notes on things I'm learning
51,106 words

Today (and probably last week) should be considered as Beginner 2A, as evidenced by the pop quiz that we got today. But more on that surprise test later. (The teacher calls it a test, same as the big test from 2 weeks ago, but these are always only written - in the sense of short questions - and last no more than 15 minutes.)

Erica didn't come, apparently she was busy last week and this week as well. I hope she's all right, and it's not because she's sick. I know that she was sick a couple of weeks ago.

In any case, we found out that our new teacher in 3 weeks' time when the next term starts will be the head teacher, so I'd get to experience the difference, and see if Audrey was right. I wonder if she would rejoin the class (or if she could... being rather... behind).

There were some safe distancing measures in place due to the Coronavirus, so we had to take our temperatures, sign a declaration (that we are not sick and not serving any form of stay-home notice), and also sit a seat apart from one another. The tables and chairs were rearranged to form rows. We also couldn't use the paper flashcards, so we just revised together using Quizlet. The teacher showed the flashcards on the TV screen, and she didn't come near us either. So naturally we didn't get to play with any money like last week (it was a small part at the end), so I'm really glad we had last week's lesson before things got to this state.

## Native Korean Numbers, 1-29

We learnt the numbers, basically just 1-10, and then 20. We could form the numbers in that range with what we have learnt. The rest of the native Korean numbers will be covered in Chapter 9 (3 chapters from now).

So, yes, we really are not done with numbers... and probably won't be for a while.

Native Korean Numbers (์ซ์)
ํ๋ 1
๋ 2
์ 3
๋ท 4
๋ค์ฏ 5
์ฌ์ฏ 6
์ผ๊ณฑ 7
์ฌ๋ 8
์ํ 9
์ด 10
์ดํ๋ 11
์ค๋ฌผ 20
์ค๋ฌผ๋ค์ฏ 25

We learnt these alongside the unit nouns. There is some difference for the numbers 1-4 (and the numbers that end in 1-4) when they are used with the unit nouns, which will be covered later.

## Unit Nouns

I realise that I can't really describe these, because I didn't have to learn them recently... when learning a L2 language, that is. They exist in the Chinese language, so I've known about them since I was young.

The more proper term for them is classifiers or measure words (which is what it's called in Chinese - ้่ฏ).

English has unit nouns for uncountable things: a glass of water, a slice of bread, a bottle of beer. There's also the animal collective nouns, such as a pride of lions, a flock of birds, a herd of cattle.

In Chinese (Korean, Japanese, and a few other languages I believe), you have these classifiers for just about every noun, even where you would not have them in English.

For example, in English, you call a person... a person.

But in Chinese you have ไธไธชไบบ (yรญ gรจ rรฉn), where ไธช is the classifier. ไธ means "one" and ไบบ means "person".

ไธช is actually the most common one, and it's the default when I don't know which one to use too.

The equivalent of ไธช in Korean is ๊ฐ. (It also means "dog", yes, but the word origin is different.)

This doesn't mean that there is a simple 1-to-1 mapping such that when you use ไธช in Chinese, you use ๊ฐ in Korean.

The simplest counter example is found in the Korean unit noun (I'll call it as such, as that's what the notes call it) for person. It's not ๊ฐ, but ๋ช.

Side Note: In that Wiktionary page, it says ๋ช comes from the Sino-Korean word from ๅ (โname/counter for peopleโ)... which... well, it's correct that it's used for people, but I believe that it's some formal context that it's used in. (There's also ไฝ which is used to be polite when talking about a person.)

We covered 5 unit nouns in this lesson.

Korean Unit Noun Sino-Korean Word Used for (refers to Korean only)
๊ฐ ไธช ... most things
๋ช ๅ people
๋ณ ็ (็ถ) bottle
์ ็ (็) cup
๊ทธ๋ฆ - bowl (food)

## Grammar

Now that the pre-requisites (native Korean numbers + unit nouns) have been covered, let's do the grammar point, which is basically about using the unit nouns.

### 2. N ๊ฐ [๋ช, ๋ณ, ์, ๊ทธ๋ฆ]

The structure is this: Item + Native Korean Number + Unit Noun

So for example, you have 5 apples: ์ฌ๊ณผ ๋ค์ฏ ๊ฐ

As mentioned above, for 1-4 (and the numbers that end in 1-4, since you form those numbers using them as well), it's different when used with the unit nouns:

• ํ instead of ํ๋
• ๋ instead of ๋
• ์ธ instead of ์
• ๋ค instead of ๋ท

20 is also different: ์ค๋ฌด instead of ์ค๋ฌผ.

More examples:

1. ๋ผ๋ฉด ํ ๊ทธ๋ฆ (1 bowl of instant noodles)
2. ์ปคํผ ๋ ์ (2 cups of coffee)
3. ์ค๋ ์ง ์ธ ๊ฐ (3 oranges)
4. ์ฌ๋ ๋ค ๋ช (4 people/persons)
5. ๋ฌผ ๋ค์ฏ ๋ณ (5 bottles of water)
6. ํ ์ค๋ฌด ๊ฐ (20 pens)

#### Practising

We practised asking questions based on the pictures in the handout and book.

In the handout, there were images of things that we knew the words for without the nouns (the textbook was nice enough to give the nouns) and according to the picture, we had to answer how many items there are.

๊ฐ: ๊น์น์ฐ๊ฐ ๋ช ๊ทธ๋ฆ ์์ด์?
๋: ๋ ๊ทธ๋ฆ ์์ด์.

Near the end, we also practised with the dialogue on p. 149, but using it for the menu on p. 150. We did this in threes - so we rotated among the 4 students in the class. To make it harder, we also had to total up the prices and the student who is the server has to state the price. One of the diners would pay (giving some amount of invisible money) and the server has to calculate the change to give back too.

There are 4 restaurants there - ๋ง๋ฆฌ์ฅ์  is the Chinese restaurant. Just as we were puzzling over the name, the teacher asked us what the Great Wall of China was called, referring it to it as the famous wall. Someone gave the name in English, then she asked for the Chinese name, which is ไธ้้ฟๅ. This restaurant's name is just that.

#### Particle Position

The textbook has this sentence: ์ค๋ ์ปคํผ๋ฅผ ์ธ ์ ๋ง์จ์ด์. (Today I drank three cups of coffee.)

Someone asked about the position of the particle.

Accoding to the teacher, it can be attached to either the noun (as in the example) or even to the unit noun. It can be omitted in the spoken language, which we were doing as we practised.

I would think it applies to the subject particle as well.

In the homework for this week, they asked the question with the subject particle (๊ฐ/์ด) and placed it behind the noun: ๊น์น์ฐ๊ฐ๊ฐ ๋ช ๊ทธ๋ฆ ์์ด์?

#### Usage of ๊ทธ๋ฆ

After we had practised for quite a while and struggling to pronounce ๊ทธ๋ฆ, the teacher told us that ๊ทธ๋ฆ is not commonly used anymore. Native speakers don't use it.

For one bowl, instead of item + ํ + ๊ทธ๋ฆ, it would simply be item + ํ๋, e.g. ๋ฐฅ ํ๋ ์ฃผ์ธ์.

For two and beyond, the unit noun used is ๊ฐ instead of ๊ทธ๋ฆ, e.g. ๋ฐฅ ๋ ๊ฐ ์ฃผ์ธ์.

They are teaching this and we are learning this unit noun because it's in the textbook.

The other time I recall that the teacher gave on the book teaching "outdated" things is the noun for coffee shop (cafรฉ). The book uses ์ปคํผ์, but it's more commonly called ์นดํ.

## Mini Test

Around 15 minutes before the end of class, the teacher said that we were supposed to have a test next lesson (which would be the 3rd lesson of Beginner 2A - I really should try to see if there's a pattern to when we have these mini tests). But because our next lesson is 3 weeks away, and we would likely forget everything by then, she said that would just do the test now.

We were given ~5 minutes to look through anything we needed, including the numbers (prices) from last week.

I knew I had the most problems with the native numbers, so I had to quickly associate them. I'd been practising throughout the last week in Anki, but their names have not been burned into my brain.

I had problems with 3 and 4 since they were close (minimal pairs, in fact): ์ and ๋ท, though we were mostly using them in the ์ธ and ๋ค forms. But by that time I'd remember to associate ์ธ with ์ผ, remembering both 3s start with "s". I realise now that it makes no sense because (Sino-Korean) 4 also starts with s (์ฌ), but I've remembered it so it's fine.

2 tricks I used for 7 and 8:

1. ์ผ๊ณฑ is 7, I used ์ผ to remind me of "day", and by extension, "week". 7 days in a week, so recall that the word for 7 starts with ์ผ.
2. ์ฌ๋ - the spelling was the part that was tricky. I already knew this was ์ฌ-something (like 6 is ์ฌ์ฏ). Since I knew how to pronounce it, the matter was of remembering the 2 consonants below. They are r and b, and I simply remembered it as "ruby" since Ruby uses the `.rb` extension.

Lucky for me, the prices in this test didn't involve hundred million, as I'd conveniently forgotten the word for it: ์ต. I knew it was ๅ thanks to my post last week, but could not "reverse-engineer" the word in Hangeul. If a price had been that high, I'd have been lost. Even so, I was getting confused with numbers bigger than 10000.

