply: N이/가 있어요? (Do you have N?)
      1. 신문이 있어요? 네, (신문이) 있어요. (Do you have a newspaper? Yes, I do.)
      2. 시계가 있어요? 아니요, (시계가) 없어요. (Do you have a watch/clock? No, I do not.)
    • To ask what someone has, you say: 뭐가 있어요? (What do you have?)
  4. 이거는/그거는/저거는 N이에요/예요. (This/that/that over there is N.)
    • 이거 is used for objects close to the speaker.
    • 그거 is used for object close to the listener AND for objects that are out of sight.
    • 저거 is used for objects far from both the speaker and listener, but still within view of both.
    • The question is (while pointing at something): 이거는 뭐예요? (What is this?)
    • 이에요/예요 is used when there is/isn't batchim (see point 1 above).
  5. N 주세요. (Give me N.)
    • There is no rule about whether N has or doesn't have batchim.
      1. 책 주세요. (Give me the book.)
      2. 모자 주세요. (Give me a hat.)
    • You can make the request more polite by adding 좀: N 좀 주세요.
      1. 물 좀 주세요. (Please give me some water.)
    • When you pass someone something, you say: 여기 있어요. (Here you are.)
  6. N1하고 N2 (N1 and N2 [informal/spoken])
    • This "and" (and the next formal version) only works with nouns.
      • You would use S1 그리고 S2 for sentences, verbs, and adjectives.
    • This version is the same regardless of whether N1 has batchim or not.
    • 받침 O/X + 하고
      1. 불펜하고 카메라 (ballpoint pen and camera)
      2. 카메라하고 불펜 (camera and ballpoint pen)
  7. N1과/와 N2 (N1 and N2 [formal/written])
    • 과 is used when N1 has batchim. (It's different from the earlier rules!)
      1. 받침 O + 과: 불펜과 카메라 (ballpoint pen and camera)
    • 와 is used when N1 does not have batchim.
      1. 받침 X + 와: 카메라와 불펜 (camera and ballpoint pen)

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