notes on things I'm learning
96239 words

Lesson 49 (Beginner 3B Lesson 1): Wake-Up Call

My sense that my grasp of the language was slipping was true, though I'd ignored it for longer than I'd like to admit.

We did the Quizlet this lesson and boy, oh, boy, it was fantastic in showing me all the gaps in my knowledge. The problem is due to the way I added all the new Memrise-imported decks straight into my main "Everything" deck. That ended up with those cards being prioritised over the Korean cards that I had added, usually in a subdeck when I'm doing that chapter, before being merged to the parent deck once that chapter is over (and all the words have been learnt).

I've since fixed/temporarily solved the problem by creating another parent deck and putting the old "Everything" deck under that, and making sure the Korean deck for the chapter is before that one. I've started also revising with Quizlet as I think the next test is as near as 2 weeks away.

This is probably the second or third wake-up call. I guess I am bound to have one before every test at the least.


3. V-์•„/์–ด ์ฃผ๋‹ค

This is used to indicate when the subject of a sentences does something or offers a service to someone else.

์ฃผ๋‹ค by itself means "to give", so it's as though someone is giving you something by completing a certain action.

Conjugation-wise, conjugate to the informal polite, drop the polite ์š”, and then attach the appropriate conjugated form of ์ฃผ๋‹ค.

Most of the examples that we saw are with ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” as you are requesting a favour from someone.


  1. ์‚ฌ์ง„ ์ข€ ์ฐ์–ด ์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. = Please take a photo for me.
  2. ๋„์™€์ฃผ์„ธ์š”. = Help me.
    • This is verb special, in that there is no space between the verb and ์ฃผ๋‹ค.
  3. ์š”์ฆ˜ ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ์ค‘๊ตญ์–ด๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€๋ฅด์ณ ์ค˜์š”. = These days Nana is teaching me Chinese. (Present informal polite)
  4. ์–ด๋จธ๋‹ˆ๊ฐ€ ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์–ด ์คฌ์–ด์š”. Mother read the book to me. (Past informal polite)

4. N(์œผ)๋กœ + ๊ฐ€๋‹ค/์˜ค๋‹ค

This is used to indicate the direction of movement. It is translated as "to" or "towards" and is used with ๊ฐ€๋‹ค or ์˜ค๋‹ค (to go and to come respectively).

You add ๋กœ if there is no Batchim (or if the Batchim is ใ„น) and ์œผ๋กœ whenever there is Batchim.

(If I'm not mistaken, this ใ„น rule existed for some of the other grammars that we've learned, but those were attaching after verbs, not nouns, and there aren't many verbs we've seen that end with ใ„น, which is probably why this is the first time this is highlighted.)

You can attach it to directions and places.


  • ์ด์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ (this way)
  • ์™ผ์ชฝ์˜ค๋กœ (to the left)
  • 1์ธต์˜ค๋กœ (to the 1st floor)
  • ์œ„๋กœ (up)
  • ๊ต์‹ค๋กœ (towards the classroom)

Then what is the difference between N(์œผ)๋กœ ๊ฐ€๋‹ค and N์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค?

The former has a focus on the direction, while the latter focuses on the destination. While you can use places with both expressions, you cannot use a direction with N์— ๊ฐ€๋‹ค in most cases because it is not the final destination:

  • ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”. (O)
  • ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ์— ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”. (X) - Because the right side is not the final destination.


Korean English Notes
์ผœ๋‹ค to switch on; to turn on e.g. electric appliances such as air conditioner, TV, radio, and lights
๋„๋‹ค to switch off; to turn off
์ดˆ๋Œ€์žฅ invitation card
์ดˆ๋Œ€ invitation
์™ผ์ชฝ left side
์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ right side
1์ธต 1st floor [์ผ์ธต]
์ง€ํ•˜1์ธต Basement 1
ํƒ์‹œ ๊ธฐ์‚ฌ taxi driver

Lesson 48 (Beginner 3A Lesson 8): I planned to write this post

The class today had only 3 of us students. The student with the same Korean name as the other Korean teacher, my friend, and I. She was late, so when the lesson started it was just my friend and I. At the end of the class, the teacher said that the other newer student will be tranferring to the Wednesday class, and that this student also can't attend every Saturday, so I think she's transferring to another class. I am not sure but the way the teacher said goodbye makes me think that the class is taught by another teacher, since our teacher said that she might see this student in the Wednesday or Saturday classes if she does make-up class. So from next week, the class will be back to 4 of us that were from the previous teacher's class.

We continued with Chapter 13 vocabulary, and then did the first 2 grammar points. Everything was from the handout; we did not touch the textbook today.


1. V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to indicate intention, desire, or a plan to do a certain action. The teacher said that in higher levels, we would continue to see more of ๋ ค๊ณ , and every time we see it, it will be used to indicate some sort of intention or plan.

This does have a past tense, you could say ... ๋ ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ์–ด์š” to indicate that you had planned to do something in the past. Though given this construct, it's likely that you will follow up with something along the lines of "but I was too busy" (and so I did not).

To conjugate, nothing new. You take the basic form as with the other ์œผ verbs, such as -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” and -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. (As a reminder, only if you see ์•„/์–ด then do you not take the basic form.)

And as with anything with the optional thing in brackets, you know that you need to check for batchim. If there is batchim, that's when you add the optional part. If there isn't, then you don't have to add it.


  1. ํ•˜๊ต์— ๊ฐ€๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”. (I plan to go to school.)
  2. ์ง‘์—์„œ ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์œผ๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•ด์š”. (I plan to eat at home.)
  3. ์–ด์ œ ์ˆ˜์˜ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ์–ด์š”. (I planned to go swimming yesterday.)

The difference between this and the future tense V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” is that the future tense is used generically to express a future event.

On the other hand, V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค has more emphasis on the intent.

Notably, you can use V-(์œผ)๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ค with the past tense as demonstrated, because you can used it to talk of your intentions in the past. However, it is impossible to use the future tense with past events.

2. N์—์„œ N๊นŒ์ง€

These look familiar, don't they?

N์—์„œ was seen all the way back in Lesson 13 and was used to indicate where an actiion was taking place.

We saw ๊นŒ์ง€ used with time, and it appeared together with ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ back in Lesson 39.

Here, we see another (but related) use for both of these:

  1. ์—์„œ is used to specify a starting point (location) for physical movement.
  2. ๊นŒ์ง€ is used to specify an ending point (location) for physical movement.

Again, like N๋ถ€ํ„ฐ N๊นŒ์ง€ with time, it is possible to use them on their own, though they frequently are used together.


  1. ์ง‘์—์„œ ํ•™๊ต๊นŒ์ง€ ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์›Œ์š”. (It is near from my house to the school.)
  2. ๊ณต์›์—์„œ ๋ณ‘์›๊นŒ์ง€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๊ฐ€์š”? (How do you get from the park to the hospital?)
  3. ์–ด๋Š ๋‚˜๋ผ์—์„œ ์™”์–ด์š”? (Which country do you come from?)
  4. ์ˆ˜์˜์žฅ๊นŒ์ง€ (์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด) ์–ผ์•„๋‹ˆ ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”? (How far is it to the swimming pool?)

Important to take note that with time, you have to use ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ and not ์—์„œ. If I had a pitfalls/things to watch out for section this would go in it.


Korean English Notes
์—ญ station
์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ [์ •๋‰ด์žฅ] stop, stand ๋ฒ„์Šค ์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ = bus stop; ํƒ์‹œ ์ •๋ฅ˜์žฅ = taxi stand
์–ผ๋งˆ๋‚˜ how long
(์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด) ๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to take (time) 5๋ถ„(์ด) ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”. = to take 5 minutes (์˜ค ๋ถ„); 1์‹œ๊ฐ„ ๊ฑธ๋ ค์š”. = to take 1 hour. (ํ•œ ์‹œ๊ฐ„)
๋ฉ€๋‹ค to be far
๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค to be near
์•Œ์•„๋ณด๋‹ค to look into; to find out; to check (e.g. price) literally, to know + to see combined.
๋‹ซ๋‹ค to close e.g. a door
์—ด๋‹ค to open
๋•๋‹ค to help ๋„์™€์š” is the informal present tense, it's irregular. I've seen it before in Duolingo.
ํŽธ๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค [ํŽผ๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค] to be convenient
๋ถˆํŽธํ•˜๋‹ค to be inconvenient
์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค to use ไฝฟ็”จ (as with all Hanja, to change into a verb, requires ํ•˜๋‹ค). The native Korean term is ์“ฐ๋‹ค (yes, same as "to write").
์„ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to stop (something) to stop something moving, such as a car. You would use this to tell the taxi to stop so you can alight.
์‹ ํ˜ธ๋“ฑ traffic light ไฟกๅท (signal) + ็ฏ (lamp)
์š”๊ธˆ fare ๆ–™้‡‘
์น ํŒ blackboard/whiteboard Same word for both.
๊นŽ๋‹ค to discount Back in Chapter 5, we learnt the phrase ๊นŽ์•„ ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” which means "Please give me a discount" and which my teacher at the time said that she would never use in real life. (I think because she thinks it's quite a daring thing, I guess.)
N ์•ˆ์— within, in 10๋ถ„ ์•ˆ์— = within 10 minutes; ์ง‘ ์•ˆ์— = in the house
N ๊ทผ์ฒ˜ near + N e.g. ์ง‘ ๊ทผ์ฒ˜. The difference between this and ๊ฐ€๊น๋‹ค is that this one requires a noun (place), while the other doesn't need a place and can be used to end a sentence. The teacher said this one is similar to Chinese ้™„่ฟ‘ but the other one is more like ๏ผˆๅพˆ๏ผ‰่ฟ‘. (She said ๅพˆ่ฟ‘ but I guess it's more just ่ฟ‘ because... well, her Chinese isn't that great - not that mine is anything amazing - and ๅพˆ means "very".)

