Lesson 28 (Beginner 2A L4): Beginning Chapter 7 with the Weather and One Class of Irregular Verbs

We finished chapter 6 and started on chapter 7 today. For chapter 6, all that was left was really the pronunciation, and then the self-check.

There will be a word (vocab) quiz next week. Perhaps it means that the vocab quiz will always be one week after we start a new chapter?

So today's post will have a lot of the vocabulary, from the chapter 7 list. We also covered the first grammar point, and it's interesting because this cleared up a question I had while doing exercises on Duolingo. (This is one of the reasons I don't like Duolingo.)

The title of chapter 7 is: ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ? It means "How is the weather?" and uses the formal speech conjugation. Obviously, this chapter will be about the weather and also formal speech.

In informal speech, you can ask the question as: ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋•Œ์š”?

Pronunciation

This chapter's pronunciation rule is about the pronunciation of ใ…Ž.

Specifically, when ใ…Ž is the initial consonant in a syllable*, it is pronunced normally. However, if it is the final consonant (batchim), and the next syllable starts with ใ…‡, the ใ…Ž becomes slient.

For example, ์ข‹์•„์š” is pronounced as [์กฐ์•„์š”].

I kind of knew this before this was mentioned, but not as an explicit rule.

This applies also to syllable blocks with 4 letters which have ใ…Ž.

For example, ๋งŽ์•„์š” is prononuced [๋งˆ๋‚˜์š”]. This combines with the other pronunciation rule that if the next syllable starts with ใ…‡, the batchim is carried over covered in Lesson 14's post.

*I think it's not just initial consonant in a syllable, but also in a word (or compound word), because there are cases such as in ์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ, although not explicitly a rule, is pronounced more like [์ „ํ™”๋ฒ„๋…ธ], with the ใ…Ž in ํ˜ธ disappearing almost completely...

Vocabulary

Korean English Notes
๋‚ ์”จ weather
๋ฅ๋‹ค to be hot only used for weather
๋œจ๊ฒ๋‹ค to be hot e.g. food, drink
์ถฅ๋‹ค to be cold only used for weather
์ฐจ๊ฐ‘๋‹ค to be cold e.g. food, drink
๋”ฐ๋œปํ•˜๋‹ค to be warm This has a positive connotation, such as it's warm in cold weather. If you find it's warm and uncomfortable, the correct adjective is ๋ฅ๋‹ค (to be hot).
์‹œ์›ํ•˜๋‹ค to be cool
๋ง‘๋‹ค to be clear (sunny) ์ข‹๋‹ค can also be used to describe good weather.
ํ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to be cloudy
๋ฐ”๋žŒ์ด ๋ถˆ๋‹ค to be windy lit. wind to blow
๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค๋‹ค to be rainy lit. rain to come
๋ˆˆ์ด ์˜ค๋‹ค to be snowy lit. snow to come
๊ณ„์ ˆ season Sino-Korean word from ๅญฃ็ฏ€ (ๅญฃ่Š‚)
๋ด„ spring
์—ฌ๋ฆ„ summer
๊ฐ€์„ autumn
๊ฒจ์šธ winter
๊ฐ€๋ณ๋‹ค to be light weight
๋ฌด๊ฒ๋‹ค to be heavy
์‰ฝ๋‹ค to be easy Careful with present tense (informal) conjugation: ์‰ฌ์›Œ์š”. It sounds like ์‰ฌ์–ด์š” (rest). The ์›Œ sound has to be distinctive.
์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค to be difficult
๋งต๋‹ค to be spicy
๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค to be near
์š”์ฆ˜ these days recently, nowadays
๋‹จํ’ autumn foilage refers to the leaves that are red/orange/yellow in colour
๊ฝƒ flower
์ˆ˜์˜์žฅ swimming pool
๋ฐ”๋‹ค sea
์‚ฐ mountain
์ƒ์„  fish This refers to fish that you buy in the supermarket for eating, i.e. dead fish (seafood)
๋ฌผ๊ณ ๊ธฐ fish This refers to fish that are alive and well, e.g. your pet fish, the ones that swim in an aquarium or in the ocean. It's sort of ironic because it literally means "water meat", but this is not to describe the fish that is eaten, whereas words like ๋ผ์ง€ ๊ณ ๊ธฐ, ๋‹ญ๊ณ ๊ธฐ are pork and chicken (meat) for eating
์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋‹ค to talk ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐ means "story", so this is literally to share a story.
์ž…๋‹ค to wear
์•„์ฃผ very e.g. ์•„์ฃผ ๋”์›Œ์š”. (It's very hot.)
์กฐ๊ธˆ a little e.g. ์กฐ๊ธˆ ์–ด๋ ค์–ด์š”. (It's a little difficult.)

