A belated post since I was caught up with thingr for the rest of Saturday. For this lesson we went through the first 2 grammar points in the handout (which also coincide with the first 2 grammar points in the textbook - and we also covered that).
We started with the vocabulary. Before the new vocab, we did a review of last week's vocab. We did it with Quizlet, just one at a time. At the time it was just 3 of us answering in sequence, because one student was not attending, another had not yet joined the call, and there was one more who was in the call, but the camera and mic were off.
|몸||body||Used in spoken language|
|신체||body||More formal term than 몸|
|기침을 하다||to cough||The teacher pointed out it's not 김치 (kimchi) - the ㅁ is on the other syllable - which serves as a great way to remember this word for me.|
|감기에 걸리다||to catch a cold||Typically, you use the past tense form: 감기에 걸렸어요. (I caught a cold.)|
|목이 아프다||to have a sore throat|
|나다||to come out||It has a few other meanings as well, but here they all have this meaning.|
|콧물이 나다||to have a runny nose||Pronunciation: [콘물]. Literally means the nose water is coming out. (코 = nose; 물 = water. ㅅ has no meaning and is just the "glue")|
|눈물||tears||Apparently there is a BTS song about this? Or that uses these words (blood, sweat, tears). They can all be used with 나다.|
|열이 나다||to have a fever||Literally means heat is coming out of the body. You can also say 열이 있다|
|푹 쉬다||to rest well (to get a good rest)||The original meaning of 푹 is deep (e.g. when scooping ice cream)|
|담배를 피우다||to smoke a cigarette||피우다 means to smoke; it has a negative connotation. Apart from this kind of smoke, it is also used to mean when someone cheats on their partner/spouse: 바람을 피우다|
|말하다||to speak||This is more one-way. 이야기하다 is more interactive, two-way communication.|
|유행이다||to be prevalent/widespread||유행 = Sino-Korean word from 流行 (“fashion”). Can be used to talk about colour, fashion, etc. Or Coronavirus: 코로나19가 유행이에요.|
|다행이다||to be fortunate|
|늦다||to be late|
|술||alcoholic drink||e.g. 위스키 (whiskey), 맥주 (beer), 소주 (soju), 와인 (wine)|
|따뜻한 물||warm water||Will learn the grammar behind this next time.|
|얼음물||ice water||얼음 = ice|
|탈락||omission||'ㅡ' 탈락: Elimination, removal of ㅡ|
|바쁘다||to be busy|
|배고프다||to be hungry|
|아프다||to be painful|
|나쁘다||to be bad|
|예쁘다||to be pretty|
|주차하다||to park (a vehicle)|
|주차장||car park||Sino-Korean word from 駐車場|
|가져오다||to bring (an item)|
|데려오다||to fetch; to bring (a person/an animal)||Wiktionary says it means "to fetch". The teacher introduced this as "to bring" for people/animals after mentioning 가져오다 is for things.|
|곳||place||Instead of saying 여기, you can say 이 곳.|
1. 'ㅡ' 탈락
For verbs and adjective stems that end in 'ㅡ', 'ㅡ' is ommitted when adding an ending that begins with 아/어.
The teacher said 탈락 means "elimination"; Wiktionary said it's "omission".
Basically, this is removal of 'ㅡ' when adding an ending that begins with 아/어, and adding 아요/어요 for present tense (or 았어요/었어요 for past tense).
- 바쁘다 (to be busy) becomes 바빠요
- 배고프다 (to be hungry) becomes 배고파요
- 크다 (to be big) becomes 커요
The last one explains a lot. For 크다, some time after it was introduced in Chapter 8 (see Lesson 31), I realised it was conjugated to 커요 probably thanks to Duolingo. I didn't think too much about it at the time but added it to Anki to memorise. I thought it was an exception, rather than adhering to a rule.
Now the question is, when do you add 아 or 어? Normally, when conjugating for the present/past tense informal polite form, you look at the vowel of the syllable before 다, but here the vowel is always 'ㅡ'.