Lesson 47 (Beginner 3A Lesson 7): End Chapter 12

I received the notes for chapters 13-15, including a revision sheet for the test which will be after chapter 13, and the answer sheet for the test. The next test is from chapters 9-13. Given that typically it's about 3 weeks to complete a chapter, I should expect the test in about a month. Time really flies, doesn't it?

Today's lesson was mostly on finishing up chapter 12 in the textbook, since in the last lesson we'd already covered the grammar in the handout. So we did the speaking, listening, and reading exercises, as well as the culture note and pronunciation topic which I will cover since those are new.

The student who used to sit in the dark wasn't here again. I really should take note of how often they skip. I really wonder how they can manage because even though I'm going for class and doing some (albeit minimal) revision on Anki I get lost, like at the start of the lesson when the questions being asked are freestyle questions.

For the last 10 minutes, we started with the vocabulary for chapter 13, which is on transportation.

This post is written before I do my homework (unlike the usual) because this week's homework involves writing (no worksheet) and also giving a call to the teacher to practise oral. :/ (It's a defined exercise but still... making phone calls to other people make me nervous. Doubly so if it's to an authority figure like a teacher. Triply so if it's in a foreign language.)


I'm making a note here that phone numbers are hard.

This is probably more of a culture note, but for 1 and 2 in phone numbers, some Koreans may opt to use the native numbers (though that is strictly not correct) because it makes it much clearer. For the Sino-Korean numbers, 1 (์ผ) and 2 (์ด) sound much too similar that it can also be a challenge for native speakers to differentiate. By contrast, ํ•˜๋‚˜ and ๋‘˜ are very distinct.

Culture Note

The culture note was about emergency numbers in Korea. Or more specifically, the numbers to call if some sort of incident happens.

If a burglar broke in, or if there's a car accident, you should call the police at 112.

If a fire broke out, or your friend is really sick, then you should call 119 for the fire service or the ambulance.

The teacher mentioned that there are other numbers such as 111, 114, and 120.

She said 111 is for reporting suspected North Korean spies (if I understood correctly). Like, if you had a colleague that you suspected was a North Korean spy or something, you'd call that.

114 is a phone service, used more in the past when there wasn't Internet available everywhere. If you wanted to know the number of say a particular eatery, you would call them to ask what the number of the eatery is and they would tell you.

I'm not sure what 120 is for, the teacher didn't mention in class. A quick search gave this site which says:

Seoul Dasan Call Centre: Information related to services provided by the City of Seoul

Sounds like 114? I have no idea what's the difference, is this 120 something specific to Seoul?


The pronunciation topic for the chapter was on the prounciation for ๋ชป, which was also discussed last week.

It mentions 3 rules:

  1. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ„ฑ,ใ„ท,ใ…‚,ใ……,ใ…ˆ โ†’ [๋ชฏ] + [ใ„ฒ], [ใ„ธ], [ใ…ƒ], [ใ…†], [ใ…‰]. (That is, with single consonants with a double consonant counterpart, the sound is of the double consonant)
  2. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ„ด,ใ… โ†’ [๋ชฌ] + [ใ„ด],[ใ…]. (We covered this last week, where it becomes [๋ชฌ].)
  3. ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ…Ž โ†’ [๋ชจ] + [ใ…Œ] (Nothing new here, this was covered in chapter 11, see Lesson 44 where the pronunciation of ใ…Ž was mentioned.)

Last week, we mentioned another rule with ๋ชป[๋ชฏ] + ใ…‡ but here because ๋ชป is simply taken to be pronounced as [๋ชฏ] as a premise, it's not mentioned.


Korean English Notes
๋ฒ„์Šค bus
๊ณ ์†๋ฒ„์Šค express bus ๊ณ ์† = high speed (้ซ˜้€Ÿ)
์ง€ํ•˜์ฒ  subway ๅœฐไธ‹้“, literally "underground metal (iron)"
๊ธฐ์ฐจ train ๆฑฝ่ฝฆ, from the old steam trains (ๆฑฝ = steam, vapour, gas). But this is funny because in Chinese today, ๆฑฝ่ฝฆ means "car".
ํƒ์‹œ taxi
๋น„ํ–‰๊ธฐ airplane ้ฃž่กŒๆœบ
๋ฐฐ ship Reminder that it also means "stomach" and "pear".
์ž์ „๊ฑฐ bicycle
์˜คํ† ๋ฐ”์ด motorbike auto bike
๊ณตํ•ญ airport
N์„/๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to take/ride N where N is a means of transport
N์—์„œ ๋‚ด๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to get off at N where N is a station
N(์œผ)๋กœ ๊ฐˆ์•„ํƒ€๋‹ค to transfer to N where N is e.g. another (subway) line. 2ํ˜ธ์„ ์—์„œ 3ํ˜ธ์„ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐˆ์•„ํƒ€์š”. = I transfer from line 2 to line 3.
๊ฐˆ๋‹ค to replace
๊ฑธ์–ด(์„œ) ๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go on foot can also be used with ์˜ค๋‹ค

Lesson 46 (Beginner 3A Lesson 6): I was late because I was unable to join the Zoom meeting

I was almost 10 minutes late to the lesson because of, basically, technical difficulties. For some reason, the password for the Zoom meeting was "wrong". It kept telling me I typed the wrong password.

Initially I thought I'd remembered it wrong. Then I thought it was the wrong keyboard (since I use Colemak, but switch to the Korean one to type in my Korean name, though usually it switches back).

But after trying so many times, I really suspect something went wrong somewhere. I not only used the laptop's keyboard, but also my external keyboard, and I even resorted to copy and paste and still it didn't work.

Eventually I resorted to using another computer. This is the older one that I have which, well, near the end almost ran out of battery, so I had to charge it, which ended up being really slow, and even after I closed pretty much all other apps. :/

My friend didn't join the lesson, so intially I messaged him to say that I couldn't get on, but he said he wasn't joining today. I was wondering if it was just me, and turns out it was. But they were just going through the first speaking dialogue in the textbook.

The rest of the lesson was finishing up the handout with the 2 grammar points, and I noticed that the teacher rotated us for all the different breakout sessions.

Also, I got the invoice for the next term today after the lesson.


3. ๋ชป V

This is used to express that the subject of the sentence is unable to perform the verb. It is a form of negation.

The grammar itself is very simple, and we saw this somewhat in Lesson 35, with N์„/๋ฅผ ๋ชปํ•˜๋‹ค. However, that was specifically for ํ•˜๋‹ค verbs. The teacher mentioned in brief the use of ์ž˜ with other verbs back then, too, I remember it was ์น˜๋‹ค.

The idea is that when you say you cannot do something, then you use ๋ชป. For this reason, ๋ชป can only be used with verbs. The other negation ์•ˆ can be used with both verbs and adjectives because it negates an action or a state.

When would you use ๋ชป or ์•ˆ?

Say you have a question such as: ๋‚ด์ผ ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐ€์š”? (Are you going to school tomorrow?)

If you answer: ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, ๋ชป ๊ฐ€์š”. ๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (No, I cannot go. I caught a cold.)

But if you could also say: ์•„๋‹ˆ์š”, ์•ˆ ๊ฐ€์š”. ์ˆ˜์—…์ด ์—†์–ด์š”. (No, I am not going. I do not have class.)

Notice the difference. In the second, you would not use ๋ชป because it's not about your inability to go.

A small note about this, is that if the teacher asks you if you did your homework, you should use ๋ชป and not ์•ˆ. During the class, the teacher said if we used ์•ˆ she will be very hurt, and basically the reason for that is when you use ์•ˆ, it's as though you intentionally did not do the homework. I found the explanation when I re-read this article (I first read it after Lesson 35).


