Lesson 45 (Beginner 3A Lesson 4): Wasn't I writing this post?

We started the lesson with going through the different responses that we had to do for the homework, which was giving advice based on one of 4 scenarios. Turns out that I was overthinking because the other students submitted pretty short answers. Mine wasn't very long either, but had a few more sentences.

Then we revised the vocab for Chapter 12. The teacher had a Zoom virtual background today, and though she was at the school (she turned off the background later when we did the revision with the physical cards), she only used 1 computer to connect to the meeting.

We also covered the first 2 grammar points in the handout for Chapter 12, and in the textbook. The only breakout session was to complete 4 questions in the handout that had to do with the second grammar point. 2 of the students couldn't make it, so it was just 4 students, all from the previous class. (It's the 2 newer students that were unable to join today.)

Grammar

1. A/V-์ง€์š”, N(์ด)์ง€์š”

This is used when a speaker wants to confirm something that they already know. In English, you would translate it as "right", or "isn't it", etc. (I just cannot help but think of the German oder.)

For example:

  • It's raining, right? = ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • The food was good, wasn't it? = ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€์š”?
  • You will go to school tomorrow, right? = ๋‚ด์ผ ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์ง€์š”?

In spoken Korean, when it's said fast, you usually will not hear [์ง€์š”], but [์ฃ ].

From the examples, you can see that all that is needed is to add the basic form of the adjective or the verb in the present tense.

For the past or future tense, you conjugate the verb as per normal, but instead of ์–ด์š” (past) or ์˜ˆ์š” (future), you replace it with ์ง€์š”.

Note that this ์ง€์š” can only be used in the question, similar to (์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”? If someone asked, you have to reply with with the indicative form:

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์™€์š”.

Now, what happens if you had already ended the sentence? Say you wanted to ask for a confirmation of opinion about the food, but instead of ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์ง€์š”? you had already said ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์–ด์š”.

How do you then turn it into a question? You add ๊ทธ๋ ‡์ง€์š”? behind. When spoken, you may simply hear ๊ทธ์ตธ? (As we saw last lesson, ใ…Ž + ใ…ˆ will make a ใ…Š sound.)

By the way, it intially confused me at first, but I thought whatever is said by the original speaker asking had to be true. That is, the answer can only be ๋„ค. But it's possible for it to be ์•„๋‹ˆ์š” and then the listener provides a correction.

So far the examples were for adjectives and verbs, so what about nouns? It's essentially the same, but here you have to look out for the batchim (which didn't matter for the adjectives and verbs).

If the noun ends in a syllable with batchim, you need to add ์ด before ์ง€์š”. Otherwise, you do not.

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์ค‘๊ตญ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด์ง€์š”? (Isn't Nana Chinese?)
  • ์ค„์ด์•™ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ˆ˜์ง€์š”? (Julian is a singer, right?)

Similarly, if it's in the past tense:

  • ๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์ฝ” ์”จ๋Š” ํ•™์ƒ์ด์—ˆ์ง€์š”? (Mariko was a student, wasn't she?)
  • ์ƒค์˜ค๋ฐ ์”จ๋Š” ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜์˜€์ง€์š”? (Wasn't Xiao Ming an athlete?)

This follows from the past tense form of ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”. I've not covered it in a lesson post, but it's described in this post which included stuff I learnt/discovered before the last test.

The teacher did summarise it in class today. What was interesting is that for ์ด์—์š”, she highlighted that the ์ด์–ด (minus the last stroke in ์—) is present in ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”, while for ์˜ˆ์š”, the same 2 (horizontal) lines are in ์˜€์–ด์š”.

2. V-๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”

This is the present progressive form, basically the to be + -ing form in English, such as "I am eating".

A sentence like ์ €๋Š” ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์–ด์š” can have 3 meanings:

  1. I eat rice. (a general statement)
  2. I am eating rice. (something I am doing right now)
  3. I am going to eat rice. (something I am going to do in the near future)

So this form is used when you want to emphasise an action you are in the midst of doing. It can only be used for the second meaning above.

This is where I think English is just weird, after having learnt other languages. The point is that for the present tense form and progressive form, most languages do not actually differentiate between the 2 as much as English does. Or more precisely, usually in other languages the regular, present tense form is used much more frequently.

This is something that was mentioned in both my French and German classes. It's along the lines of (for French) je mange is used for both "I eat" and "I am eating". Similarly for German, with ich esse. (And yes, they also can indicate an action in the near future. Definitely for German, for French I'd probably use aller + V - the futur proche - but I think it's also valid to use the present tense form...)

French does also have a form for emphasising that you are in the midst of doing an action that I recall, which is the en train de faire + V.

The point isn't that other languages apart from English do not have the distinction, but my sense now is even for Korean, you only use this form to differentiate when you are trying to emphasise, and so it's not as commonly used. But for English the -ing form is much more common, which makes it the exception.

There really is nothing to this, after seeing so many conjugations. You just have to put the basic form of the verb.

Examples:

  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I am eating.)
  • ์ œ์ธ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Jane is studying.)

What's more interesting, but not all that surprising, is how you can make the past tense and honorific forms.

Observe:

  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I was eating.)
  • ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”. (The teacher is waiting for the bus.)
  • ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ๋ผ๋””์˜ค๋ฅผ ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์…จ์–ด์š”. (Grandmother was listening to the radio.)

Basically, it's just conjugating ์ด๋‹ค, which we have seen before. See Lesson 36 for grammar for the honorific form.

Vocabulary

Not many new words today.

Korean English Notes
์—ฐ์Šตํ•˜๋‹ค to practise
๋งˆ๋‹ค every You use ๋‚ด (๋‚ด์ผ, ๋‚ด์ฃผ...) for single syllable. You use ๋งˆ๋‹ค for words with more than one syllable: ์ฃผ๋ง๋งˆ๋‹ค, ํ† ์š”์ผ๋งˆ๋‹ค.
๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค to stop ๋น„๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ์ณค์–ด์š”. = It stopped raining.
๋ฐ”๋‹ท๊ฐ€ beach ๋ฐ”๋‹ค (ocean/sea) + ๊ฐ€ (side)
๊ณ ์น˜๋‹ค to fix Kind of coincidental that it's similar to ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค, this came up because I said I was fixing flashcards since we learnt the progressive form today (second grammar point). ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค came up because it was raining and the teacher was asking if it indeed was raining (the first grammar point).

Title

It's based on the grammar points again. Maybe when I re-read all these posts in the future I will laugh at the titles I made up.


You'll only receive email when journey publishes a new post

More fromย journey