For this test, probably due to time, but probably also due to the social distancing, the teacher checked our papers instead of us peer marking.

I hope in 3 weeks the situation will improve. Hopefully the new measures will help. I think most things that are closed will remain closed until the end of April (from the current guidelines), so this will be near end April but slightly before...

## Test Results

We got back the test today, and everyone did very well. We all scored more than 90 out of 100. This is apparently quite high (I guess comparing with their past classes, at least according to the teacher). The teacher commented that when she was marking our tests she didn't believe it because we were saying it was hard and stressing out about it. To my utter surprise, I got full marks for oral. Actually, I got full marks for everything except writing, which I lost 0.5 marks on, so my total score was 99.5.

As a side note, I... actually recall this happening for my French and German classes in uni. That I would do a lot better than I expected. (And usually have people getting envious because I'd tell them about this mistake or that mistake that I made... and then it turns out I did make those mistakes, but those were probably the only ones I'd made. And of course bell-curved grades so my higher score wasn't exactly welcome since it also affected them.) Especially in the later years... I would think that I didn't do as well as I initially thought, but then the score turns out better. French 6 oral, for sure. But generally for the written components too (German 1 and 2 didn't have oral tests). I'm not sure if that means that I hold myself to too high a standard? Or if I have a really bad case of imposter syndrome? Both?!

The thing is, I'm not intentionally lying or trying to be falsely modest when I expressed anxiety about the tests (this one and the ones before it). I really believed that I did badly. Am I a perfectionist? I don't think so. I don't need 100 to find it "acceptable". I don't impose some crazy Asian tiger parenting standards on myself (and neither did my parents impose such things on me). 99.5 in this context is a very good score. If I have any feelings about that score now, it's that I don't deserve it. Now, I can't argue for the listening/reading/grammar components as those are not subjective, but objective. But I would say that definitely I thought I did poorly for oral and that it certainly didn't deserve full marks, and my writing as well should have gotten more than a -0.5 penalty (especially considering the very careless/stupid nature of the mistakes).

But back to this test, I know my friend got around 95 or 96, as did the other girl who usually sits next to me. When you're talking about a 3 marks difference, though, it's really not that much, so I don't know why they make such a big deal out of it (that I got close to full marks)? And she even reminded everyone that I knew 6 languages. >.> (That is the number I'd give, I wouldn't count say Japanese/Greek/Cantonese for various reasons even though I know some of the former two and understand the latter pretty well.)

My reflection on this test experience is that for the writing, I saw some really obvious grammar mistakes that I could have definitely caught and fixed, had I not rushed. I panicked when everyone submitted their papers and left and so opted not to check through. In that sense I was very fortunate that I didn't make any silly mistakes in the reading and grammar portions of the paper.

The listening component is out of 30 marks although there were only 20 questions - some were apparently worth 1.5 marks.

We were not given the main paper back (we could request to see it, but could not keep it - the teacher doesn't seem to have made any markings on my paper at all) - we got only the sheet for writing and a printed report sheet attached behind. The printed reported sheet basically mentions which questions you got wrong and what is the correct answer. (For listening, it seems like you get the transcript as well if you got it wrong.)

Unfortunately, the only real feedback I got was for oral, I did have one thing she noted where I said ์ instead of using ์์ for the place. She didn't comment on the fact that I obviously was saying rubbish or had nothing to say, and also not for the fact that I messed up the interview section being unable to remember the words ๋ถ๋ชจ(๋) for parents (it drives me crazy, which is ใ (o) or ใ (u), because in Chinese it's ็ถๆฏ, fรนmว, so I'm like... both are u and it takes me a while to sort them out in my head.

So the reason for this is probably because (especially for the listening), they might be reusing the questions. They even have slides prepared for going through the test so that further supports my theory.

We got our Beginner 1 certs today as well. Unfortunately, Erica didn't come today, so she wasn't here for the class and also not for our picture-taking. But that was at the end of the class.

We started on chapter 6 today, naturally starting with vocabulary. In the textbook, we covered p146-147. A lot of the things were in the handout.

## Vocabulary

Korean English Notes
์์ food
๊น๋ฐฅ [๊น๋นฑ] seaweed-wrapped roll it looks like sushi if sliced
๊ฐ๋นํ beef-rib soup ๊ฐ๋น means "rib". This is traditionally done with beef, so if it's pork, it's specified: ๋ผ์ง ๊ฐ๋นํ. The teacher says it tastes like Bak Kut Teh - but that is made with pork.
๋๋ฉด cold noodles This is also a beef soup, with brown noodles and ice. Eaten during the summer when it's hot.
๊น์น kimchi
๊น์น์ฐ๊ฐ kimchi stew ์ฐ๊ฐ is a stew. This is thick soup that is not clear. By contrast, ํ is clear. Korea is famous for many types of ์ฐ๊ฐ, such as ๋์ฅ์ฐ๊ฐ (miso stew), ์๋๋ถ์ฐ๊ฐ (soft tofu stew) and ๋ถ๋์ฐ๊ฐ (army stew, literally "army base stew").
๋ถ๊ณ ๊ธฐ (sliced and seasoned) barbequed beef ๋ถ means fire. This is meat stir-fried on top of a fire. In Korea, this is only purely beef dish. In Singapore there are some variants such as "chicken bulgogi" that doesn't exist in Korea.
๋ผ๋ฉด ramen/instant noodles Normally it refers to instant noodles.
๋ผ๋ฉ ramen ...the real ramen
๋น๋น๋ฐฅ [๋น๋น๋นฑ] bibimbap (cooked rice with vegetables and meat)
์ฐ๋ udon
๋นต bread
๋งฅ์ฃผ beer
์์ฃผ soju
๋ง๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ rice wine
๊ณผ์ผ fruits
์ฌ๊ณผ apple
๋ธ๊ธฐ strawberry
์๋ฐ watermelon
๊ทค mandarin orange In Korea, this is harvested from Jeju Island during the winter. They taste different from the locally available mandarin oranges. According to the teacher, that is. I've been to Jeju before but that was years ago, I barely recall anything much less how the mandarin oranges taste.
๋ฉ๋ด menu
๊ธธ road
๋ธ๋ song
๋ again
์์นจ breakfast You may have to add ๋ฐฅ or ์์ฌ behind, since apparently it only means "morning" when I looked it up...
์ ์ฌ lunch
์ ๋ dinner
์ฃผ๋ค to give
๋ช how many
๋ชจ๋ all
๊ทธ๋์? Really? / Is that so?
๊ธฐ๋ค๋ฆฌ๋ค to wait
์ธ๋ค to be cheap
๋น์ธ๋ค to be expensive
๊นจ๋ํ๋ค [๊นจ๋ํ๋ค] to be clean Pronunciation: Syllable-final ใ is ใท. ใท + ใ โ ใ.
๋ณต์กํ๋ค [๋ณต์งํ๋ค] to be crowded Pronunciation: ใ+ใ โ ใ. Same principle as the one before.
์ฌ๋ฏธ์๋ค to be interesting/fun
์ฌ๋ฏธ์๋ค to not be interesting/fun
๋ง์๋ค to be delicious
๋ง์๋ค [๋ง๋ฅ๋ฐ] to not be delicious
์ข๋ค to be good
์ข์ํ๋ค to like
์๋ค to wear
์๋ค to laugh
์ผ๋ง์์? How much is it?
๊น์ ์ฃผ์ธ์. Please give me a discount.
์ํด ๋ณต ๋ง์ด ๋ฐ์ผ์ธ์. Happy new year. A new year greeting. Literally, ์ํด = new year, ๋ณต = good luck, ๋ง์ด = a lot of, ๋ฐ๋ค = receive.
๋ฐ๋ค to receive
์ฃผ๋ง ์ ๋ณด๋ด์ธ์. Have a good weekend.
์กฐ์ฌํ์ธ์. Be careful.
์๋ง socks
์น๋ง skirt
๋ฐ์ง pants
๊ตฌ๋ shoes

## Large Numbers for Prices

This was covered mostly with the handout.

Chapter 6 is called "How much is it?" so it is about buying things and naturally you have to learn how to say how much something costs.

The way that the numbers are read in Korean are 4 digits at a time, basically splitting them into ten thousands, like Chinese (instead of the more familar thousands system for English and the other European languages).

Say you have a number: 239, 871, 231.

In Korean, you will read it 4 digits at a time, basically splitting it like this:
2 | 3987 | 1231

The first line from the right is the "ten thousand" line, which is ๋ง (่ฌ).
The second line from the right is the "hundred million" line, which is ์ต (ๅ).

Within each group of four, you have the thousands (์ฒ), hundreds (๋ฐฑ), and tens (์ญ) (and ones... but you don't have a "suffix" for that).

1 2 3 1
์ฒ ๋ฐฑ ์ญ

A number that starts with 1 as above, 1 (์ผ) is not pronounced, so you will have ์ฒ 2๋ฐฑ 3์ญ 1 or written out in full, ์ฒ์ด๋ฐฑ์ผ์ญ์ผ.

You basically repeat this for the next group, but you add ๋ง.