Now, the tricky part with this is the pronunciation.

  1. ๋ชป + ใ„ด, ใ…: [๋ชฌ]. Example: ๋ชป ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š” [๋ชฌ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์š”], ๋ชป ๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค [๋ชฌ ๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค]
  2. ๋ชป + ใ…‡: [๋ชจใ„ท]. Example: ๋ชป ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์š” [๋ชจ๋””๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜์š”]. (Think of ๋ง›์—†๋‹ค, it's [๋งˆ๋ฅ๋”ฐ])

For the second one, it's when two different words are combined that you get the [ใ„ท] sound. For example with ์˜ท์ด (์˜ท + particle), this is pronounced as [์˜ค์‹œ]. The teacher also answered my previous unspoken question I have regarding why ๋ง›์žˆ๋‹ค is [๋งˆ์‹ฃ๋”ฐ]. Originally, ๋ง›์žˆ๋‹ค was pronounced as [๋งˆ๋”›๋”ฐ], but it's become so common that they stick the two together, and it has the [ใ……] sound instead.

4. A/V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ

This is used to express cause and effect.

With the above construction, the cause goes before the -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ, while the result comes after. Otherwise, you will invert the cause and effect. Basically, the -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ sticks to the cause, so if you want to mention the effect first, and put the cause after, you must also move -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ together with the cause.

This is the grammar behind the greeting phrase "Nice to meet you": ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ ๋ฐ˜๊ฐ‘์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‚˜. (Literally, I meet you so I'm glad.)

By this point it isn't hard to figure out how to conjugate it, it's just the same as -์•„์š”/์–ด์š”/ํ•ด์š” but you replace ์š” with ์„œ. (Honestly my problem now is remembering which grammar requires the basic form and which ones require me to conjugate.)


  • ๋งŽ๋‹ค: ๋งŽ์•„์„œ
  • ๋จน๋‹ค: ๋จน์–ด์„œ
  • ์ข‹์•„ํ•˜๋‹ค: ์ข‹์•„์„œ

Just two things to take note of:

  1. The tense is only expressed in the final clause (like ๊ณ ). You will never have ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์„œ (X). Even if the cause is in the past, you will not have that.
  2. -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ/ํ•ด์„œ cannot be used with imperative or propositive forms, such as -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” and -(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”?. If you are trying to express a reason for a suggestion (e.g. please eat this because it's delicious), it utilises another grammar, not this.

4.5 N(์ด)๋ผ์„œ

This is the noun form, when you are giving a reason that is a noun. It's not in the textbook at this point, but will be covered later. It was included in the handout, so I'll include it too.

Same as before, you add the ์ด if the noun has batchim, otherwise leave it out.


  1. ์ผ์š”์ผ์ด๋ผ์„œ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์‰ฌ์–ด์š”. (It's Sunday so I rest at home.)
  2. ์•ฝ์† ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ๋‘ ์‹œ๋ผ์„œ ์ง€๊ธˆ ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (The appointment is at 2pm so I have to go now.)


Not many new words today as well.

Korean English Notes
๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹ค to go out, to leave
์†Œํ’ picnic
๊ธฐ์–ต memory Sino-Korean word from ่จ˜ๆ†ถ (่ฎฐๅฟ†), from ่จ˜ (โ€œrecordingโ€) + ๆ†ถ (โ€œthinkingโ€). ๊ธฐ์–ต ์•ˆ ๋‚˜์š”. = I don't remember.


Well, I was indeed late, and one of the grammar points was about giving a reason for something. And the other was about inability to do something, so it's kind of a stretch, but I guess it works?

Lesson 45 (Beginner 3A Lesson 5): Wasn't I writing this post?

We started the lesson with going through the different responses that we had to do for the homework, which was giving advice based on one of 4 scenarios. Turns out that I was overthinking because the other students submitted pretty short answers. Mine wasn't very long either, but had a few more sentences.

Then we revised the vocab for Chapter 12. The teacher had a Zoom virtual background today, and though she was at the school (she turned off the background later when we did the revision with the physical cards), she only used 1 computer to connect to the meeting.

We also covered the first 2 grammar points in the handout for Chapter 12, and in the textbook. The only breakout session was to complete 4 questions in the handout that had to do with the second grammar point. 2 of the students couldn't make it, so it was just 4 students, all from the previous class. (It's the 2 newer students that were unable to join today.)


1. A/V-์ง€์š”, N(์ด)์ง€์š”

This is used when a speaker wants to confirm something that they already know. In English, you would translate it as "right", or "isn't it", etc. (I just cannot help but think of the German oder.)

For example:

  • It's raining, right? = ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • The food was good, wasn't it? = ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€์š”?
  • You will go to school tomorrow, right? = ๋‚ด์ผ ํ•™๊ต์— ๊ฐˆ ๊ฑฐ์ง€์š”?

In spoken Korean, when it's said fast, you usually will not hear [์ง€์š”], but [์ฃ ].

From the examples, you can see that all that is needed is to add the basic form of the adjective or the verb in the present tense.

For the past or future tense, you conjugate the verb as per normal, but instead of ์–ด์š” (past) or ์˜ˆ์š” (future), you replace it with ์ง€์š”.

Note that this ์ง€์š” can only be used in the question, similar to (์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”? If someone asked, you have to reply with with the indicative form:

  • ๊ฐ€: ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์˜ค์ง€์š”?
  • ๋‚˜: ๋„ค, ๋น„๊ฐ€ ์™€์š”.

Now, what happens if you had already ended the sentence? Say you wanted to ask for a confirmation of opinion about the food, but instead of ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์ง€์š”? you had already said ์Œ์‹์ด ๋ง›์žˆ์–ด์š”.

How do you then turn it into a question? You add ๊ทธ๋ ‡์ง€์š”? behind. When spoken, you may simply hear ๊ทธ์ตธ? (As we saw last lesson, ใ…Ž + ใ…ˆ will make a ใ…Š sound.)

By the way, it intially confused me at first, but I thought whatever is said by the original speaker asking had to be true. That is, the answer can only be ๋„ค. But it's possible for it to be ์•„๋‹ˆ์š” and then the listener provides a correction.

So far the examples were for adjectives and verbs, so what about nouns? It's essentially the same, but here you have to look out for the batchim (which didn't matter for the adjectives and verbs).

If the noun ends in a syllable with batchim, you need to add ์ด before ์ง€์š”. Otherwise, you do not.

  • ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์ค‘๊ตญ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด์ง€์š”? (Isn't Nana Chinese?)
  • ์ค„์ด์•™ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ˆ˜์ง€์š”? (Julian is a singer, right?)

Similarly, if it's in the past tense:

  • ๋งˆ๋ฆฌ์ฝ” ์”จ๋Š” ํ•™์ƒ์ด์—ˆ์ง€์š”? (Mariko was a student, wasn't she?)
  • ์ƒค์˜ค๋ฐ ์”จ๋Š” ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜์˜€์ง€์š”? (Wasn't Xiao Ming an athlete?)

This follows from the past tense form of ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”. I've not covered it in a lesson post, but it's described in this post which included stuff I learnt/discovered before the last test.

The teacher did summarise it in class today. What was interesting is that for ์ด์—์š”, she highlighted that the ์ด์–ด (minus the last stroke in ์—) is present in ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”, while for ์˜ˆ์š”, the same 2 (horizontal) lines are in ์˜€์–ด์š”.

2. V-๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”

This is the present progressive form, basically the to be + -ing form in English, such as "I am eating".

A sentence like ์ €๋Š” ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์–ด์š” can have 3 meanings:

  1. I eat rice. (a general statement)
  2. I am eating rice. (something I am doing right now)
  3. I am going to eat rice. (something I am going to do in the near future)

So this form is used when you want to emphasise an action you are in the midst of doing. It can only be used for the second meaning above.

This is where I think English is just weird, after having learnt other languages. The point is that for the present tense form and progressive form, most languages do not actually differentiate between the 2 as much as English does. Or more precisely, usually in other languages the regular, present tense form is used much more frequently.

This is something that was mentioned in both my French and German classes. It's along the lines of (for French) je mange is used for both "I eat" and "I am eating". Similarly for German, with ich esse. (And yes, they also can indicate an action in the near future. Definitely for German, for French I'd probably use aller + V - the futur proche - but I think it's also valid to use the present tense form...)

French does also have a form for emphasising that you are in the midst of doing an action that I recall, which is the en train de faire + V.

The point isn't that other languages apart from English do not have the distinction, but my sense now is even for Korean, you only use this form to differentiate when you are trying to emphasise, and so it's not as commonly used. But for English the -ing form is much more common, which makes it the exception.

There really is nothing to this, after seeing so many conjugations. You just have to put the basic form of the verb.


