Lesson 34 (Beginner 2B Lesson 2): Beginning a New Book

We finished up with the first textbook (1A) within the first 15 minutes, which was just the pronunciation and the self-check sections.

For the new textbook we went through the contents for an overview of what we will be covering in the 1B book.

Finally, there's a vocab quiz next week. I think it would be quite challenging, as there has to be some conversion of sentences done for the honorific speech.

I hope the Quizlet deck gets assigned soon before I start putting in my own cards into Anki... and then have dupes when the Quizlet deck is added and I import those.

On a side note, I found some other public decks on the teacher's account, including one set for the irregular ใ„ท conjugation for Chapter 8, so I imported that to Anki.

Pronunciation

This is more about the intonation.

  • ์ง€๊ธˆ ์ˆ™์ œํ•ด์š”. (I'm doing homework now.)
  • ๊ฐ™์ด ์ˆ™์ œํ•ด์š”. (Let's do the homework together.)

The difference in the two ์š”s is that in the first, it's much shorter. The second one is longer.

Basically, the rule is that when you have a sentence where the meaning is "let's do something" (called propositive sentences) then you would say it such that the ์š” is longer.

I actually found it quite hard to pronounce. I understand it, and I can hear the difference, but it's really quite a challenge to produce this on command at this point.

If you didn't check out the linked HiNative answer, the TL;DR between propositive and imperative sentences in Korean is that in the former you are making a suggestion but the listener has a choice whether to do it or not, but for the imperative it's a command and they must do it.

Vocabulary

The Chapter 9 content for this lesson has been all vocabulary, with quite a bit of cultural and contextual notes which I've outlined either in the notes or in their own sections below this table.

Korean English Notes
ํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ grandfather can be used to refer to passers by who are elderly that you are not related to
ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ grandmother can be used to refer to passers by who are elderly that you are not related to
์™ธํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ maternal grandfather ์™ธ = ๅค–
์™ธํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ maternal grandmother
์•„๋น  dad
์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ father Different families will use either ์•„๋น  (casual) or ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€ (formal).
์—„๋งˆ mom
์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ mother Different families will use either ์—„๋งˆ (casual) or ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ (formal).
ํ˜•์ œ siblings
ํ˜• (male's) older brother See this post for more information about older siblings. This was when I figured it out after learning from Yonsei University's course.
์˜ค๋น  (female's) older brother
๋ˆ„๋‚˜ (male's) older sister
์–ธ๋‹ˆ (female's) older sister
๋™์ƒ younger sibling
๋‚จ๋™์ƒ younger brother
์—ฌ๋™์ƒ younger sister
์™ธ๋™ only child
๋ถ€๋ชจ๋‹˜ parents includes the respect term ๋‹˜
์นœ์ฒ™ relatives
๋‚จํŽธ husband
์•„๋‚ด wife
์•„๋“ค son
๋”ธ daughter
์‚ผ์ดŒ uncle Literally because he is 3์ดŒ away from you. More notes below.
์‚ฌ์ดŒ cousin Literally because he is 4์ดŒ away from you
๊ฐ€์กฑ family ๅฎถๆ—
์šด์ „ driving ่ฟ่ฝฌ
์ˆ˜ํ•™ math ๆ•ฐๅญฆ
์—ญ์‚ฌ history ๅŽ†ๅฒ
๋ฏธ์ธ beautiful woman ็พŽไบบ
์‚ฌ์žฅ๋‹˜ president of a company ็คพ้•ฟ. ๋‹˜ is the respectful ending; you wouldn't use it when describing yourself, as the position is just called ์‚ฌ์žฅ, e.g. ์ €๋Š” ์‚ฌ์žฅ์ด์—์š”.
์ด์ชฝ this literally this side or this way; you could use it when you are pointing to someone next to you and introduce them by saying ์ด์ชฝ์€ ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ์ด์—์š”.
์ „์— in the past ๅ‰
N์— ๋‹ค๋‹ˆ๋‹ค to attend on a regular basis This is when you are going someplace regularly, say weekly or daily. Even for an online class, you can say ํ•œ๊ตญ์–ด ์ˆ˜์—…์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. If it is clear, it is another way to say your occupation. A student could say: ์ €๋Š” ํ•™๊ต์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. An office worker could say: ์ €๋Š” ํšŒ์‚ฌ์— ๋‹ค๋…€์š”. Can also be used for working in a bank, etc.
์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๋‹ค to be kind ไบฒๅˆ‡. Pronunciation is like [์นœ์ €๋ผ๋‹ค], the ใ…Ž is almost silent.
๋ฉ‹์žˆ๋‹ค to be stylish; to be cool Normally used for guys, but you could apparently use this for girl crushes too. (Though I'm not sure what qualifies as a girl crush...)
์ธ์‚ฌํ•˜๋‹ค to greet ไบบไบ‹. This is all the hi/bye greetings. "์ธ์‚ฌํ•˜์„ธ์š”." is when you ask someone to say hi to someone else.
๋ญ˜์š”. Not really. This is a stock reply you can give when someone 1) thanks you or 2) praises/compliments you. It literally means "For what?" so when someone thanks you and you say this you are saying it was not a big deal at all.
Nํ•œํ…Œ์„œ from someone ์Šคํ‹ฐ๋ธ ํ•œํ…Œ์„œ ๋“ค์—ˆ์–ด์š”. = I heard it from Steven.
์—ด 10 All these are native Korean numbers.
์Šค๋ฌผ 20
์„œ๋ฅธ 30
๋งˆํ” 40
์‰ฐ 50 It's like middle age, half of 100, so take a break (rest), like ์‰ฌ๋‹ค. (I am not sure if this is simply a mnemonic device or if it's actually true...)
์˜ˆ์ˆœ 60
์ผ๊ณฑ 70
์—ฌ๋“  80
์•„ํ” 90
๋ฐฑ 100 I'd learnt all these on my own before looking them up, thought 100 was ์˜จ? Clearly this is the Sino-Korean number.
๋†’์ž„๋ง honorific speech
์„ฑํ•จ name (hon.)
๋‚˜์ด age
์—ฐ์„ธ age (hon.) Funnily, the way I remember this is because I know Yonsei University. They have the same Hangeul, but different Hanja. It's ๅนดๅฒ for this, but for the university, it's ๅปถไธ– (which derives from the first syllables of the names of the 2 institutions that merged together to form it). You would not use this unless the person is at least in their 60s. See the note below for birthday.
๋Œ house (hon.) ์ง‘
๋ถ„ person (hon.) This both serves as the counting noun ๋ช… and as the word for person ์‚ฌ๋žŒ.
์ƒ์‹  birthday (hon.) ์ƒ์ผ, but you would not use it unless the person is at least in their sixties. (The teacher who I think is at most in her 40s - I'd say she looks like she's in her 30s but she's wayyy to experienced to be that young - said she would be shocked to hear this said to her. For teachers you know it's ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜ so usually you would use honorific speech.
๊ณ„์‹œ๋‹ค to be there ์žˆ๋‹ค. This and the other verbs here we've seen before when studying making requests with V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”... which was also when we last saw numbers.
๋“œ์‹œ๋‹ค to eat/drink ๋จน๋‹ค/๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค
์ฃผ๋ฌด์‹œ๋‹ค to sleep ์ž๋‹ค