3 9 8 7 --
์ฒ ๋ฐฑ ์ญ ๋ง

The entire number 239, 871, 231 is thus rendered as: 2์ต 3์ฒ 9๋ฐฑ 8์ญ 7๋ง ์ฒ 2๋ฐฑ 3์ญ 1, which is ์ด์ต ์ผ์ฒ๊ตฌ๋ฐฑํ์ญ์น ๋ง ์ฒ์ด๋ฐฑ์ผ์ญ์ผ.

There are some notes for the proununciation:

1. 16 - ์ญ์ก [์ฌ๋ต]
2. 60 000 - ์ก๋ง [์ต๋ง]
3. 100 000 - ์ญ๋ง [์ฌ๋ง]
4. 1 million - ๋ฐฑ๋ง [๋ฑ๋ง]

The first one we've covered before. For the last three, they're softening the sound when the previous end consonant meets the ใ (m) of the next syllable.

Once we learnt this, we had an activity where you would practise with a partner. One person asks ์ผ๋ง์์? (How much is it?) and the other person replies based on the numbers printed (as digits). Later on we even progressed to using some toy money (that looks like actual Korean notes but smaller in size, complete with coins) and the person who asked for the price would pay. The other person would have to give change (and say the amount of change). At the end we were all brain dead, especially after torturing each other with amounts that were not written down on the paper.

And then next week we will cover the native Korean numbers, so we are really not done with numbers yet.

Maybe I can tweak the app I created for listening practice for Korean dates to work with big numbers too. I definitely will need it.

## Grammar

There are also 4 grammar topic for this chapter. Today we covered the first.

### 1. V-(์ผ)์ธ์

This is used to politely make requests, suggestions or commands in an informal setting. I thought this is the imperative, but the conjugation table tells me that it's not as simple as that, so until I know for sure I'll not put a label on it first.

Conjugation:

1. When there is NO batchim, or there is batchim but it is ใน, then you add -์ธ์.
• Example 1 (๊ฐ๋ค): ์๋ํ ๊ฐ์ธ์.
• Example 2 (๊ธฐ๋ค๋ฆฌ๋ค) ๊ธฐ๋ค๋ฆฌ์ธ์
2. When you have batchim, you add -์ผ์ธ์.
• Example 1 (์ฝ๋ค): ์ฑ์ ์ฝ์ผ์ธ์

I don't have an example that ends with ใน, except ๋ง๋ค๋ค, but the form is ๋ง๋์ธ์, which (as of now) I am unsure it's an exception or not (that the ใน is gone).

There are some special verbs that don't conjugate according to the rules, and they are:

1. ์๋ค - You say ์ฃผ๋ฌด์ธ์ to wish someone good night, or ์๋ํ ์ฃผ๋ฌด์ธ์ (more polite, for example to your parents)
2. ๋จน๋ค/๋ง์๋ค - You say ๋์ธ์, which means "Please eat/help yourself"
3. ์๋ค - This is ๊ณ์ธ์

Naturally this isn't an exhaustive list, it's just the ones where we were given examples.

The formal form was given in an example sentence: ์ฑ์ ์ฝ์ผ์ญ์์ค. According to the teacher, this formal version is used in business settings. You may also hear this form used on airline announcements (if it's not a budget airline... she singled out Scoot as not doing that, so I wonder if she has personal experience). I've been seeing this a lot more because I've been using Duolingo and they use the formal form for their sentences.

In the last part of the class we had an activity with this form, which was to pretend you were the teacher and give instructions that a teacher would say. (This is from the textbook.)

... Wow this turned out to be a long post. I think it took me 3 hours in total to get this down, along with adding some new vocab to Anki (which naturally involved getting audio from Forvo).

The cards for chapter 6 were released today.

Since we were on chapter 5 for so long, I forgot the extra effort required to import all the Quizlet cards into Anki.

I do this because I want the spaced repetition for memorising the vocab. The deck (well, the Quizlet term is "set") is private to certain classes, so I first make a copy that is public and then import it using the Anki add-on. Then I delete the public set.

Next, I add my custom tags since eventually I will throw all the notes/cards into a big "All" deck. I leave them as nested when I'm learning.

Finally, I have to make some adjustments to the imported cards. I also use Forvo to download the audio for each word (sentences where I can find them) and add them in one by one, and turn on the "Add Reverse" flag (also one by one, and usually I have to scroll as the cards come with an image that pushed the field below the fold) so that I get tested on the English > Korean direction.

It seems like the newest version of the add-on has changed to prefix the deck name with "Flashcards". (Newest supported by my Anki version, which is 2.1.15 - I had tried to update to 2.1.20 about 2 weeks ago but realised it wasn's compatible with this add-on... or another. That resulted in me downloading the older version again...)

Anyway, we will be learning the native/pure Korean numbers in this chapter. I also saw words for different foods, and some relating to buying things. I guess we'll be learning that tomorrow.

I borrowed a Lonely Planet guide on Korea and another one on their food from the library (eBooks, naturally) but have not gotten around to reading them yet.

I'm not sure how much time will be spent covering the test tomorrow.

The other thing about tomorrow... To be honest, with Covid-19 getting worse worldwide, I'm a little afraid of going for the class tomorrow.

I know how irresponsible some people are. I attended a training course (~20 people in the class) in the last few days. According to the instructor, it's the last in-person training for a while - the next one in 2 weeks will go virtual. The training location was around the CBD, and I definitely ran into more people than I normally would if I'd been going to the office. Especially the first day, the bus was so crowded I almost couldn't get on. (I took a different bus subsequently.) AND there was someone coughing at the event, which the venue hosts (not the same as the company conducting the training) on the third day sent someone to ask if everyone was fine, and of course no one said anything. The instructor was being nice and said it's just to make sure since he sometimes would also cough due to dryness. Later during the break someone said that it's due to his throat being dry, but please. In such a sensitive time, at least wear a mask?

For my Korean class, I have to take public transport and it's about an hour there and back, so there's always the risk of running into someone... The only thing that's great is that the class size is small, so, well. Hopefully everyone who shows up is responsible.

The measures have become stricter... but... I know my friends (the one still in the class and the one who quit, both) went to Malaysia last Sunday. that worries me because of the situation there right now. I really hope they didn't get it. (And if he feels even the slightest bit unwell, he had better not turn up for class tomorrow.)

I wish the stricter stay-home notice measures applied to everyone who travelled during this one-week school holiday. not just those who return after tonight. The schools having a LOA imposed is fine but honestly I would say SHN is probably more effective... but then again I wonder if there's enough manpower to do the checks that they conduct to make sure that you are home when you get the notice.

Personally, it seems really irresponsible to travel at this time, especially if it's to Malaysia, and if it's for no reason other than a vacation or to do things like getting their hair cut at a discount - such as my friends above did. (They normally do that, anyway, but it's beyond me as the cost savings is not worth the extra time that it will take me to cross the border and back.) This is especially after knowing that there was a mass religious gathering at the start of this month that 16,000 people attended, that is a known cluster, and that contributed significantly to the number to the cases in the country. From the local TV news yesterday, 4,000 of the attendees are still being tracked down.

Sigh.

This wasn't meant to be nearly so depressing.

## The Test

I'll do a rundown of the different sections of the test and how they were carried out, and some of my own notes for how I tackled it, and how to prepare better for a next test (for the sections where I feel this is necessary).

There were essentially 4 parts to the test, if you think about it in that way. The teacher had said it was reading, writing, listening, speaking. All right, it's kind of like that. But I'll split it into five sections.

We were first given the main test paper. This test paper contains the questions for the listening component in the first few pages, followed by grammar and vocabulary, and then finally, reading. We were told to start with the grammar and vocabulary (which was on page 4) because there was one student who had not arrived. When she arrived, we started with the listening test immediately. After the listening test, the teacher called 2 students at a time to do the oral test. You had to hand in the main paper and then get the writing test paper to finish the test.

### 1. Listening

The listening test has a few sections, but they were all MCQ. There was no part that required you to write down anything (no dictation). We listened to the whole thing through twice. And no, there wasn't anything on dates being tested here in the end.

The first part had 3 questions. They were sentences that were read, with blanks. You had to select the correct word that was missing from the sentence from a list of 4 options.

The next part (Q4-8) was mysterious. It consisted of (printed on the paper) only the question numbers, and 4 options (1-4) without anything written next to them. Only when I heard the third option of the first question in this section did I realise what was going on. Basically, each option was an audio of someone asking a question and a second voice giving an answer. The question asked in each option is always the same. You had to pick the answer that is the correct response (in terms of grammar, and in terms of it making sense) to the question that was asked.

Then there was this "pick the place". I think it was around 3-4 questions. You had a list of places on the paper. The conversation describes what can be found in that place and what someone can do at the place. From there you had to pick the correct place. For example there was one question describing a cafe, so the conversation said that you can find cake and coffee there, and someone (they named a name) was drinking coffee and meeting her friends there.

Another part consisted of pictures with items/places positioned relative to each other. There was a conversation for each question, and you had to pick the picture that correctly represented the position of the objects relative to each other. My memory of this is fuzzy now, but I know there was a question that was about the position of a bag and the umbrella relative to it. Then later there was the position of an embassy relative to a bank.