  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I am eating.)
  • ์ œ์ธ ์”จ๋Š” ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Jane is studying.)

What's more interesting, but not all that surprising, is how you can make the past tense and honorific forms.


  • ์ €๋Š” ๋จน๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I was eating.)
  • ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”. (The teacher is waiting for the bus.)
  • ํ• ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋Š” ๋ผ๋””์˜ค๋ฅผ ๋“ฃ๊ณ  ๊ณ„์…จ์–ด์š”. (Grandmother was listening to the radio.)

Basically, it's just conjugating ์ด๋‹ค, which we have seen before. See Lesson 36 for grammar for the honorific form.


Not many new words today.

Korean English Notes
์—ฐ์Šตํ•˜๋‹ค to practise
๋งˆ๋‹ค every You use ๋‚ด (๋‚ด์ผ, ๋‚ด์ฃผ...) for single syllable. You use ๋งˆ๋‹ค for words with more than one syllable: ์ฃผ๋ง๋งˆ๋‹ค, ํ† ์š”์ผ๋งˆ๋‹ค.
๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค to stop ๋น„๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ์ณค์–ด์š”. = It stopped raining.
๋ฐ”๋‹ท๊ฐ€ beach ๋ฐ”๋‹ค (ocean/sea) + ๊ฐ€ (side)
๊ณ ์น˜๋‹ค to fix Kind of coincidental that it's similar to ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค, this came up because I said I was fixing flashcards since we learnt the progressive form today (second grammar point). ๊ทธ์น˜๋‹ค came up because it was raining and the teacher was asking if it indeed was raining (the first grammar point).


It's based on the grammar points again. Maybe when I re-read all these posts in the future I will laugh at the titles I made up.

Lesson 44 (Beginner 3A Lesson 4): End Chapter 11

Note: I realised today that the footnote linking on Listed is broken after making an edit to Lesson 42. This seems to affect even older posts, so I don't think it's something that is only affecting new posts. Ah, well.

A delayed post, one student didn't attend. The one whose English name I still don't know, but whose Korean name is that of the previous teacher.

It's unfortunately been too long since the lesson for me to remember the contents. So this is with reference. We mostly completed the textbook speaking, listening, and even reading, and then started on vocab for Chapter 12.

For the writing which was homework, we had to decide which one to pick at the time when we touched on the reading. I picked one though I wasn't really that committed to anything. At the end of the lesson the teacher said she wanted all 4 of the advice column topics to be written. Since I had picked the same thing as another student, the teacher asked me and the other student who picked the same topic to basically scissors-paper-stone or its equivalent to decide who does the original topic and who does the unpicked topic. (Actually 2 pairs picked 2 of the same topics but she chose me and the other person who picked the topic on improving pronunciation.) So I forfeited but I think the other student misunderstood and was nice and said she could try the (unpicked) topic. I hope I cleared it up. Anyway, we were supposed to post this to KakaoTalk group chat and no one has done it yet. The teacher sent us a reminder this morning.

Culture Note

The culture note was on traditional home remedies for sickness. The textbook covers four:

  1. When you have any nose symptoms (e.g. running nose), then you should take a spring onion and put it on your nose.
  2. If your throat hurts, gargle with salt water.
  3. If you have a cough, you should grind radishes and drink the juice.
  4. If you have body aches due to a cold, you should massage behind your neck.

The teacher said she had never heard of the first one until she saw it in the textbook. The second is common; I know that one too. The teacher said she heard of the third one as well, but never tried it.

The discussion question was on home remedies for colds in our country. Someone mentioned Vicks, first someone said to put it in hot water and inhale it, and that reminded me of when the doctor said to do that with just hot water. Usually if I used Vicks it's more for a blocked nose? Anyway it's a kind of cream that has the cooling sensation after a while. It also has a strong medicinal smell.

The teacher heard of Vicks but she only knows of the candy, so intially I think she didn't realise that this Vicks cream is inedible, so that took some explanation. They do have a candy for sore throat too.

The teacher also asked about... basically, charcoal pills. I forgot how she said it but we all realised she meant charcoal pills. Those are for diarrhoea, but I never thought it was a kind of home remedy? Another student (the other new student who isn't new anymore, but comparatively) said you could take 100 Plus for diarrhoea. I've never heard of that one.


The pronunciation rules this chapter aren't anything new, they're something we've seen before, and have to do with the pronunciation of 'ใ…Ž'.

  1. If ใ…Ž is the final consonant, and the next syllable starts with ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…ˆ, ใ…‚, then you don't pronounce the ใ…Ž, and the next syllable's initial consonants are pronounced as their aspirated forms ใ…‹, ใ…Œ, ใ…Š, ใ….
    • ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ [์–ด๋– ์ผ€]
    • ์ข‹๋‹ค [์กฐํƒ€]
  2. If ใ…Ž is the initial consonant of a syllable that comes after a syllable that ends with ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, then the syllable is pronounced with ใ…‹, ใ…Œ, ใ… instead of ใ…Ž, and the batchim isn't pronounced with the preceding consonant.
    • ๋ฐฑํ™”์  [๋ฐฐ์ฝฐ์ ]
    • ๋ชปํ•ด์š” [๋ชจํƒœ์š”]

The important thing to note in the second rule is that "ending with ใ„ท" means any of the family of ใ„ท sounds, so as you see with ๋ชปํ•ด์š” [๋ชจํƒœ์š”].

The textbook doesn't actually include ใ…‚ in the first list, and doesn't include ใ…ˆ in the second. Since the teacher only mentioned ใ…‚, I didn't include ใ…ˆ in the second list above. I actually have a feeling that it should apply too... the teacher said that it applies to all consonants with the aspirated strong sound, though that was made at the start and it's ambiguous enough to apply only to the first rule. Regardless, when I stumble upon an example, then I'll (hopefully remember to) update this.


Korean English Notes
์กฐ์–ธ advice
์‹ธ์šฐ๋‹ค to fight ๋‚จ์ž ์นœ๊ตฌ์™€ ์‹ธ์› ์–ด์š”.
์™ธ๊ตญ foreign country
์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ phone number
ํœด๋Œ€ํฐ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ cellphone number ํ•ธ๋“œํฐ is common in spoken language.
๋ฌธ์ž text Not just text message, but text. Sino-Korean word from ๆ–‡ๅญ—.
๋ฌธ์ž๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›๋‹ค to receive a text message
๋ฌธ์ž๋ฅผ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to send a text message
์ „ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›๋‹ค to answer the phone
์ „ํ™”(๋ฅผ) ํ•˜๋‹ค to phone to make a call or to talk on the phone
์‚ฌ๊ณ ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋‹ค an accident occurs Here, ๋‚˜๋‹ค means "to happen". In the last chapter, we learnt one of the other meanings, which is "to come out".
๋ถˆ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค a fire breaks out ๋ถˆ = fire
๋„๋‘‘์ด ๋“ค๋‹ค a burglar breaks in ๋“ค๋‹ค means "to enter". Its present tense polite form is the same as "to listen", which is ๋“ค์–ด์š”. If you heard a burglar, it would be ๋„๋‘‘์„ ๋“ค์–ด์š”. But if the burglar heard you, then it is the same as a burglar breaking in: ๋„๋‘‘์ด ๋“ค์–ด์š”.
๋Šฆ์ž  oversleeping ๋Šฆ์ž ์„ ์ž๋‹ค. Not to be confused with nap (๋‚ฎ์ง).
์‚ฌ๋ฌด์‹ค office
์žฅ์†Œ place
์—ฌํ–‰์‚ฌ travel agency
์ผ matter ์ผ is a word with many meanings, we already know it can mean "work" or "one" (the number). More generally it can refer to a matter. To ask "What's up?" you would say ๋ฌด์Šจ ์ผ์ด์—์š”? To say you have something on (without getting too specific) you can say ์ผ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”, but this can be mistaken as you have work. Typically, when using ์ผ to mean "matter" and not "work" you add ์ข€: ์ผ์ด ์ข€ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (I have something on.)
์กฐ๊ธˆ ์ „ a little while ago
์กฐ๊ธˆ ํ›„ after a little while
์•„๊นŒ a while ago
์ด๋”ฐ later
๋‹ค๋ฅธ (+ N) another other, different, etc. Examples: ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์š”์ผ, ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‹œ๊ฐ„, ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ... For something unspecified: ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ฑฐ
๊ทธ๋Ÿผ์š”. Sure.
์—ฌ๋ณด์„ธ์š”. Hello. (on the phone)
์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ๊ฐ€ ๋ช‡ ๋ฒˆ์ด์—์š”? / ์ „ํ™”๋ฒˆํ˜ธ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋˜์„ธ์š”? What is your phone number? You use the second (honorific) version with a boss/senior.
์‹ค๋ก€์ง€๋งŒ ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ์„ธ์š”? Excuse me, but who's calling, please? Since you don't know who is calling, you would tend to err on the side of being more polite, and use the honorific form.
์ € ๋‚˜๋‚˜์˜ˆ์š”. This is Nana. Over the phone, you would not use the topic particle ์€/๋Š” to identify yourself.