Clearly, it's not looking at that syllable, or you would never have 아 (the condition is you need to have either ㅏ or ㅗ).
Instead, you look at the syllable before the one that has the 'ㅡ'. If the syllable before has ㅏ or ㅗ, then it's 아, otherwise it's 어. For 크다, there's no syllable before, so there's no ㅏ or ㅗ, which is why you add 어 and it becomes 커요.
Now, it's important to remember that this only applies to endings that have 아/어. So you don't add it for other endings:
The handout had 6 verbs, so this is just a subset of them.
We filled this out as a group in breakout rooms (well, one pair and my group had 3 since one person was absent).
One thing I noticed is for the formal -습니다/ㅂ니다, we always had 쁩니다 because none of the verbs which have stem ending in 'ㅡ' have batchim.
The teacher happened to pop into our breakout room, so I asked the teacher if there were any verbs that have batchim and whether the rule applies to it. The teacher said some things and the gist of it I could tell was no. Unfortunately, she replied mostly in Korean... and I couldn't really catch what it was and was just too awkward to clarify.1 (Edit 10 Sep: I just realised that there is such a verb this chapter: 늦다. I forgot about it until today when revising Anki, so there you go. Of course it could have been an exception to the rule, but it's probably not.)
Another subtle thing to note is that for past tense 지만, you do have to apply this rule. The reason is beause you are adding 았/었 (and the rule is triggered by adding of 아/어).
- 어제는 날씨가 나빴지만 오늘은 좋아요. (The weather was bad yesterday, but it is nice today.)
This rule is one that helps me a lot with regards to Duolingo... or it would have been helpful to know when I was doing Duolingo. (I've given up on Duolingo for Korean, mobile is too punishing with the limited lives, and desktop is simply just too hard... I've had "easy mode" for too long since mobile has a word bank, and I'm not trying from Lesson 1.)
It would also have been somewhat helpful for Memrise too, for some words in their (old) Korean course where they had both the dictionary forms and the present tense forms.
2. V-지 마세요
This is used to request or order the listener not to do something.
The formal polite form is V-지 마십시오.
This formal form is a lot more familiar to me due to it's prevalence on Duolingo... so this would have been another useful rule to learn before I tried those Duolingo exercises, but it's all in the past now.
It's very easy to conjugate, you just remove the 다, so take the verb stem and attach -지 마세요 to it.
- 여기에서 담배를 피우지 마세요. (Don't smoke here.)
- 이아기하지 마세요. (Don't talk here.)
- 이 영화를 보지 마세요. (Don't watch this movie.)
Between close friends, you can drop the 세요 (which are the honorific and politeness markers).
Apparently, if you watch K-dramas, you probably hear this phrase "하지 마" a lot, which can be translated as "Stop doing it".
The prohibition signs we had to write phrases for reminded me of a chapter in the French textbook (we used Alter Ego+) which also featured signs. I forgot which book (and obviously which chapter), but I think it was about the ways to say something was prohibited. I recall one of the ways started with something like Il est interdit de... and possibly Interdire à...
I have sense there was another verb but it escapes me right now. The only (unhelpful) thing that comes to mind is Vietato but that's Italian.
The title is of course a reference to the second grammar point. Initially, I thought of "Don't make me think of a title" because I really didn't want to come up with one. Then I wanted to shorten it, but "Don't Make Me Think" just reminds me of the usability book by Steve Krug. "Don't" seemed too curt, and "Don't make me..." sounds like a threat still, so it's the way it is now.
Titles are hard, like names are hard (even though this isn't CS).
I would also just want to confess that there have been times I go to class and the teacher says things and it flies over my head but the other people seem to understand, so if this happens a lot more I have to really be careful. Heck, even for the last oral test, I bought time for the last question by pretending to think of an answer to the question about the number of people in my family when I was trying to parse the question. On reflection because of my horrible German listening comprehension made evident in my last 2 lessons, I realise I don't listen enough and don't have enough comprehensible input for both German and Korean. More of a problem for German since I'm at a higher level, but if I don't do anything about Korean, it will also become a problem. ↩