The next part was more pictures, but this time of people doing things. You had to pick the right picture representing what the person was doing and where they were doing it.

Now the final part consisted of 5 questions, I believe 16-20. Each question had 4 statements, and you had to pick the correct one in the list. The conversations were always between 2 people, an unnamed man and woman. So on the paper they are referred to as man and woman.

#### How I Tackled It

I wrote down a lot of things in pencil. For the second section, I wrote down the question (or at least, the key question word, such as "where"), and part of the answer. I continued doing that for the pictures as well, writing down the Korean keywords that I heard.

For the last part, I did something that I guess is rather questionable, but hey, I'm used to doing whatever it takes to score for listening. (That was the only option in university, you didn't want to be on the wrong side of the bell curve!) I wrote down what I understood of the conversation in English, then picked through it later after the audio was over. I think I started this on the first listen through for the third or fourth question, but for the second one I wrote them all down. At the end, I erased my English scribblings for this page. (I left the Korean scribblings for the previous few pages.)

The last question, I thought that there were 2 options that were possible. I'm sure the woman was referring to the place as "here" (she was asking "Is this Seoul Park" or something like that), so it should be correct that they are both there. But the man also talked of the location of the park (which is "here") relative to his house. One was behind the other. I wrote it one way first (house is behind the park), then swapped it (park is behind the house). Because of that, although the final way I wrote it matched with one of the options, I chose the other option (that both of them are at the park).

#### How to Improve

Realise that there may not be time given to read the questions (there wasn't in this case). So I obviously should have read the questions first. Basically, when there was time before the listening test started, I should have read the questions first. Granted, most of the them don't need reading, but the last section definitely needed reading. When I turned the page for the first time and saw that wall of Korean text, I was honestly intimidated because I couldn't read that fast.

### 2. Grammar and Vocabulary

I don't think there's much to say about this, except that yay it exists. The way it sounded like last week was that it would not be there. But it is, and this part is never a challenge for me compared to everything else.

Plus, this was MCQ (I couldn't believe it), so it was doubly easy.

### 3. Reading

Pretty much the same as above. It wasn't very hard, there was just one page of this with some questions. They were all pretty straightforward, and nothing that was very long to read. You had to pick the wrong option out of the all those given for 2 questions (or maybe more), but the last question had 3 statements about the (slightly longer) passage and you had to say whether each one was correct or wrong.

### 4. Oral

The oral test was done in pairs. There are three sections: Reading, roleplay, and interview. There was about 1-2 minutes given for us to read the instructions on the paper, and then it started. We did not have any writing materials, so it's not like we could have written anything to prepare either. And I think the paper is reused by all the students in the class, so even if we did have writing materials we probably would not have been allowed to write on it.

#### 4.1 Reading

There were a list of sentences on the paper. I forgot how many, but maybe like, 10? And all you had to do was read it. The sentences weren't very long. 2 of them had dates in it, and the dates were given as numbers (oh yes, there was a 16 there which I probably messed up now that I think about it - I didn't process it and sprouted something that was in my mind), so you had to be sure of how to pronounce them.

The only thing I can say about this was that it gives an advantage to the person who goes second, because you both read the same thing. So if there was anything that you were unsure about, you might have been able to catch a hint from... I went first, anyway.

#### 4.2 Roleplay

The scenario was given in English. Basically you are on a plane home from Korea. You talk to the person sitting next to you. You are supposed to introduce yourself and talk about what you did in Korea. You talk to your classmate. The teacher says to imagine she isn't there (and she doesn't bother to interrupt or help, you're completely on your own).

##### What Happened

Basically, this was the worst part for me. It's not so much the self-intro (which also was bad by any standard, I didn't even start to ask the other person's name), but the fact that it was about what you did in Korea. Recall that I have something like 0 cultural knowledge about Korea. I barely know anything about food. I know even less about the places, places you can go, about the things that you can do. So that did not help.

##### How to Improve

I figure that I should have minimally memorised some places in Korea that were covered in the textbook, and the things that they were famous for.

But to be perfectly honest, although I barely studied for this test (relying mostly on Anki for revision), I doubt I'd have thought to study for this.

Anyway, I probably should find some cultural topics to discuss for future. Sigh.

#### 4.3 Interview

In this part, the teacher asks you questions and you have to answer.

Questions included:

1. What is the date today? (Asked to my partner)
2. What day of the week is it today? (me)
3. What are you doing tomorrow? (Asked to my partner first)
4. What did you do yesterday? (Asked to me first)

Then I was asked what I was doing tomorrow, and my partner was asked what she did yesterday.

### 5. Writing

The writing test paper is a single sheet with 2 sides. The first side consisted of reordering sentences. You were given words that were in random order and you had to put them into a sentence. This is very easy, because there was no conjugation required - all the verbs were already correctly conjugated.

The next side is the writing assignment. Basically, you had to do a self-introduction (name, nationality, job, etc.) and then talk about what you did on the weekend/yesterday. You had to write about events in the past, and you had to use the -๊ณ  that links event together. And it was very clear that you had to use verbs that were in the different conjugations groups, the explicit instructions were to use both ์์ด์ and ์์ด์.

The teacher told us to write more or she can't grade. She did sound a little frustrated (probably also because we were talking when she left to finish the test with the last person).

So anyway, I wrote some stuff. Nothing particularly interesting, I didn't make much stuff up, but what I did on the weekend was definitely a figment of my imagination. There were a lot of vocab words that I lost as well that I'd have liked to include. I have to work on that too.

#### How to Improve

Actually write some essays before the test, like I intended, but never got around to.

(And also prepare for the test realising that you can't refer to the main test paper for inspiration. I think this wasn't done only to prevent us from referring to the sentences, but also so that the teacher could begin marking the test. :/)

## Invoice

We also got the invoice for the next term today. Next term will begin after a 3-week break, and it will be with another teacher. I wonder if they are compressing the classes? There is a Wednesday class that is 2 weeks behind... hmm. The cost is \$200 instead of \$240, \$10 is because of the Google review event and there is another \$30 because... I don't know, it simply says complimentary lesson.

Whether there is a break between terms... I wonder if it's more likely between levels, e.g. Foundation and Beginner 1, and Beginner 1 and Beginner 2, simply because there's a chance that the teacher changes. I know the break between Foundation and Beginner 1A was because the teacher was going back to Korea for a while.

## Vocabulary

Plus here's some vocab I forgot to add from chapter 2, when we were discussing items in our rooms. I saw it while flipping through the textbook on the way to class, not that it helped.

I knew they were not in my Anki deck when they looked so unfamiliar.

Korean English
์ ํ๊ธฐ fan (machine)
์์ด์ปจ air conditioner
๊ฑฐ์ธ mirror
์ท์ฅ wardrobe
์ฑ์ฅ bookshelf
์ธํ doll
๋๋ก  drone

While browsing the Language Learners forum, someone posted something that led me to this site - Talk to Me in Korean.

I didn't listen to any of their Soundcloud lessons, but I've started to read through the content and it's a good grammar revision for my upcoming test.

I learnt that ์ด, ๊ทธ, ์  can be attached before any noun to say "this [noun]"/"that [noun]", so for example ์ด ์ปคํผ means "this coffee".

Plus, I learnt a new expression for expressing desires: -๊ณ  ์ถ์ด์. (I want to...)

You remove the ๋ค from the verb's dictionary form and attach it to the ๊ณ , much like the construct for expressing events that happen in a sequence.

So to say that you want to watch (๋ณด๋ค) televsion: ํ๋ ๋น์ ์ ๋ณด๊ณ  ์ถ์ด์.

I was wondering when we'd learn modal verbs in Korean... well, who know when that's in the book.

I've noticed that the site taught the particles much later on (and only the subject/topic particles, though they do explain the differences in emphasis), so their example sentences all didn't have the object particle. The sentence was given as ํ๋ ๋น์  ๋ณด๊ณ  ์ถ์ด์.

I find the romanisation for everything (every Korean word or sentence) super distracting, but I guess if it's targeted at beginners and this is Level 1 and they don't apparently teach the alphabet... then that's probably why.

I had this idea the day before (after my lesson) to randomly generate a date, and then have some TTS software to speak it, and then test myself on how how well I can hear the dates from that.

I found out about the Web Speech API, and got something working yesterday, done in React. I started with React JS but converted it to TypeScript because I'm more comfortable with that. I used Create React App, which is definitely overkill. I really don't need all those extra dependencies...

What I made had three buttons: Play, Show Answer, Next. It was a lot of work trying to figure out which button was the one I intended to press.

Today, I improved it so that there's a state, like the "front" and "back" of a card, and there's only either a "Show Answer" or "Next" button, but not both.

I drew some simple wireframes in Sketch but ended up not going with what I drew. Still, I added Bootstrap today so that the buttons and layout can be beautified a little without having to do any custom CSS since I don't want to spend too much time on this.

There's still more to iron out, but this is pretty good and I can work with it. I added controls for changing the pitch and speed as well, inspired by this demo.

The only downside is that Firefox doesn't seem to have any Korean voices. Either that or because of my custom privacy tweaks. Either way, it means using Chrome, which I'd rather avoid in most scenarios. Chrome has 2 Korean voices. Not a lot but, it's workable.