Lesson 43 (Beginner 3A Lesson 3): I must only write this post

This lesson was a bit different. The teacher used her iPad instead of her laptop, because apparently the battery stopped charging that morning. She had used it for a physical in-person class in the morning (which also explains why she's now at the school every week), and then the message about the battery needing to be charged came up even though it was plugged in.

This meant that we had no breakout rooms, and there was no listening to the audio files. There was no interactive textbook stuff (I think it's some extra content for the textbook). There was a PDF of the textbook and also the handouts so those were still screen shared.

Today, I'm going to try to do free recall when typing out the first cut of this post for the grammar in an attempt to improve my learning on the topic. I've known this from probably the book Make It Stick, but since I'm reading Ultralearning now and it's a reminder, I should try to do more of this to aid my own learning.

I've already done the vocab in advance, so those are definitely not from memory. But in terms of learning vocab, I always have Anki.


3. N๋งŒ

This is used to indicate something unique, that is, the "only" thing. It can also be translated "just".

In terms of where it occupies a sentence grammatically, it can be anywhere that ๋„ can be. (For more on ๋„, see Lesson 27.)

Like ๋„, it replaces ์€/๋Š”, ์„/๋ฅผ and ๊ฐ€/์ด.1

It exists together with the other particles such as ์— and ์—์„œ, so instead of replacing them, you would have ์—๋งŒ or ์—์„œ๋งŒ.


  1. ์˜ค๋Š˜ ์•„์นจ๋งŒ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I only ate breakfast today. That is, I didn't eat any other meal.)
  2. ์ €๋งŒ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์šด๋™ํ•ด์š”. (Only I exercised at home. That is, out of everyone at home, only I exercised at home.)
  3. ์—ฌ์šฐ์›์ˆญ์ด๋Š” ๋งˆ๋‹ค๊ฐ€์Šค์นด๋ฅด์—๋งŒ ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (Lemurs are only found in Madagascar.)

4. V-์•„์•ผ/์–ด์•ผ/ํ•ด์•ผ ๋˜๋‹ค/ํ•˜๋‹ค

This is used to indicate when something must or has to be done. It can also indicate something should be done.

  • In the informal form, it is more common to use ๋˜๋‹ค, so you have ๋ผ์š”.
  • In the formal form, it is more common to use ํ•˜๋‹ค, so you have ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

As you can probably already tell from the form, you have to conjugate to the present tense form, attach ์•ผ, and then add ๋˜๋‹ค/ํ•˜๋‹ค.

For example, if you have:

  • ๋จน๋‹ค: It becomes ๋จน์–ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๋จน์–ด์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).
  • ๊ฐ€๋‹ค: It becomes ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๊ฐ€์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).
  • ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•˜๋‹ค: It becomes ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š” (informal)/๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค (formal).

Examples (sentences):

  1. ๋ชธ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ์•ฝ์„ ๋จน์–ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (I am sick, so I need to eat medicine.)
  2. ๋‚ด์ผ ์‹œํ—˜์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๊ผญ ๊ณต๋ถ€ํ•ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (I have a test tomorrow, so I must study.)
    • ๊ผญ makes the necessity stronger, making it more definite.
  3. ์›”์š”์ผ์— ํšŒ์‚ฌ์— ๊ฐ€์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (On Monday, I have to go to work.)

In terms of revising for a test in future, I should revise with scenarios (e.g. the person is sick) and give advice for the scenarios (e.g. eat medicine and rest), because those are the most tricky. There were many of these in the textbook and also for the homework (workbook).


In class, we all had to come up with example sentences. In one, someone said: ์›”์š”์ผ์— ์ผํ•ด์•ผ ๋ผ์š”. (On monday, I have to work.)

When the teacher repeated, I noted that she also pronounced it as [์ผํ•ด] and not [์ด๋ž˜], as I'd have imagined.

For the longest time I thought ์ผํ•˜๋‹ค was just [์ผํ•˜๋‹ค] but more recently heard it as [์ด๋ผ๋‹ค]. It's not wrong for sure to pronounce the ใ…Ž, just a question of wanting to know what natives tend to say.

So with the current data I have, ์ผํ•˜๋‹ค seems like one of the those verbs where it's more... okay to pronounce the ใ…Ž.


Korean English Notes
์†๋‹˜ guest
๊ด€์‹ฌ interest ๅ…ณๅฟƒ. interest in a topic, ๊ด€์‹ฌ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”.
๋ฌธํ™” culture ๆ–‡ๅŒ–
์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๋‹ค to prepare ๅ‡†ๅค‡. ์„ ๋ฌผ์„ ์ค€๋น„ํ•˜๋‹ค = to prepare a present (for someone's birthday)
์žฅ์‹ decorations
์žฅ์‹ํ•˜๋‹ค to decorate e.g. the house, in preparation for a birthday party
๋‚ด๋…„ next year Take note not to use ๋‹ค์Œ with ๋…„. This is special, like how ๋‚ด์ผ is "tomorrow". However, you still need ์— as a particle for time, e.g. ๋‚ด๋…„์— ๊ฒฐํ˜ผํ•  ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”.
๋‚ดํ›„๋…„ the year after next Or you can say 2๋…„ ํ›„ (์ด ๋…„ ํ›„), which is literally "2 years later".
๊ฒฐํ˜ผํ•˜๋‹ค to get married ็ตๅฉš. ๊ฒฐํ˜ผ sounds more like [๊ฒจ๋ก ]... Not sure if it's [๊ฒจ๋กœ๋‚˜๋‹ค].
๋ฐ˜์ง€ ring
๊ฒฐํ˜ผ๋ฐ˜์ง€ wedding ring
๋นŒ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to rent
์›จ๋”ฉ๋“œ๋ ˆ์Šค wedding dress
ํ”„๋Ÿฌํฌ์ฆˆ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to propose
์ง luggage
์ง์„ ์‹ธ๋‹ค to pack luggage
๊ฐ€์ด๋“œ๋ณต travel guide book
๋ฆฌํฌํŠธ report
๋‚ด๋‹ค to submit e.g. a report

About the Title

It's based on the 2 grammar points for today, and also the fact that I was procrastinating to write this.

  1. The teacher called these the "particles without meaning" but I don't really understand why, because to me they have meaning in that they indicate the topic, object, or subject in a sentence. I guess maybe she meant that they are "meaningless" when translated into English. That is, that there isn't a word for them when translated, while for ์— and ์—์„œ, they might be translated as "at", "on", etc. โ†ฉ

Lesson 42 (Beginner 3A Lesson 2): Don't...

A belated post since I was caught up with things for the rest of Saturday. For this lesson we went through the first 2 grammar points in the handout (which also coincide with the first 2 grammar points in the textbook - and we also covered that).

We started with the vocabulary. Before the new vocab, we did a review of last week's vocab. We did it with Quizlet, just one at a time. At the time it was just 3 of us answering in sequence, because one student was not attending, another had not yet joined the call, and there was one more who was in the call, but the camera and mic were off.


