Lesson 72 (Intermediate 1B Lesson 2): End Chapter 4 and Revision

Today's lesson was finishing up the textbook and then doing the revision. Apart from the usual revision sheet there was an additional Particle Summary handout that did a comparison of 은/는 and 이가. We did the usual revision sheet first.

It's refreshing to finally write this while everything is still fresh. There's no new homework and I've submitted the work due last week plus the backlog of Chapter 3 work (apart from the writing which I've not done yet... still). From the way the teacher talked about the homework at the end of the lesson, I suspect that I'm really not the only one who didn't submit last week's homework. I'd actually finished the work right before class started, but did not have enough time to take pictures of everything, let alone craft the message to explain the lateness.

For the textbook, we did Speaking 2, then moved on to the Listening, Culture Note, and Pronunciation.

Culture Note

The culture note was about markets, specifically open markets. Some were mentioned but I didn't catch their names. I know there's was a mention of how there's markets catered to different kinds of products, such as one for fresh fish, another for flowers, a third for food, and also one for dried food products.


Recall the pronunciation of ㅎ with a consonant that has an aspirated version. This is just a recap of that, or, to be more specific, the first half of that rule covered there.

When the final consonant 'ㅎ' is followed by an initial consonant 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ', then they are pronounced as [ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅊ].

While this chapter doesn't say about the reverse, this holds as well when 'ㅎ' is the initial consonant while 'ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅈ' are final consonants.

For what happens to consonants that don't have the aspirated version, see last chapter's pronunciation note.

Pronunciation of 'ㅅ' as the final consonant when followed by a vowel, but the next word is a separate word

A separate pronunciation topic came up in the Self-Check portion due to one of the sentences: 이 옷 어때요?

This is pronounced [이 오 더때요], that is, 'ㅅ' is pronounced [ㄷ].

It is the same for:

  • 맛없어요 [마덥서요]
    • This is 맛 + 없어요
    • 맛있어요 is actually an exception, because it's now considered not a separate word, hence it is [마시써요]
  • 못 와요 [모 돠요]
  • 옷 예뻐요 [오 뎨뻐요]

As noted above, this is only true if it's a separate word that starts with a vowel. 맛있어요 is [마시써요]. When it's considered the same word, including when you have the particle 이 following 옷, it's pronounced as [오시].

Particle Summary: 은/는 vs 이/가

You can think of this as an "add-on" to the uses discussed way back in Lesson 26. (I was shocked it was so long ago, that it has been almost a year.)

1. Key Message

The key message in a sentence with the subject particle 이/가 is the noun attached to the subject particle.

The key message of a sentence with 은/는 is the rest of the sentence. The part with 은/는 could possibly be omitted.

Example 1

가: 어느 나라 사람이에요?
나: 저 한국 사람이에요.

The key message is 한국 사람이에요.

Example 2

가: 여기에 한국 사람이 있어요?
나: 제 한국 사람이에요.

The key message here is that the speaker (I) is Korean, and it cannot be omitted.

Example 3

가: 은행이 어디에 있어요?
나: (은행) 우체국 옆에 있어요.

2. First Mention and Subsequent Mention

When you first mention something, you use 이/가.

If it's been mentioned before, use 은/는.

(Example 3 above follows this rule too.)

Example 1

엣날에 여자 아이 살았어요.
그 여자 아이 노래를 아주 잘했어요.

Example 2

저는 내일 스티븐 씨를 만나요. 스티븐 씨 우리 집 근체에 살아요.

Here, 스티븐 was mentioned in the first sentence, hence the use of 은/는. Note this was even though he wasn't the subject in that first instance!

3. Main Clause and Dependent Clause

If it's the main clause (sentence), you use 은/는. In the dependent clause, you use 이/가.

In the examples below, the main clause is written as per normal, while the dependent clause is written in italics.

Example 1: As a noun clause

한국어에 한자어 많다는 것을 배웠어요.

Example 2: As a noun modifier

This was first mentioned this back in Lesson 56 when the present tense noun modifier was inrtoduced.

좋아하는 음식 불고기예요.

Example 3: As a predicate clause

친구 머리 길어요.


Korean English Notes
세계 world
세계 여행 world tour
1등을 하다 to win first prize
돈을 벌다 to make money
유명하다 to be famous, popular 有名
바라다 to wish
필요하다 to be necessary
여러 가지 various, diverse 여러 가지 물선
굽이 높다 (shoe) heels are high
가격표 price tag
영수증 receipt
등산화 hiking boots
면접 job interview
훌륭하다 to be great (excellent, magnificent, superb, etc.) 조선에 훌륭한 왕이 있었어요. = There was a great king in Joseon.


  • Students: 4
  • Breakout room activities: Yes, random pairs.

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