Grammar

From this chapter onwards, we will start to look at some exceptions in terms of conjugation, that is, irregular verbs, starting with this first rule.

1. ใ…‚ ๋ถˆ๊ทœ์น™

When some verbs or adjectives end in the final consonant 'ใ…‚' are followed by a vowel (i.e. the next syllable begins with 'ใ…‡'), 'ใ…‚' changes to '์šฐ'.

The teacher says that verbs are very rare, 99.9% of the time, this rule applies to adjectives.

This is why it is ๋”์›Œ์š” and ์ถ”์›Œ์š”, even though the infinitive forms are ๋ฅ๋‹ค and ์ถฅ๋‹ค.

We had encountered ๋”์›Œ์š” and ์ถ”์›Œ์š” back in the foundation class when learning the Korean alphabet. Later, when we went on to learn the present tense conjugation in Lesson 12, and how ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๋‹ค conjugates to ๋ฐฐ์›Œ์š”, I thought ๋”์›Œ์š” had the infinitive form of ๋”์šฐ๋‹ค (and similarly, ์ถ”์šฐ๋‹ค for ์ถ”์›Œ์š”).

This was why I was stumped with my Duolingo exercises. The thing about Duolingo is it generally uses the formal conjugation (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) instead of (ํ•ด์š”์ฒด). So in the lesson on adjectives, I was scratching my head as to why it was ...์ถฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. We had not (and still have not, but will in this chapter) learnt about conjugating to the formal form, though we encountered a few "stock" phrases/sentences with it before. My cursory research told me this form has the โ€”แ†ธ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค ending. But I was sure that it should only be the ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค part, so where did the other ใ…‚ (in ์ถฅ) come from? And it turns out... it's part of the infinitive form all along.

(To be clear, I'm using the term "infinitive" rather loosely, since ์ถฅ๋‹ค is an adjective. But as I mentioned before, adjectives seem to be in "verb" form, as evidenced from their translations, e.g. ์ถฅ๋‹ค is "to be cold" and not just "cold". This is just my mental model of all this, which, as I've just shown above, can be completely wrong.)

Let's look at some examples of this rule with different conjugations:

  • ๊ฐ€๋ณ๋‹ค (to be light): ๊ฐ€๋ฒผ์›Œ์š” (is light)
  • ๋ฌด๊ฒ๋‹ค (to be heavy): ๋ฌด๊ฑฐ์›Œ์š” (is heavy)
  • ๋งต๋‹ค (to be spicy): ๋งค์› ์–ด์š” (was spicy)
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค (to be hot): ๋ฅ๊ณ  (hot and...)
  • *์ž…๋‹ค (to wear): ์ž…์–ด์š”

For ์ž…๋‹ค (to wear), it is ์ž…์–ด์š” (not ์ด์›Œ์š”) in the present tense. The rule does not apply. This is because it is a verb, and, in most cases, this rule does not apply to verbs.

It's important to realise that 'ใ…‚' changes to '์šฐ' when the next syllable starts with 'ใ…‡' as there will be many new grammar forms to attach it too.

In the last exercise we did, the teacher gave us some grammar parts(?) that we mostly did not know and asked us to combine them based on this rule, using ๋ฅ๋‹ค.

- ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์–ด์š” = ๋”์›Œ์š”

  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)ใ„ด = ๋”์šด (์œผ is removed)
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์–ด์„œ = ๋”์›Œ์„œ
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)๋ฉด = ๋”์šฐ๋ฉด
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + (์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์—์š” = ๋”์šธ ๊ฑฐ์—์š”
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค = ๋ฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • ๋ฅ๋‹ค + ์ง€๋งŒ = ๋ฅ์ง€๋งŒ

In bold are the ones that we have learnt or are going to learn soon. The others I have no clue what they are.

In this chapter, we will learn the last two in the list. The last one we will learn next week (it's the second grammar point of this chapter) - but I did use it in my writing assignment homework for last week since it was useful. It's the construction for connecting contrasting clauses, i.e. "but". But... that is for the next post, next week.


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