Korean English Notes
๋ชธ body Used in spoken language
์‹ ์ฒด body More formal term than ๋ชธ
๊ธฐ์นจ์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to cough The teacher pointed out it's not ๊น€์น˜ (kimchi) - the ใ… is on the other syllable - which serves as a great way to remember this word for me.
๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to catch a cold Typically, you use the past tense form: ๊ฐ๊ธฐ์— ๊ฑธ๋ ธ์–ด์š”. (I caught a cold.)
๋ชฉ์ด ์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to have a sore throat
๋‚˜๋‹ค to come out It has a few other meanings as well, but here they all have this meaning.
์ฝง๋ฌผ์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a runny nose Pronunciation: [์ฝ˜๋ฌผ]. Literally means the nose water is coming out. (์ฝ” = nose; ๋ฌผ = water. ใ…… has no meaning and is just the "glue")
ํ”ผ blood
๋•€ sweat
๋ˆˆ๋ฌผ tears Apparently there is a BTS song about this? Or that uses these words (blood, sweat, tears). They can all be used with ๋‚˜๋‹ค.
์—ด์ด ๋‚˜๋‹ค to have a fever Literally means heat is coming out of the body. You can also say ์—ด์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค
ํ‘น ์‰ฌ๋‹ค to rest well (to get a good rest) The original meaning of ํ‘น is deep (e.g. when scooping ice cream)
๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค to smoke a cigarette ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค means to smoke; it has a negative connotation. Apart from this kind of smoke, it is also used to mean when someone cheats on their partner/spouse: ๋ฐ”๋žŒ์„ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋‹ค
๋งํ•˜๋‹ค to speak This is more one-way. ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋‹ค is more interactive, two-way communication.
๋ฌด๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to overdo
์œ ํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be prevalent/widespread ์œ ํ–‰ = Sino-Korean word from ๆต่กŒ (โ€œfashionโ€). Can be used to talk about colour, fashion, etc. Or Coronavirus: ์ฝ”๋กœ๋‚˜19๊ฐ€ ์œ ํ–‰์ด์—์š”.
๋‹คํ–‰์ด๋‹ค to be fortunate
๋Šฆ๋‹ค to be late
์ˆ  alcoholic drink e.g. ์œ„์Šคํ‚ค (whiskey), ๋งฅ์ฃผ (beer), ์†Œ์ฃผ (soju), ์™€์ธ (wine)
๋”ฐ๋œปํ•œ ๋ฌผ warm water Will learn the grammar behind this next time.
์–ผ์Œ๋ฌผ ice water ์–ผ์Œ = ice
ํƒˆ๋ฝ omission 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ: Elimination, removal of ใ…ก
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค to be busy
๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค to be hungry
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค to be painful
๋‚˜์˜๋‹ค to be bad
์˜ˆ์˜๋‹ค to be pretty
์“ฐ๋‹ค to write
๋‘๋ฆฌ์•ˆ durian
๋งˆ์Šคํฌ mask
๋›ฐ๋‹ค to run
์ฃผ์ฐจํ•˜๋‹ค to park (a vehicle)
์ฃผ์ฐจ์žฅ car park Sino-Korean word from ้ง่ปŠๅ ด
๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค to bring (an item)
๋ฐ๋ ค์˜ค๋‹ค to fetch; to bring (a person/an animal) Wiktionary says it means "to fetch". The teacher introduced this as "to bring" for people/animals after mentioning ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ค๋‹ค is for things.
๊ณณ place Instead of saying ์—ฌ๊ธฐ, you can say ์ด ๊ณณ.


1. 'ใ…ก' ํƒˆ๋ฝ

For verbs and adjective stems that end in 'ใ…ก', 'ใ…ก' is ommitted when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด.

The teacher said ํƒˆ๋ฝ means "elimination"; Wiktionary said it's "omission".

Basically, this is removal of 'ใ…ก' when adding an ending that begins with ์•„/์–ด, and adding ์•„์š”/์–ด์š” for present tense (or ์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” for past tense).


  1. ๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค (to be busy) becomes ๋ฐ”๋น ์š”
  2. ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํ”„๋‹ค (to be hungry) becomes ๋ฐฐ๊ณ ํŒŒ์š”
  3. ํฌ๋‹ค (to be big) becomes ์ปค์š”

The last one explains a lot. For ํฌ๋‹ค, some time after it was introduced in Chapter 8 (see Lesson 31), I realised it was conjugated to ์ปค์š” probably thanks to Duolingo. I didn't think too much about it at the time but added it to Anki to memorise. I thought it was an exception, rather than adhering to a rule.

Now the question is, when do you add ์•„ or ์–ด? Normally, when conjugating for the present/past tense informal polite form, you look at the vowel of the syllable before ๋‹ค, but here the vowel is always 'ใ…ก'.

Clearly, it's not looking at that syllable, or you would never have ์•„ (the condition is you need to have either ใ… or ใ…—).

Instead, you look at the syllable before the one that has the 'ใ…ก'. If the syllable before has ใ… or ใ…—, then it's ์•„, otherwise it's ์–ด. For ํฌ๋‹ค, there's no syllable before, so there's no ใ… or ใ…—, which is why you add ์–ด and it becomes ์ปค์š”.

Now, it's important to remember that this only applies to endings that have ์•„/์–ด. So you don't add it for other endings:

-์•„์š”/์–ด์š” -์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š” -๊ณ  -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
๋ฐ”์˜๋‹ค ๋ฐ”๋น ์š” ๋ฐ”๋นด์–ด์š” ๋ฐ”์˜๊ณ  ๋ฐ”์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์•„ํ”„๋‹ค ์•„ํŒŒ์š” ์•„ํŒ ์–ด์š” ์•„์˜๊ณ  ์•„์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
์“ฐ๋‹ค ์จ์š” ์ผ์–ด์š” ์“ฐ๊ณ  ์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค

The handout had 6 verbs, so this is just a subset of them.

We filled this out as a group in breakout rooms (well, one pair and my group had 3 since one person was absent).

One thing I noticed is for the formal -์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/ใ…‚๋‹ˆ๋‹ค, we always had ์ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค because none of the verbs which have stem ending in 'ใ…ก' have batchim.

The teacher happened to pop into our breakout room, so I asked the teacher if there were any verbs that have batchim and whether the rule applies to it. The teacher said some things and the gist of it I could tell was no. Unfortunately, she replied mostly in Korean... and I couldn't really catch what it was and was just too awkward to clarify.1 (Edit 10 Sep: I just realised that there is such a verb this chapter: ๋Šฆ๋‹ค. I forgot about it until today when revising Anki, so there you go. Of course it could have been an exception to the rule, but it's probably not.)

Another subtle thing to note is that for past tense ์ง€๋งŒ, you do have to apply this rule. The reason is beause you are adding ์•˜/์—ˆ (and the rule is triggered by adding of ์•„/์–ด).

  • ์–ด์ œ๋Š” ๋‚ ์”จ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋นด์ง€๋งŒ ์˜ค๋Š˜์€ ์ข‹์•„์š”. (The weather was bad yesterday, but it is nice today.)

This rule is one that helps me a lot with regards to Duolingo... or it would have been helpful to know when I was doing Duolingo. (I've given up on Duolingo for Korean, mobile is too punishing with the limited lives, and desktop is simply just too hard... I've had "easy mode" for too long since mobile has a word bank, and I'm not trying from Lesson 1.)

It would also have been somewhat helpful for Memrise too, for some words in their (old) Korean course where they had both the dictionary forms and the present tense forms.

2. V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”

This is used to request or order the listener not to do something.

The formal polite form is V-์ง€ ๋งˆ์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค.

This formal form is a lot more familiar to me due to it's prevalence on Duolingo... so this would have been another useful rule to learn before I tried those Duolingo exercises, but it's all in the past now.

It's very easy to conjugate, you just remove the ๋‹ค, so take the verb stem and attach -์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š” to it.


  1. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์—์„œ ๋‹ด๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ํ”ผ์šฐ์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't smoke here.)
  2. ์ด์•„๊ธฐํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't talk here.)
  3. ์ด ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ง€ ๋งˆ์„ธ์š”. (Don't watch this movie.)

Between close friends, you can drop the ์„ธ์š” (which are the honorific and politeness markers).

Apparently, if you watch K-dramas, you probably hear this phrase "ํ•˜์ง€ ๋งˆ" a lot, which can be translated as "Stop doing it".

The prohibition signs we had to write phrases for reminded me of a chapter in the French textbook (we used Alter Ego+) which also featured signs. I forgot which book (and obviously which chapter), but I think it was about the ways to say something was prohibited. I recall one of the ways started with something like Il est interdit de... and possibly Interdire ร ...

I have sense there was another verb but it escapes me right now. The only (unhelpful) thing that comes to mind is Vietato but that's Italian.


The title is of course a reference to the second grammar point. Initially, I thought of "Don't make me think of a title" because I really didn't want to come up with one. Then I wanted to shorten it, but "Don't Make Me Think" just reminds me of the usability book by Steve Krug. "Don't" seemed too curt, and "Don't make me..." sounds like a threat still, so it's the way it is now.

Titles are hard, like names are hard (even though this isn't CS).

  1. I would also just want to confess that there have been times I go to class and the teacher says things and it flies over my head but the other people seem to understand, so if this happens a lot more I have to really be careful. Heck, even for the last oral test, I bought time for the last question by pretending to think of an answer to the question about the number of people in my family when I was trying to parse the question. On reflection because of my horrible German listening comprehension made evident in my last 2 lessons, I realise I don't listen enough and don't have enough comprehensible input for both German and Korean. More of a problem for German since I'm at a higher level, but if I don't do anything about Korean, it will also become a problem. โ†ฉ

Lesson 41 (Beginner 3A Lesson 1): New Term, New Chapter

It's a new term but there's no one who left or joined. The teacher was in school today, so I wonder if she will be there from now on, since this breaks the pattern.

This lesson was on 15 August, which is also Korea's National Liberation Day. Since it's a public holiday that falls on a Saturday, the teacher asked us if we get Monday off when Saturday is a public holiday. We said that it depends on the company that you work for.

(I'm not sure if it's more of a converation starter than her not really knowing, because I'm sure she's been living here for years.)