I probably have to also add the -์ด์์ to complete the sentence to the spoken audio. That will be something for tomorrow.

Today was a revision lesson. We did not use the textbook. There was a new 4-page handout, where the vocab for the 5 chapters was on the first page, the grammar on the second, and the last 2 pages are for this week's homework.

Again, the test is reading, writing, pronunciation and listening. I guess pronunciation is better than oral, or maybe it will be both. I don't know. But there will be dates involved, we will have to read dates out. The writing component sounds like it's an essay, so not a written test where you are filling in blanks or answering questions but actually producing something. The teacher said it is similar to the other writing assignments we have done (like the journal last week).

We used paper "flashcards" (they are really slips of paper, printed on both sides, with the English on one and Korean on the other), starting at chapter 1 until chapter 5. Words, then sentences. Though maybe for chapter 3 or 4 there was no sentence cards as I distinctly recall skipping one set of sentences and doing 2 word sets in a row.

We did this in pairs/group of three. (There are 5 students in our class.) We would do the Korean side first, and translate it to English, then do the more difficult recall in the opposite direction, which is given the English, translate into Korean.

Most of these are the same words that are in the Quizlet sets that the school gave us, though I think there were a few others that I've not seen before, especially for the sentences. Hopefully it's not because I suspended them and forgot to unsuspend them in Anki afterward. (I'd import the cards as soon as they are released, which is when we start a chapter. But I would suspend the sentences until I'd learnt the grammar in class. Anki is good for remembering things, but it's bad for learning things for the first time. This is an idea I want to explore... perhaps in another post.)

There were some things that I (re-)learnt that are worth mentioning.

1. ์ด/๊ฐ is the particle for -์์ด์(-์์ด์) sentences.
2. X ์ฃผ์ธ์ (Give me X) - we learnt it without the particle in chapter 2 (the reason, I suspect, is because this is usually spoken and not written). But the particle, if you add one, is the object particle ๋ฅผ/์, so for example ์ฃผ์ค๋ฅผ ์ฃผ์ธ์. But ์ฃผ์ค ์ฃผ์ธ์ is also valid. (The object particle was taught in chapter 3)
3. The word for cat is ๊ณ ์์ด.
4. -์๋์์ is how you negate a ์ด์์/์ฌ์ sentence. This was never covered before in class; only the negation for ํ์ญ์์ค์ฒด. I had searched it up on my own before. But we had some example sentences that had the negation in the casual/informal polite language (ํด์์ฒด).

And this is completely random but I realised I've been spelling the past tense of "learn" as "learned" instead of "learnt", which is inconsistent with how I've been spelling other words (British spelling). So from now on - learnt. I've also gone back to fix all the past posts. Which I had to find from the web because there was no in-post search feature in Standard Notes, and I forgot that I could just use the search and it would have surfaced out all the posts... never mind.

## 1. And, With

When do you use ๊ฐ์ด (together), and how do you use it in a sentence? I was looking for example sentences on Tatoeba.

I know that to indicate doing something "with a friend" is ์น๊ตฌํ๊ณ  .

Example: ์น๊ตฌํ๊ณ  ๋จน์์ด์. (I ate with a friend.)

But we first learnt that ํ๊ณ  means "and" for connecting nouns. And the formal version of ํ๊ณ  is ์/๊ณผ (depending on whether there is a Batchim; this is the one with the "inverse" rule).

I looked at Tatoeba and on the first page of results saw this sentence: ์น๊ตฌ์ ๊ฐ์ด ํ๋ ๋น์ ์์ ์ถ๊ตฌ์ํฉ์ ๋ด๋๋ค.

Translation: I watch a football match on television with my friend. (together with my friend?)

So the question in my mind was: Does it also mean that the formal "์/๊ณผ" for "and" also means "with", but the formal form?

## 2. Formal, Informal

Being more studious now (after that wake-up call last lesson), I have been reading up more on my own.

According to How to Study Korean, this is what it says about the first person singular pronoun:

์  = I, me (formal)
๋ = I, me (informal)

I've not learnt ๋ in class yet. But reading the textbook while trying to do my homework, I realise it was used in one sample journal entry.

Is it weird that for our sentences they start with formal ์ (๋), but then have a verb that ends with the polite casual/informal -์? (The tense is called ํด์์ฒด according to Wiktionary.)

I had this question before when we learnt about ํ๊ณ  and ์/๊ณผ with the meaning "and".

I found it weird that sentences using the formal ์/๊ณผ would end with -์ instead of the formal polite tense (ํ์ญ์์ค์ฒด), that ends with -แธ๋๋ค (at least in the imperative, according to Wiktionary again).

Does this notion of formal/informal not have to be consistent between the nouns/conjunctions and the verbs? Are they a different dimension of formality? Or is it because this system is complex that they don't burden beginners with it?

It occurred to me today that the Korean textbook doesn't have a map (of Korea)... or that we didn't cover it in class.

I did a quick look at the book and there's no map at the front or end of the textbook. It is possible it is hidden somewhere...

I know the French textbook that I had definitely had a world map because it was showing France and the French territories, basically la francophonie. (This is the textbook I can check, because I still have the very first textbook as I've never managed to sell it.)

I think the German textbook had a map of Germany at least, if not also of Switzerland and Austria.

The Italian textbook definitely had the regions of Italy, as I recall the teacher go through them in class. It was a very colourful map, and including a drawing of what is famous in that region if my memory does not fail me (it has been 5 years).

In fact, it is the memory of this Italian map that prompted me to think of the (lack of) a Korea map. Really, I was thinking about it initially in the context of the regions that are affected by the Coronavirus (!) in Italy. A news report I read yesterday listed a few regions and I was mentally thinking about where they were in Italy.

Korea is also badly hit by the virus, and I realise that I've not actually learnt the locations of the major cities.

This lesson was finishing up chapter 5 in the book. We had finished the handout last week, and the homework handout was completed as part of the previous lesson's homework. This week's homework is a writing assignment - 3 journal entries: 1 weekday, 1 for Saturday and 1 for Sunday.

We covered the textbook, starting on p. 135 with the listening activity and until the end of the chapter. It's like dรฉjร  vu, you know, the listening activity which was to hear the dates and mark it out on the calendar. It's always the numbers that kill at the beginning. We skipped the culture note, where the first part was on how Koreans use both the solar and lunar calendar. They're not unfamiliar to me.

Once again we talked abut things we did, and this time we had to include the place and also who we did it with (or specify if we did it alone). Naturally we also were sometimes asked to string 2 events together using that ๊ณ  construct from last lesson.

This was the third week talking about things we did on the weekend, to the point where it was hard for me to invent new things to say because my weekends (and my life) are rather predicatable. I said it's boring then, but actually, it's not that boring. I like how it plays out.

And yes, Audrey didn't come again, so I would think she is not joining for this term.

We finished off the lesson with a mini test, part of the preparation for the real test in 2 weeks' time, ahead of the revision lesson next week.

## Pronunciation

Two rules were covered, both have to do with how the numbers are pronounced, though the first is definitely generalisable. (I don't know about the second since it is very specific.)

1) When ใฑ, ใ are after the final consonant ใ, they are pronounced [ใฒ, ใ].

Examples:

1. ์ญ์ผ [์ญ์] - (13)
2. ์ญ๊ตฌ [์ญ๊พธ] - (19)

This one... well, I guess the problem is that I never really could pronounce ใ. The English 's' is the stronger variant and is more like the double 's' which is ใ.

2) When ์ก (6) comes after the final consonant ใ, ์ก is pronounced [๋ต] and ใ is pronounced [ใ].

This second rule was already taught when we learnt numbers way back in the foundation class.

It seems that the pace for each chapter is holding. Chapter 3's pronunciation was in Lesson 14 and Chapter 4's was in Lesson 17.

## Vocabulary

Korean English Chinese
๋๋ฃ colleague ๅๅ (tรณngliรกo)
๋ถ๋ชจ parents ็ถๆฏ
๋๊ธ์ classmate ๅ็ด็
๋ชจ๋ all
์ด๋ฐ later
์์ class

Some of these were from the discussions in class, some of this was me finally deciphering what the teacher has been sending in the Kakaotalk group. :x

Example:

1. ๋ชจ๋ ์ด๋ฐ ๋ง๋์!

## Extra: A Wake-up Call

All right, now that the main content is over, I guess I want to talk a bit more about that test above, and how I felt about it.

It was a mini test, and the teacher graded it immediately. Rather, she graded the first part as we were done (the class has 5 students so it's not very difficult logistically), then we did the second part, and she graded that. It was a single sheet of paper. The duration was not more than 15 minutes.

The first half was to conjugate a bunch of verbs into the past tense. That was straightforward, or should be, but I realise due to my extensive revision on Anki and not writing outside of the assigned homework, I have very poor muscle memory in terms of how to write words. If I can't sound it out in my head, that makes it worse. But even if I can, it may feel alien because I may not have seen it enough, either because I went too fast when doing Anki (yes, that is the bad thing about Anki, you need to be very disciplined, otherwise it's easy to cheat yourself - if you use a platform like Memrise you get marked wrong even for typos and that's that), or I didn't include a card for conjugating that verb in that particular tense.