My Family, House, and Country

Normally you would use ์ œ to refer to my (thing). That is the first person singular.

However, for your family members (typically your seniors), house, and country, you use ์šฐ๋ฆฌ instead.

์šฐ๋ฆฌ literally means we or us, and it is the first person plural.

  • You use it even when you are the only child and are talking about your mother: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ.
  • You use it even when you are the only person living in your house: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์ง‘
  • You also use it when you refer to your husband, even though you don't share your husband with anyone else: ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ๋‚จํŽธ

Family: ์ดŒ System

The ์ดŒ (from ๆ‘, meaning village) is used to count how far away someone in the family tree is from you.

In this system, the family boundary is 8์ดŒ (ํŒ”์ดŒ). If another person is within the family boundary, you cannot marry them.

You can only go up and down, not "sideways" along a tree. This is why your uncle is called ์‚ผ์ดŒ and is 3์ดŒ away:

  • 1์ดŒ between you and your father
  • 2์ดŒ between you and your grandfather (father's father)
  • 3์ดŒ between you and your grandfather's son, i.e. your uncle

It's not 2์ดŒ because although your uncle is your father's brother (or mother's, but let's just take an example which illustrates the point), you cannot go "sideways" along the connection. You have to draw the connection up to your grandfather and then back down.

This is also why your cousin (uncle's son) is 4์ดŒ away and called ์‚ฌ์ดŒ.

Native Numbers (Age)

I think this is the last time we will see numbers (as a topic of their own), but there are still some notes on their use.

Naturally everyone in class had to cough up their ages and reveal it. It was a revealing day, since before this when doing the family portion we had to talk about how many people were in our family and who they were.

Half the class (3) are in their 20s (์ด์‹ญ๋Œ€), and the other half (another 3) are in their 30s (์‚ผ์‹ญ๋Œ€).

The numbers 20-50 are used very often.

Note that 20 has a "special" form (์Šค๋ฌด) when used with unit nouns. But only for 20, for the rest of the 20s you use the original form.

  • ์Šค๋ฌด ์‚ด (20 years old)
  • ์Šค๋ฌผ ํ•œ ์‚ด (21 years old; but notice ํ•˜๋‚˜ is ํ•œ)

60-90 are not used as much. Many tend to use the Sino-Korean numbers instead of the native numbers, even when it is technically not the correct expression.

To say someone is 71 years old:

  • ์ผํ” ํ•œ ์‚ด is the correct expression
  • ์น ์‹ญ์ผ is also acceptable

However, the 60-90 range numbers do bear some similarity to their single-digit counterparts 6-9, which makes them easier to remember.

Honorific Speech

This is used to give respect to the person that you are talking about. It is expected when you are talking about someone that is older or higher in social status.

It is not necessarily the person that you are talking to, but it could be.

Consequently, the subject of the sentence must be the listener (second person) or a third person, and never the speaker (first person).

Note: Different languages have different types of honorific speech; it turns out that the Tโ€“V distinction in Indo-European languages like French (tu/vous) and Italian (tu/voi) is also a form of honorifics. The term comes from the Latin pronouns.

This section is give examples on how it's for talking about others.

So if someone uses honorific speech on you, you cannot use that form in your reply. It would be weird!

For example if you go to a restaurant and they ask how many people are in your party:

  • ๋ช‡ ๋ถ„์ด์„ธ์š”?

Your reply (for a party of 3) would be:

  • ์„ธ ๋ช…์ด์š”.

Similarly, if someone asks you (and your name is Nana) if you eat meat:

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ณ ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋“œ์„ธ์š”?

Your reply would be (if you do eat meat):

  • ๋„ค, ๋จน์–ด์š”.

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