Then she asked about if the public holiday falls on a Sunday. We said that yes, it will be a holiday. (Concidentally enough, the week before was Singapore's National Day - 9 August fell on a Sunday this year, and so Monday was a holiday.)

The teacher said that in Korea generally if the holiday falls on a Sunday, there is no extra rest day given on Monday, with the exception of 3 holidays:

  1. Lunar New Year (์„ค๋‚ )
  2. Mid-Autumn Festival/Korean Thanksgiving Day (์ถ”์„)
  3. Children's Day (์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋‚ ) - on 5 May

Children's Day isn't a public holiday for us, only for the students. But it is a public holiday in Korea for everyone. I think we had this discussion some time back about this.

So every year, she says that the Koreans will check the calendar and see if it's a "lucky" year in terms of the day of the week that the holidays fall on.

We finished up Chapter 10 in the textbook, and started with some vocab for Chapter 11 (only on the body parts, and not the sickness/symptoms-related words, so I won't be including those until we cover them next week even though I have the Quizlet deck with them in).


The grammar points were completed last week with the completion of the handout, but since we are covering some of them again as they appear in textbook, I wanted to note for V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ that the ์„œ is optional in spoken language.

Instead of:

  • ์ฟ ํ‚ค์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์„œ ์คฌ์–ด์š”. (I made cookies and gave them.)

You can also say:

  • ์ฟ ํ‚ค์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ์คฌ์–ด์š”. (I made cookies and gave them.)

Culture Note

The culture note in this chapter is about the opening hours of various institutions in Korea.

  1. Bank - Monday to Friday, 9am to 4pm. Closed on weekends. Most office workers who need to use the bank services will use their lunch hour, according to the teacher.
  2. Post office - Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm. Closed on weekends as well.
  3. Immigation office - Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm and half day on Saturday: 9am to 1pm

We didn't really have in-depth discussion about this, but the teacher noted that she also noticed that the banks here have different opening times depending on their location (e.g. whether they are standalone or in a shopping mall).


The pronunciation topic this time is that after the final consonants (๋ฐ›์นจ) ใ…‚ or ใ„ท, if the initial consonants of the next syllable are any of: ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, ใ……, ใ…ˆ, then they are pronounced as the double conosant versions: ใ„ฒ, ใ„ธ, ใ…ƒ, ใ…†, ใ…‰.

The first thing to remember is that the final consonant ใ„ท is the one with many possible "variants": ์•‹, ์•—, ์•š, ์•›, ์•, ์•Ÿ. (These were the 6 that the teacher listed, but I guess ์•˜ as well?)

The other thing is ใ„ฑ, ใ„ท, ใ…‚, ใ……, ใ…ˆ looks like a pretty long list, but it's really only those consonants that have a double consonant version, so it's not nearly as hard to remember. By now it's pretty intuitive which consonants can "double up" to make the double consonants.


  1. ๋ช‡ ์‹œ[๋ฉท์”จ]
  2. ๋ฐฅ๋„ [๋ฐฅ๋˜]
  3. ์‚ผ์‹ญ ๋ถ„[์‚ผ์‹ญ๋ฟ]

I have a feeling that we have sort of been told this for isolated cases before, but it's not been generalised into a rule.

I went to dig, and found something from Lesson 30... Only to realise that it's kind of different to this rule due to my mistake.

The textbook was consistent. While I wrote my own example from my understanding:

  • ๋งŒ๋‚ฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค: [๋งŒ๋‚˜์”๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]

The textbook's examples from back in Chapter 7 were (consistent with this pronunciation rule):

  • ์ถฅ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค [์ถฅ์”€๋‹ˆ๋‹ค]
  • ์–ด๋–ป์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ [์–ด๋–ง์”€๋‹ˆ๊นŒ]

I think in that chapter there was more focus on how it's [์”€] instead of [์Šต] - that is, the /m/ sound - and so it wasn't something I paid much attention to. After all, I have to admit that I can't always tell the difference between ใ…… and ใ…†. It's very possible that while trying to copy down whatever the teacher wrote, I copied down the wrong thing (I have caught myself doing that many times before, when reviewing). Or it could have been my wrong interpretation of something she said.


Korean English Notes
๊ทธ๋ฆผ drawing
๊ทธ๋ฆผ์„ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to draw a drawing Like Chinese ็”ป็”ป, it's repeated. ็”ป by itself means drawing.
์ธ์‹ธ insider (slang) To refer to someone who is very active socially. Someone who is part of many social groups and has many friends.
์•„์‹ธ outsider (slang) Opposite of an "insider", someone who prefers to study alone for example if they are in university.
์ฟ ํ‚ค cookie
์ „ํ†ต tradition; traditional ไผ ็ปŸ
์ด๋ฉ”์ผ email
์‹ ์ฒด body Found this in the textbook, I needed it to Google for labelled images that I could add to Anki.
N์ด/๊ฐ€ ์•„ํŒŒ์š” N hurts That's a terrible translation and I'm sorry. Substitute N with any body part to say that it hurts (e.g. ๋ชฉ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” means your throat hurts, that is, you have a sort throat).
๋จธ๋ฆฌ head/hair Used to be that the original form for "hair" is ๋จธ๋ฆฌ์นด๋ฝ, but now just ๋จธ๋ฆฌ is used for both.
๋ˆˆ eye
๊ท€ ear
์ฝ” nose
์–ผ๊ตด face
๋ชฉ neck/throat
์ž… mouth
์ด tooth To show the teeth, you can't say ์ž…, so it's ์ด. (This is what the teacher said, it's a useful mnemonic device.)
์–ด๊นจ shoulder Sounds like "ok" (another mnemonic device of sorts)
ํŒ” arm Imagine there is an 8 on the arm sleeve (the picture we had in the notes was of a boy wearing a T-shirt and shorts)
๊ฐ€์Šด chest The chest area, includes the breast and heart, so you could say ๊ฐ€์Šด์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” when you are sad and have heartache.
๋“ฑ back Refers only to the upper back.
ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ waist Includes also the lower back. So if you have pain in your lower back due to sitting too long, you would not say ๋“ฑ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” but ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์•„ํŒŒ์š”.
๋ฐฐ stomach/belly
์† hand
๋‹ค๋ฆฌ leg Also can be used for table legs, and also means bridge
๋ฌด๋ฆŽ knee
๋ฐœ foot

Some miscellaneous things related to body parts (it's not as bad as it sounds... am I the only one thinking of dead bodies when someone says "body parts" instead of "parts of the body"?) when we went through this:

  1. There is a song called ๋ˆˆ,์ฝ”,์ž…. The teacher played only the line where he sings this, so I don't have much context of the whole song but I think it's about someone remembering their previous love.
  2. Korean mothers play this ์ฝ”์ฝ”์ฝ” game with their kids to teach them the various parts of the face. ์ฝ” means nose, so you start by going ์ฝ”, ์ฝ”, ์ฝ”,... and tapping on your nose each time you say it. Supposedly both the mother and the kid does it, since the teacher made all of us do it. Then she would say another body part and point somewhere else, e.g. ์ž… (mouth) but point to her ear. Then we, as the kid/learner, are supposed to still point to the correct body part (mouth) and not to the ear.
  3. There is a Korean version of the "Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes" song: ๋จธ๋ฆฌ ์–ด๊นจ ๋ฌด๋ฆŽ ๋ฐœ. Yes, it's called almost the same thing: Head, Shoulder, Knee, Foot. The second round was really too fast to sing along to in class.

Finally, a note on differentiating ํŒ” (arm) and ๋ฐœ (foot), particularly in the sentences ํŒ”์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š” and ๋ฐœ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”.

  1. ํŒ”์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”: Emphasis is on the consonant sound ใ…. It results in a downward intonation.
  2. ๋ฐœ์ด ์•„ํŒŒ์š”: Emphasis is on the vowel sound ์•„. It results in an upward intonation.

Lesson 40 (Beginner 2B Lesson 8): I will go the theatre and watch a movie

Wow, it's lesson 40 already. I didn't even realise it was the last lesson of the term, since the teacher didn't mention it. I guess everyone is continuing on to the next term.

The girl with the name as the previous teacher did not attend the lesson. The observable pattern still holds, that our teacher was at the school during this week's lesson, so it really looks like alternate weeks. I wonder if they are doing some form of split team ops.

We did some revision of last week, doing the activities in the textbook. Then we covered the last 2 grammar points for this chapter and completed the handout.


3. V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ

This is used to connect two clauses that occurred sequentially. It indicates a continuity from the first to the second.

With -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ, when you put two actions together, it implies that the first action must happen before the second can happen.

The first is a necessary action that must happen before the second one can happen, and changing the order is not possible.