So what I realised reflecting on this was that Anki as I am using it now is good for MCQ tests, because I started with Anki for a doctrine/theology course where the entire paper is MCQ. With spaced repetition, and some forced recall, some interleaving thrown in, it worked pretty well. Actually, it worked and is working very well still for that context, I can easily score 100% or close to it. Anki is also good when you only have to worry about remembering facts, and simple vocabulary.

The way it's going is not working out too well for learning a language, since there are many more skills involved to be good at a language. I am clearly not getting enough comprehensible input (in fact it's none at all). It's really atrocious how I thought I could carry on like this, and perhaps also a bit of hubris on my part, thinking that because I'd learnt some other langauges before I am exempt from putting in the work in this area. I think the worse trap to fall into is one where you know what to do, but don't do it because you think you are better and thus exempt from the rules.

(There's also pronunciation practice, but since I do not - did not - normally do that, I would say that it's not that big of a deal as you can survive without it, though you will probably feel your confidence in speaking reduce because of the mispronunciations.)

For the second part of the mini test, there was a sample journal entry that we had to read and then the main task was to write one. I really struggled with this, in part because I felt like I was being watched. There's that pressure, and also the pressure that others were completing the assignment faster than I was. I started on the second part late too, I know that I was last, or definitely in the second half of the people who finished the first part. That threw me off, since usually I don't think I'm that slow...

But the main problem is that I don't know what to write. It's the same problem I have for German when it's "talk about your day", that sort of thing. I don't like to talk about my life in that sense. My immediate reaction is to downplay my day as boring. This reminded me of how I used to get past this in my other language tests - basically, make some stuff up. Prepare some model essay of sorts, and then regurgitate it on the test. After all, the point is to prove that you can express yourself, and not about whether it's true or not, but I dislike it because it's unfactual.

It's very effective when you are at the beginner level, because there are only that many things that they can ask you to do. I would guess that on the actual test, if they didn't ask me to write a journal entry about my day, it would be a self-introduction, either in casual or formal language. (For languages where there is this distinction, there is probably a scenario which you must read and realise which to use. At least, that has been my experience, though I tend to "comfort" myself by saying that I'm not the worst. Small comfort, that.)

I don't believe that it's the best way to go about tests - this sort of rote memory method. In the past there was that pressure to do well because university grades meant that scoring poorly on any class pulls down your GPA. (I was fortunate enough that my language classes generally pulled me up as I tended to score As, with the exception of one French class that was a B+, and that sad semester, I even had to cancel that grade to a pass/fail even though it pulled down the semester's GPA, because it would lead to an increase in my overall GPA...)

Now, I would still write some sample essays, more for practise rather than trying to memorise them. These two weeks, I have to put more effort into Korean. I'll set aside some time every day to do some revision.

Found out yesterday after a visit to the language learners forum (which I don't regularly go to) that Podclub.ch shut down last year, after having the last episodes aired in September. At the end of the year in December, everything was removed from the site.

Officially, the last 30 episodes of each? podcast are on Soundcloud for the different podcasts, but that's it. The efforts to download individual podcasts seem to have stalled on the forums, so there's no central repo that has all the audio + transcripts of the different productions. :(

I've not been using it much (evidently, or I'd have known about this much earlier), but I did use it when I was studying Italian in late 2016/early 2017 on my own. I found Al Dente, the main podcast that I'd listened to and followed, interesting. There was a brief period when I'd decided to focus on one language and before I went to focus on German because of my mission trip I'd picked Italian. I also listened to a few episodes of the German Andrea Erzรคhlt. At one point I may have listened to a few episodes of L'avis de Marie (French) but it was definitely not a regular thing, since I've never dedicated myself to studying French on my own.

It was special since it was a Swiss production that had 3 languages that I was studying. If I ever did Swiss German I'd have used it too. Plus, I guess after living there for a while there's some significance too, since the episodes talk about their life in Switzerland.

I was revising on Anki and ์๋ค came up. It means to know, and I wondered if there is a difference between to know (knowledge/learnt information) and to know (people/things) in Korean.

In the other languages I've learnt, I know this distinction exists. I first encountered it in French with connaรฎtre (people) and savoir (knowledge). Italian has conoscere and sapere. German has kennen and wissen.

Then I thought about Mandarin Chinese, and I realise it has that distinction too, ่ฎค่ฏ (people) and ็ฅ้ (information). (So I should know that such a distinction exists even before I started with French.)

Korean's ์๋ค seems to indicate knowledge of information... I'm not sure if there's a different word for knowing people...

Is English the odd one out?

This is the final grammar point for this chapter, which is chapter 5. We finished the handout. Next lesson, we will finish up the chapter, and then the following lesson will be a revision lesson from chapters 1-5. Then after that is the test.

The test will have writing, reading, listening, and oral. The oral component will be done in pairs. I guess that gives a hint to me on what to expect. But yeah, it's Beginner 1, like the teacher says, so it isn't too hard.

We also had a surprise quiz today on conjugation. Actually, it was also a listening quiz, but I don't know if the listening component came about because the printer wasn't working. So the teacher would say a verb in the infinitive form, and we we had to write the infinitive form, the present tense form (polite-informal), and the past tense form (also polite-informal, I would think).

I realised I'm bad at dictation (and hence listening), and bad at spelling. I probably should force myself to type out the words on Anki. And there was one that I had wrong in my Anki note, so it was a good thing this came up, so I fixed it.

And Audrey didn't come for lesson again, but apparently it's still because she's busy with work. But I still have my suspicions because our lessons are on Saturday afternoon, she works in a bank (iirc as a bank teller) and banks close early on Saturdays, do they not? Besides, why would banks be busy at this time with the Covid-19 around and everyone mostly shutting themselves in?

## Grammar

### 4. V-๊ณ

This construction is used to list two or more events in the order that they happened.

For the first N-1 events (all except the last), you take the dictionary form (i.e. the infinitive), remove the ๋ค, and then replace it with ๊ณ .

As an example, if you have ๋ณด๋ค, remove the ๋ค, and you get ๋ณด๊ณ .

You only have to conjugate according to the tense for the last verb (event) in the chain.

We practised mostly with 2 events.

Examples:

1. ๋ฐฅ์ ๋จน๊ณ  ์ฐจ๋ฅผ ๋ง์์. (I eat rice and I drink tea.)
2. ์ด์  ์คํ์ดํฌ์ ๋จน๊ณ  ์น๊ตฌํ๊ณ  ๊ฒ์ํ๊ณ  ์ด๋ํ์ด์. (Yesterday, I ate steak, played games with friends, and exercised.)
3. ์คํฐ๋ธ์จ๋ ํ๊ต์ ๊ฐ๊ณ  ์น๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋ง๋ฌ์ด์. (Steven went to school and met his friend.)

The order matters. In the first example, it means that you ate rice (or ate your meal) before drinking tea. If you said instead ์ฐจ๋ฅผ ๋ง์๊ณ  ๋ฐฅ์ ๋จน์ด์ it means that you drank the tea before you ate your meal.

์น๊ตฌํ๊ณ  thrown in can make things really confusing, when there are many ~ํ๋ค verbs that become ํ๊ณ . I wonder if there is some link between these two ํ๊ณ ?

If the subject of the sentence is the same for both clauses, you naturally omit the sentence in the second one. Or, as in the first 2 sentences, the subject may already be omitted (as the "I" is implicit.)

We practised the above in class with the picture cards, and naturally, we had to throw in locations and objects as well.

## Vocabulary

These mostly came up in the answers to questions about what we did.

Korean English
๊ฒ์ํ๋ค to play a game
์คํ์ดํฌ steak
ํ์คํ pasta
์๋ฌ๋ salad
์ ๋์ me too

## Questions

1. For the pronunciation of ์ฐ์ฑํ๋ค, it is [์ฐ์ฑ์นด๋ค]. Does that mean for ์ฐ์ฑํ๊ณ , it is [์ฐ์ฑ์นด๊ณ ]? (Update 16/5/2020: The answer, I later discover, is yes.)

Audrey didn't come for this lesson either, and the teacher said she couldn't make it, but I still think she may be trying to (less subtly) transfer... (I saw the teacher that Audrey said she preferred, who is also the one in-charge, talk to our teacher... saw because they spoke in Korean and obviously I didn't understand any part of that exchange except for Audrey's name.)

We learnt the past tense in this lesson. We also had the quiz, but not at the start. We first went through the dates/days of the weeks again, but using the textbook. In the last lesson, we used the handout only; we did not use the textbook for this topic at all. The quiz was after we had practised some of this and I found that I can at least say the dates a little better.

When we went through the answers for the quiz (quizzes are peer marked always) or perhaps one of the activities (I forgot which one), the teacher was typing out the answers. Usually, she writes, and I don't recall seeing her type before today.

When I first noticed that the answers are on the screen, I had thought she'd had them in a document and was copy/pasting them or they were hidden below, to be revealed as we went on to the next question.

I realised she was typing out the words really fast. I am still struggling to type with the Korean keyboard; these posts are very painful for that reason (and needing to switch keyboards too). I wish I had those typing skills... I wonder if they have those typing trainers for Korean (they probably do, I just don't know how to find them). If only I could type as well in Korean as in English. (Fun fact: I use Colemak.)

