Lesson 42 (Beginner 3A Lesson 2): Don't...

A belated post since I was caught up with thingr for the rest of Saturday. For this lesson we went through the first 2 grammar points in the handout (which also coincide with the first 2 grammar points in the textbook - and we also covered that).

We started with the vocabulary. Before the new vocab, we did a review of last week's vocab. We did it with Quizlet, just one at a time. At the time it was just 3 of us answering in sequence, because one student was not attending, another had not yet joined the call, and there was one more who was in the call, but the camera and mic were off.

Vocabulary

Korean English Notes
๋ชธ body Used in spoken language
์‹ ์ฒด body More formal term than ๋ชธ
๊ธฐ์นจ์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to cough The teacher pointed out it's not ๊น€์น˜ (kimchi) - the ใ… is on the other syllable - which serves as a great way to remember this word for me.
๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to catch a cold Typically, you use the past tense form: ๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (I caught a cold.)
๋ชฉ์ด ์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to have a sore throat
๋‚˜๋‹ค to come out It has a few other meanings as well, but here they all have this meaning.
์ฝง๋ฌผ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a runny nose Pronunciation: [์ฝ˜๋ฌผ]. Literally means the nose water is coming out. (์ฝ” = nose; ๋ฌผ = water. ใ…… has no meaning and is just the "glue")
ํ”ผ blood
๋•€ sweat
๋ˆˆ๋ฌผ tears Apparently there is a BTS song about this? Or that uses these words (blood, sweat, tears). They can all be used with ๋‚˜๋‹ค.
์—ด์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a fever Literally means heat is coming out of the body. You can also say ์—ด์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค
ํ‘น ์‰ฌ๋‹ค to rest well (to get a good rest) The original meaning of ํ‘น is deep (e.g. when scooping ice cream)
๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค to smoke a cigarette ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค means to smoke; it has a negative connotation. Apart from this kind of smoke, it is also used to mean when someone cheats on their partner/spouse: ๋ฐ”๋žŒ์„ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค
๋งํ•˜๋‹ค to speak This is more one-way. ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋‹ค is more interactive, two-way communication.
๋ฌด๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to overdo
์œ ํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be prevalent/widespread ์œ ํ–‰ = Sino-Korean word from ๆต่กŒ (โ€œfashionโ€). Can be used to talk about colour, fashion, etc. Or Coronavirus: ์ฝ”๋กœ๋‚˜19๊ฐ€ ์œ ํ–‰์ด์—์š”.
๋‹คํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be fortunate
๋Šฆ๋‹ค to be late
์ˆ  alcoholic drink e.g. ์œ„์Šคํ‚ค (whiskey), ๋งฅ์ฃผ (beer), ์†Œ์ฃผ (soju), ์™€์ธ (wine)
๋”ฐ๋œปํ•œ ๋ฌผ warm water Will learn the grammar behind this next time.
์–ผ์Œ๋ฌผ ice water ์–ผ์Œ = ice
ํƒˆ๋ฝ omission 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ: Elimination, removal of ใ…ก
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค to be busy
๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค to be hungry
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to be painful
๋‚˜์˜๋‹ค to be bad
์˜ˆ์˜๋‹ค to be pretty
์“ฐ๋‹ค to write
๋‘๋ฆฌ์•ˆ durian
๋งˆ์Šคํฌ mask
๋›ฐ๋‹ค to run
์ฃผ์ฐจํ•˜๋‹ค to park (a vehicle)
์ฃผ์ฐจ์žฅ car park Sino-Korean word from ้ง่ปŠๅ ด
๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค to bring (an item)
๋ฐ๋ ค์˜ค๋‹ค to fetch; to bring (a person/an animal) Wiktionary says it means "to fetch". The teacher introduced this as "to bring" for people/animals after mentioning ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค is for things.
๊ณณ place Instead of saying ์—ฌ๊ธฐ, you can say ์ด ๊ณณ.

Grammar

1. 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ

For verbs and adjective stems that end in 'ใ…ก', 'ใ…ก' is ommitted when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด.

The teacher said ํƒˆ๋ฝ means "elimination"; Wiktionary said it's "omission".

Basically, this is removal of 'ใ…ก' when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด, and adding ์•„์š”/์–ด์š” for present tense (or ์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” for past tense).

Examples:

  1. ๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค (to be busy) becomes ๋ฐ”๋น ์š”
  2. ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค (to be hungry) becomes ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํŒŒ์š”
  3. ํฌ๋‹ค (to be big) becomes ์ปค์š”

The last one explains a lot. For ํฌ๋‹ค, some time after it was introduced in Chapter 8 (see Lesson 31), I realised it was conjugated to ์ปค์š” probably thanks to Duolingo. I didn't think too much about it at the time but added it to Anki to memorise. I thought it was an exception, rather than adhering to a rule.