Then we moved on to the past tense, in the handout. That will be the bulk of the content for the post for today.

Since the teacher mentioned the test again, I asked when it would be, so I now know that it will be on the 6th lesson, about a month from now.

## Grammar

### 3. V-์/์-

There are 3 categories of verbs that we considered when we learnt the present tense. In the past tense, these 3 are also conjugated differently.

#### A. V-์- (ใ,ใ verbs)

This is for theใ,ใ verbs. You add ์์ด์ to it.

Let's say you have ์ฌ๋ค (to buy). The present tense is ์ฌ์, and the past tense is ์์ด์.

์ and ์ด์ are actually endings, and there are other endings which we will learn in future. Previously, we did a bit of the formal ending, so it's something like that. The part that is the past tense in ์์ด์ is the ใ.

That is why the header is V-์- (and not V-์์ด์) even though as we're learning it here, it says to add ์์ด์.

More examples:

1. ๋ง๋๋ค (to meet): ๋ง๋ฌ์ด์ (met)
2. ๋ฆ๋ค (to brush): ๋ฆ์์ด์ (brushed)
3. ๋ณด๋ค (to watch/see): ๋ดค์ด์ (watched/saw)

#### B. V-์- (the other verbs)

This is the catch-all, except for ~ํ๋ค verbs.

You add ์์ด์.

Examples:

1. ์ฃผ๋ค (to give): ์คฌ์ด์ (gave)
2. ์ฝ๋ค (to read): ์ฝ์์ด์ (read)
3. ๋ง์๋ค (to drink): ๋ง์จ์ด์ (drank)

#### C. V-ํ- (~ํ๋ค verbs)

As with the present tense, this is the easiest category. There's no need to consider any weird combinations. It's always consistenly ํ์ด์.

Examples:

1. ์ผํ๋ค (to work): ์ผํ์ด์
2. ๊ณต๋ถํ๋ค (to exercise): ๊ณต๋ถํ์ด์

I think my main difficulty with the past tense at this point is the unfamiliarity with the syllables that can sit on top of ใ (such as ๋ดค, ์คฌ, which I've never seen before today, though I know the letters), and so am unsure when I can combine the verb with the suffix to add when conjugating.

The other difficulty was being rather confused for a while at how the present tense form comes into play. (It doesn't.) The way it's presented in the handout shows it as the ๋ค being removed.

I saw this as chopping off the suffix to get the word stem... you have it in French, e.g. for -er verbs you remove the -er to find the stem and then you add the endings to it. (jouer, you remove er to get jou. From there you get: je joue, tu joues, il joue, nous jouons, vous jouez, ils jouent).

If the French example is lost on you... maybe you can think of it like how you chop off the "to" from the infinitive form...? Though that's not really a good illustration. It's just that English is... weird, and for many of the different persons the conjugation requires no removal of any part at all of the stem. (Just take "to run" - I run, you run, he runs, we run, they run. The stem - and in fact the root - is "run".)

But it seemed that, for example, ๋ณด๋ค, it's not ๋ฐจ์ด์, but ๋ดค์ด์. (Recall that the present tense is ๋ด์.) I was just confused, because you are adding ์์ด์, so the ใ is there as well, like how for present tense you are adding ์์ to get ๋ด์. My intuition for when the combining happens isn't strong enough yet.

### 3.5. Time์ Place์์ Object๋ฅผ Action

This is 3.5 because it's not really a grammar topic in the handout, but it's building on what we have learnt before.

We have these picture cards to practise in class. On one side are drawings representing (in this case) a verb, and on the other, the verb is given (in the infinitive). There are two ways that we usually practise with these cards. (This is done as a class or in smaller pairs/groups of 3.)

1. Using both sides: For each picture, we see if we know the word.
2. Using one side: We refer only to the picture side, and form sentences.

After having learnt the past tense, the teacher told us about this being the usual order in a sentence: Time์ Place์์ Object๋ฅผ Action.

(I think it's like in German how you can have the nouns in any order, but there is still a preferred order that is the most natural. Here you have particles that indicate the function of the nouns, but there is still a most natural order.)

We had learnt all this individually in the past lessons, so was putting everything together. For each card, we had to try to come up with a time, place, and object (unless it wasn't possible to do so for place and object). And of course, the action would be past tense.

We were taking turns in our group of 3. One of the cards was for ์ฃผ๋ค (to give), and it was my turn. The picture shows a man giving a bone to a dog (which I should know the words for, but it doesn't matter since in most cases you don't follow exactly what is on the picture but make up your own).

Someone in the group suggested saying give something to a friend. I paused, and thought: ๋ฅผ is direct object marker isn't it? We haven't learnt the indirect object particle, so how can that sentence even be formed?

I asked my group mates how to say that. They both looked at me with confused stares. I think they didn't understand my question. One of them explicitly told me so, the other said I should be asking the teacher.

Anyway, the teacher confirmed that we can't say that with what we've learnt, so that was that. But it was kind of surprising, I guess, that... okay, it's not really that surprising. If you haven't learnt a new language (L2) then you might not realise there is a difference. I still recall learning the CODs and COIs in French the first time.

## Vocabulary

Korean English
๊ณ ํฅ hometown
์ฒญ์ํ๋ค to clean
์์ํ๋ค to swim
์ด์ ํ๋ค to drive

Audrey didn't come for this lesson. I think she might be switching to the Wednesday class... even though it's 2 weeks behind. It's a hypothesis for now, but it will be more obvious in the next few weeks.

We spent about the first half of the class finishing up chapter 4, and then starting on chapter 5. We will be learning the past tense in chapter 5, and then after chapter 5, there will be a test.

There is also a vocab quiz in the next lesson on the temporal adverbs (pretty much that's what they are) and the days of the week.

## Pronunciation

When ใฑ, ใท, ใ, ใ, ใ are positioned after the final consonant ใฑ, they are pronounced [ใฒ, ใธ, ใ, ใ ,ใ].

Examples:

1. ์ฝ๊ตญ [์ฝ๊พน]
2. ํ๊ต [ํ๊พ]
3. ์๋น [์๋]
4. ์ฑ๋ฐฉ [์ฑ๋นต]
5. ํ์ [ํ์ฉ]
6. ๊ทน์ฅ [๊ทน์งฑ]

## Grammar

### 1. ๋ ์ง์ ์์ผ (Dates and Days)

#### A. Dates and Numbers, Round 2

We first learnt this in the foundation class. The teacher said that we would learn it again in Chapter 5. Well, today's the day. (Or, well, the day the lesson was held was the day, since now it's past that day.)

Last time, the score was Dates: 1, Students: 0

When we first learnt it, we were all confused. We did not fare much better this round, trying to figure out each other's birthdays, especially when the dates were the 20th, 21st, or 22nd of the month.

An explanation is in order, so I'll try my best.

The sentence for saying the date is: X์ Y์ผ์ด์์. (X-wol Y-i-ri-e-o.)

์ means month, ์ผ means day, and ์ด์์ means is, so a translation would be: It is day Y (of) month X.

However, recall that:

1. The word for the number one (1) is also ์ผ (il), exactly the same as the word for "day".
2. There is a pronunciation rule that says if the next syllable starts with ใ, then any batchim from the previous syllable is carried over. (See the pronunciation topic from Chapter 3, covered in the Lesson 14 post.)

If you have a date like the 1st of January (1์ 1์ผ), then it becomes ์ผ์ ์ผ์ผ์ด์์, which is pronounced as [์ด๋ค ์ด๋ฆฌ๋ฆฌ์์] - i-rol i-ri-ri-e-yo. (In Korean, like Chinese, you call the months by their numbers, so January is the first month, February the second month, and so on, until December which is the twelfth month.)

By itself, it doesn't seem that bad (if you manage to wrap your tongue around that excessive number of "r" sounds tere), but ์ด is not just a particle, it is the word for the number two (2) as well. The 2nd of January will sound like [์ด์ ์ด๋ฆฌ๋ฆฌ์์] - (i-wol i-ri-ri-e-yo).

This means that in order to correctly parse the correct date, you can't just hear that first syllable and call it a day, you must consider the next syllable as well.

The months of November and December are confusing as well. But to fully appreciate this, you need to understand the counting system in Korean. This follows the Chinese system. Eleven is literally "ten-one"; twelve "ten-two", that is, eleven is ์ญ์ผ (์ญ is ten, and ์ผ is one) and twelve is ์ญ์ด.

So you end up with ์ญ์ผ์ and ์ญ์ด์ as the names for November and December. They differ by a single ใน (r) sound.

That's just the months part. Now let's look at the days themselves. Remember I said something about 20, 21, and 22?

This system of counting also means that twenty is "two-ten", twenty-one is "two-ten-one", twenty-two is "two-ten-two"... and I think you can see where this is going.

• 20 is ์ด์ญ
• 21 is ์ด์ญ์ผ
• 22 is ์ด์ญ์ด

Looks fine? Recall the full sentence: X์ Y์ผ์ด์์.