Now the question is, when do you add ์•„ or ์–ด? Normally, when conjugating for the present/past tense informal polite form, you look at the vowel of the syllable before ๋‹ค, but here the vowel is always 'ใ…ก'.

Clearly, it's not looking at that syllable, or you would never have ์•„ (the condition is you need to have either ใ… or ใ…—).

Instead, you look at the syllable before the one that has the 'ใ…ก'. If the syllable before has ใ… or ใ…—, then it's ์•„, otherwise it's ์–ด. For ํฌ๋‹ค, there's no syllable before, so there's no ใ… or ใ…—, which is why you add ์–ด and it becomes ์ปค์š”.

Now, it's important to remember that this only applies to endings that have ์•„/์–ด. So you don't add it for other endings:

-์•„์š”/์–ด์š” -์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” -๊ณ  -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค ๋ฐ”๋น ์š” ๋ฐ”๋นด์–ด์š” ๋ฐ”์˜๊ณ  ๋ฐ”์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค ์•„ํŒŒ์š” ์•„ํŒ ์–ด์š” ์•„์˜๊ณ  ์•„์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์“ฐ๋‹ค ์จ์š” ์ผ์–ด์š” ์“ฐ๊ณ  ์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The handout had 6 verbs, so this is just a subset of them.

We filled this out as a group in breakout rooms (well, one pair and my group had 3 since one person was absent).

One thing I noticed is for the formal -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค, we always had ์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค because none of the verbs which have stem ending in 'ใ…ก' have batchim.

The teacher happened to pop into our breakout room, so I asked the teacher if there were any verbs that have batchim and whether the rule applies to it. The teacher said some things and the gist of it I could tell was no. Unfortunately, she replied mostly in Korean... and I couldn't really catch what it was and was just too awkward to clarify.1 (Edit 10 Sep: I just realised that there is such a verb this chapter: ๋Šฆ๋‹ค. I forgot about it until today when revising Anki, so there you go. Of course it could have been an exception to the rule, but it's probably not.)

Another subtle thing to note is that for past tense ์ง€๋งŒ, you do have to apply this rule. The reason is beause you are adding ์•˜/์—ˆ (and the rule is triggered by adding of ์•„/์–ด).

  • ์–ด์ œ๋Š” ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋นด์ง€๋งŒ ์˜ค๋Š˜์€ ์ข‹์•„์š”. (The weather was bad yesterday, but it is nice today.)

This rule is one that helps me a lot with regards to Duolingo... or it would have been helpful to know when I was doing Duolingo. (I've given up on Duolingo for Korean, mobile is too punishing with the limited lives, and desktop is simply just too hard... I've had "easy mode" for too long since mobile has a word bank, and I'm not trying from Lesson 1.)

It would also have been somewhat helpful for Memrise too, for some words in their (old) Korean course where they had both the dictionary forms and the present tense forms.

2. V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”

This is used to request or order the listener not to do something.

The formal polite form is V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค.

This formal form is a lot more familiar to me due to it's prevalence on Duolingo... so this would have been another useful rule to learn before I tried those Duolingo exercises, but it's all in the past now.

It's very easy to conjugate, you just remove the ๋‹ค, so take the verb stem and attach -์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š” to it.

Examples:

  1. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์—์„œ ๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't smoke here.)
  2. ์ด์•„๊ธฐํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't talk here.)
  3. ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't watch this movie.)

Between close friends, you can drop the ์„ธ์š” (which are the honorific and politeness markers).

Apparently, if you watch K-dramas, you probably hear this phrase "ํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ" a lot, which can be translated as "Stop doing it".

The prohibition signs we had to write phrases for reminded me of a chapter in the French textbook (we used Alter Ego+) which also featured signs. I forgot which book (and obviously which chapter), but I think it was about the ways to say something was prohibited. I recall one of the ways started with something like Il est interdit de... and possibly Interdire ร ...

I have sense there was another verb but it escapes me right now. The only (unhelpful) thing that comes to mind is Vietato but that's Italian.

Title

The title is of course a reference to the second grammar point. Initially, I thought of "Don't make me think of a title" because I really didn't want to come up with one. Then I wanted to shorten it, but "Don't Make Me Think" just reminds me of the usability book by Steve Krug. "Don't" seemed too curt, and "Don't make me..." sounds like a threat still, so it's the way it is now.

Titles are hard, like names are hard (even though this isn't CS).


  1. I would also just want to confess that there have been times I go to class and the teacher says things and it flies over my head but the other people seem to understand, so if this happens a lot more I have to really be careful. Heck, even for the last oral test, I bought time for the last question by pretending to think of an answer to the question about the number of people in my family when I was trying to parse the question. On reflection because of my horrible German listening comprehension made evident in my last 2 lessons, I realise I don't listen enough and don't have enough comprehensible input for both German and Korean. More of a problem for German since I'm at a higher level, but if I don't do anything about Korean, it will also become a problem. โ†ฉ


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