Let's consider some dates:

• 20 November: ์ญ์ผ์ ์ด์ญ์ผ์ด์์. (shi-bi-rol i-shi-bi-ri-e-yo.)
• 21 December: ์ญ์ด์ ์ด์ญ์ผ์ผ์ด์์. (shi-bi-wol i-shi-bi-ri-ri-e-yo.)
• 22 December: ์ญ์ด์ ์ด์ญ์ด์ผ์ด์์. (shi-bi-wol i-shi-bi-i-ri-e-yo.)

While practising with the vocab cards in class, there was a of confusion when we forgot October is ์์ (pronounced shi-wol. It's a little special, so instead of ์ญ it's ์). The first thing to my mind was April (์ฌ์; sa-wol) and someone else thought March (์ผ์; sa-mwol).

After today, the score is Dates: 2, Students: 0. The subtle differences really trip me up. It will probably take some time to internalise.

(I long for the day when I will read this post again in the future and laugh at myself, that this was a problem at all.)

#### B. Days of the Week

We also went over the days of the week. I learnt it before some time back on my own (when I was still taking the Foundation class) by adding it to my Anki deck. It was not covered in class at the time.

It started when I could read enough Hangeul and realised that the Quizlet deck for our class, which is held on Saturdays, says ํ ์์ผ (to-yo-il) and I thought... it sounds like Japanese word for Saturday, which is ๅๆๆฅ (do-yล-bi). Specifially, ํ  (pronounced more like "toe" than the English "to") and ๅ (pronounced more like "doe" than... "do") are really similar.

And so I found out back then, that Korean use the same system for naming days of the week as in Japanese, which came from Chinese (though now it's not used in Chinese, we just count the days of the week like we count the months and days of the month).

This simplifies things a lot in terms of what I need to memorise because I still remember my Japanese days of the week - which I learnt close to 15 years ago - thanks to this poem (mnemonic devices do work, silly as they are, or rather, they work because they are silly):

Monday GETS you money, (ๆๆๆฅ; ge-tsu-yล-bi)
Tuesday gets you a CAR, (็ซๆๆฅ; ka-yล-bi)
Wednesday gets you something SWEET, (ๆฐดๆๆฅ; sui-yล-bi)
Thursday MOCKS you, (ๆจๆๆฅ; mo-ku-yล-bi)
Friday is the KING of the week, (้ๆๆฅ; kin-yล-bi)
Saturday gets you DOnuts, (ๅๆๆฅ; do-yล-bi)
Sunday finds your NICHE. (ๆฅๆๆฅ; ni-chi-yล-bi)

(I am severely irritated by all this transliteration, and am sorely tempted to use IPA, but I guess that would hurt readability... though... that's only if I'm not the one reading it. Since this is more of my notes to myself, it shouldn't matter if I use IPA. ๐คMaybe I should use IPA next time...)

There's a very nice entry on Wiktionary for Sunday that shows the (Classical) Chinese, Japanese, and Korean forms. There's links to the other Japanese days of the week there too.

Now, yes, the pronunciation for Monday and Sunday are rather off from the Japanese for Korean, but it's easy (for me) to recall because I know that Monday is ๆ, and ๆ means "moon", and also "month". Thus its Korean equivalent is simply ์, the word for "month". So Monday is ์์์ผ. Similarly for Sunday, the word for it is ๆฅ, which means "sun", and also "day", so Sunday is ์ผ์์ผ.

These are the 2 days of the week that share an obvious same meaning as their respective words in English.

Monday means "day of the moon". I only considered this when I thought how much the French word for Monday (lundi) looks rather much like the French word for "moon" (lune). It's also apparent in Italian, lunedรฌ, and luna. However, for the Romance languages, they derive the word from Latin more directly, but in the Germanic languages it kind of takes a detour.

This is more apparent if you consider the words for Sunday in English/German (Germanic languages), meaning "day of the sun", and French/Italian (Romance languages), where it means "day of the Lord".

Though, this is for this word, English is called the most romantic (is that the right word?) of the Germanic languages for a reason, due to the strong influence of Latin for many words, mostly through French.

Interestingly, Chinese has these two names for Sunday if you are going by the ๆๆ way of naming days of the week: ๆๆๆฅ (xฤซng-qฤซ-rรฌ) and ๆๆๅคฉ (xฤซng-qฤซ-tiฤn). Heh, that would be a topic all on its own. Here's a teaser.

In Korean (and Japanese, and some other East Asian languages), the words for Tuesday to Saturday look like they are named after some elements (at one point I think someone told me they were a cycle, like how fire ็ซ - Tuesday - is beaten by water ๆฐด - Wednesday). But in English they are more directly named after Roman gods.

However, if you dig further, you find that actually, they are all named after said Roman gods, or more specifically, the celestial objects named for those gods!

Phew! That was a rather deep rabbit hole that I dug myself into, but I had fun. But I think that's enough for now! There's still other things to cover.

### 2. N (Time) ์

This is used to indicate the time that something happens.

You add ์ to a noun (N) that indicates time to indicate that something takes place at a given time.

์ can be translated (for this context of time) as at, on, in, etc.

Time nouns include:

1. Dates (e.g. on the 9th of September = 9์ 9์ผ์)
2. Years (e.g. in 2019 = 2019๋์)
3. Months (e.g. in December = 12์์)
4. Days of the week (e.g. on Friday = ๊ธ์์ผ์)
5. "Weeks" (e.g. on the weekend ์ฃผ๋ง์, in this week ์ด๋ฒ ์ฃผ์)
6. "Named days" (e.g. on Christmas = ํฌ๋ฆฌ์ค๋ง์ค์)
7. Time (e.g. at 1 o'clock = ํ ์์) - this we have not learnt, but will learn in future.

You don't use this particle with the words ์ด์  (yesterday), ์ค๋ (today), ๋ด์ผ (tomorrow). This is like how in English, you don't say "on yesterday, I...", but simply "yesterday, I...".

Some example sentences:

1. 2์ 14์ผ์ ํํฐ๊ฐ ์์ด์. (There is a party on 14th February.)
2. ์์์ผ์ ํ๊ต์ ๊ฐ์. (I'm going to school on Monday.)
3. 7์์ ๋์ผ์ ๊ฐ์. (I'm going to Germany in July.)
4. ์ด๋ฒ ์ฃผ์ ์ผํด์? (Are you working this week?)
5. ๋ด์ผ ์ํ์ ๊ฐ์. (I'm going to the bank tomorrow.)
6. ๋ค์ ์ฃผ๋ง์ ๋ญ ํด์? (๋ค์ ์ฃผ๋ง์๋) ์น๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋ง๋์. (What are you doing next weekend? I'm meeting my friend [next weekend].)
• It's optional to say ๋ค์ ์ฃผ๋ง์๋, so you can simply answer ์น๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋ง๋์.
• ์๋ (instead of only ์) is used to indicate a time that was mentioned before.

## Vocabulary

Korean English
์ด์ฒ 2000
์ด์ฒ์ด์ญ 2020
์ด์ฒ์ด์ญ๋ the year 2020
์ผ์์ผ Sunday
์์์ผ Monday
ํ์์ผ Tuesday
์์์ผ Wednesday
๋ชฉ์์ผ Thursday
๊ธ์์ผ Friday
ํ ์์ผ Saturday
์ผ์ January
์ด์ February
์ผ์ March
์ฌ์ April
์ค์ May
์ ์ June
์น ์ July
ํ์ August
๊ตฌ์ September
์์ October
์ญ์ผ์ November
์ญ์ด์ December
์ด์  yesterday
์ค๋ today
๋ด์ผ tomorrow
์ง๋์ฃผ last week
์ด๋ฒ ์ฃผ this week
๋ค์ ์ฃผ next week
์ฃผ๋ง weekend
์ง๋์ฃผ๋ง last weekend
์ด๋ฒ ์ฃผ๋ง this weekend
๋ค์ ์ฃผ๋ง next weekend
์ํ test
์ ๋ฌผ gift
์์ผ birthday
์์ผ ์นด๋ birthday card
ํผ์ alone
Nํ๊ณ  with + noun
์น๊ตฌํ๊ณ  with a friend/friends
๊ฐ์ด [๊ฐ์น] together
์ฝ์ [์ฝ์] appointment; promise
์๊ฐ time
์ฌ์ง์ ์ฐ๋ค to take a photo
์ฐ์ฑํ๋ค [์ฐ์ฑ์นด๋ค] to take a walk
์ด๋ฅผ ๋ฆ๋ค to brush one's teeth
์ธ์ํ๋ค to wash (one's) face
๋๋๋ค [๋๋๋ค] to be finished
๋ฏธ์ํ๋ค to be sorry
๋ฌด์จ N what + noun
๋๊ตฌ who
์ธ์  when
๋ฉฐ์น  what date
๊ทธ๋์ so

## Questions

1. I'm not quite sure what is going on with the spacing for the last week/next week/last weekend/next weekend words.
1. It looks like "last" (์ง๋) seems to stick to the "week" (์ฃผ), but "this" (์ด๋ฒ) and "next" (๋ค์) do not, so you have ์ง๋์ฃผ, but ์ด๋ฒ ์ฃผ and ๋ค์ ์ฃผ. This is from the Quizlet deck. Why are they different?
2. It gets more confusing because in the handout, they are all written with a space between (i.e. ์ง๋ ์ฃผ). :/