For this reason, it's very common to have the following 3 verbs:

  1. ๋งŒ๋‚˜๋‹ค: ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ (meeting someone and then doing something together after)
  2. ๊ฐ€๋‹ค: N์— ๊ฑฐ์„œ (going to a place, and then doing something there)
  3. ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋‹ค: ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์„œ (waking up and then doing something)

The way to conjugate this is very similar to conjugating the Informal Polite Present Tense that we saw back in Chapter 3 (Lesson 12), where we had V-์•„์š”, V-ํ•ด์š”, V-์–ด์š”.

There are basically 3 possible ways, depending on the verb.

  1. For verbs with vowels ใ…, ใ…—: Add -์•„์„œ
  2. For verbs ํ•˜๋‹ค verbs: Add -ํ•ด์„œ
  3. For all other verbs: Add -์–ด์„œ

So the groups are the same, just that instead of ์š” this time it's ์„œ.


  1. ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ด์š”. (I meet my friend and watch a movie.)
  2. ์ง‘์— ๊ฐ€์„œ ์š”๋ฆฌํ•ด์š”. (I go home and cook.)
  3. ์ €๋Š” 7์‹œ์— ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์„œ ์ฐจ๋ฅผ ๋งˆ์…”์š”. (I wake up at 7am and drink tea.)

Like with ๊ณ , you only express the tense for the last verb, not the first.

Example (past tense):

  • ์–ด์ œ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ดค์–ด์š”.

-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ vs -๊ณ 

This actually has the same meaning as V-๊ณ .

We learnt ๊ณ  first as a connector for 2 events in sequential order and later as a connector which doesn't necessarily imply things in sequential order.

In terms of usage for V-์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ, as noted earlier, it means that the first action is a necessary action for the second to take place.

Earlier, there was this sentence: ์–ด์ œ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜์„œ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ดค์–ด์š”. (Yesterday, I met my friend and we watched a movie.)

If you did not watch the movie with your friend, then you would use ๊ณ : ์–ด์ œ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋‚˜๊ณ  ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ดค์–ด์š”. (Yesterday, I met my friend and watched a movie.)

However, unlike with -๊ณ , the subject of both verbs for -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ must be the same.1 If the subject is different, use ๊ณ . With ๊ณ , you omit the subject for the second part when it's the same.

Another example I will bring up is one that apparently only Singaporeans tend to get wrong. The teacher said that she had never seen people use -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ instead of -๊ณ  for this sentence until she started teaching in this country.

Now we did this in groups (a group of 3 for me, since we have 5 in a class with a person absent, and for this lesson our groups were the same except for the first activity where I was paired with the teacher), and I got it wrong (and agreed with my classmates) mostly because I was thinking of ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋‹ค (to wake up) and somehow thought the same applies for ์ž๋‹ค (to sleep). Clearly, my brain wasn't quite working.

  • ์–ด์ œ ์—ด๋‘ ์‹œ์— ์ƒค์›Œํ•ด์„œ ์žค์–ด์š”. (X)
  • ์–ด์ œ ์—ด๋‘ ์‹œ์— ์ƒค์›Œํ•˜๊ณ  ์žค์–ด์š”. (O)

The sentence is translated as: "Yesterday, I showered at 12 and went to sleep."

The point being that you don't have to shower before bed. You could easily be too tired.

The reason why people here get this wrong apparently is because they like to go to bed clean (??). This is quite interesting to me because I just had a coversation about this very recently.

I was playing a game with my colleague 2 nights ago (well, it was early morning, past 2am) and he said he still had to shower, and we sort of had a conversation about that. For me once I was done with the game I'd go to bed because I don't start to play until I get everything done and can immediately sleep after. To which he said it's his preference to go to bed "squeaky clean" and so would shower regardless (interesting to me because if it were me I'd be too tired to do anything else). So I thought he was more of the exception, but maybe it's not as out of the ordinary. It might be a product of the humid weather. Nowadays I do shower in the evenings but it's not right before sleeping.

Then there is one more sentence that I was wondering about, which I thought could use -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ instead of -๊ณ  because it was describing a habitual action, implying a kind of order:

  • ์œ ์ง„ ์”จ๋Š” ๋งค์ผ ์ˆ™์ œํ•˜๊ณ  ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์„ ๋ด์š”. (Yujin does homework and watches television every day.)

But my classmates reasoned (correctly) that it's not necessary for one to be done before the other. So even if it's usually something done in order, but doesn't have to be, then you would also use -๊ณ .

4. V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”

This is used to indicate a future plan or possibility.

The teacher called it the future tense, so I guess it kind of is. (My hesitation is whether Korean has a future tense because as you can tell from the structure it's very different from the present and past tense, but it might be just me overthinking things.)

Pronunciation wise, note that ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š” is actually pronounced as [๊บผ์—์š”].

The front part V-(์œผ)ใ„น is the same as V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊นŒ์š”.

Unlike the past and present tenses, you use the basic form (dictionary form, e.g. ๋งŒ๋‚˜๋‹ค) of the verb for this conjugation.

Whenever you see this optional ์œผ part it's an indicator that you are checking the batchim.

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์„ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X or ใ„น + ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”


  1. ์˜ค๋Š˜ ์ˆ˜์—… ํ›„์— ๊ณต๋ถ€ ํ•  ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (I am going to do homework after the class today.)
  2. ๋‚ด์ผ ์‹๋‹น์— ๊ฐ€์„œ ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์„ ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”. (I am going to the restaurant to eat tomorrow.)

Bonus: Formal

There was an example sentence which has the formal form, and so we have:

  • ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • ๋ฐ›์นจ X or ใ„น + ๊ฒƒ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค


  1. ์˜ค๋Š˜ ์ˆ˜์—… ํ›„์— ๊ณต๋ถ€ ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค์š”. (I am going to do homework after the class today.)
  2. ๋‚ด์ผ ์‹๋‹น์— ๊ฐ€์„œ ๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์„ ๊ฒƒ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. (I am going to the restaurant to eat tomorrow.)

Recall that "this" is ์ด๊ฑฐ, but this is informal. The original form is actually ์ด๊ฒƒ (which you use in formal speech). Similarly, here, instead of ๊ฑฐ, you use the original form ๊ฒƒ.

Then, instead of ์˜ˆ์š”, you use ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.


Korean English Notes
์‹œ๊ฐ„ํ‘œ timetable/schedule
๋‚ด๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to get off/alight Get off a bus, train, or car.
๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to send (a letter); to spend (time)
๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to draw This was in the homework.
๋ฒ ์ดํ‚นํ•˜๋‹ค to bake The teacher asked us for what we were going to do today (to practise the new future tense) and someone said ์š”๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค before clarifying she was going to bake. The teacher gave us this verb but said that ์š”๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค can also be used for baking.

I also want to talk about ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค. We were practising the conjugations today, so the teacher had those physical cards with a picture in front and the verb behind. So we started with the side with the words, and then we did the pictures. We had to conjugate it in the present tense (V-์•„์š”/์–ด์š”), past tense (V-์•˜์–ด์š”/์—ˆ์–ด์š”), and this new future tense that we learnt (V-(์œผ)ใ„น ๊ฑฐ์˜ˆ์š”).

The last card I got was ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค. First, I didn't recognise the picture. (It was someone at the post office sending a parcel.) But even after being told the verb, looking at ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค, I was looking at it and I didn't know it was ๋ณด๋‚ด์š”. Basically, I couldn't derive the conjugation because ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค actually defies the rules we have been taught. It's an exception.

On Wiktionary, it has both forms: ๋ณด๋‚ด์š” (the more common one), and ๋ณด๋‚ด์–ด์š” (the one you'd expect from following the rules). Intuitively, ๋ณด๋‚ด์–ด์š” felt wrong and so I was hesitant.

Why it felt wrong was because I'd seen ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค before, used with the meaning "to spend time" in this phrase: ์ข‹์€ ํ•˜๋ฃจ ๋ณด๋‚ด์„ธ์š”! ("Have a nice day!")

So my intuition was correct, but based on a wrong reason. (See Lesson 36 for how it's conjugated; it uses the basic form and is not the same as the present tense.)

I think no one else was getting tripped up because there had been a question in the handout today (for the third grammar point) that had ๋ณด๋ƒˆ์–ด์š”, and naturally took it as ๋ณด๋‚ด์š”? I have no idea, because I sure didn't trip up when I wrote down the past tense form ๋ณด๋ƒˆ์–ด์š”. But clearly this is a verb I was weak it because it led to confusion.

So if I'm using ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค and -์•„์„œ/์–ด์„œ, I guess it should be ๋ณด๋‚ด์„œ.

I wonder how many verbs there are like this, weird exceptions. Probably many.

...I guess more accurately, I wonder how many of them I've encountered even in passing before, and not realised it.


The title is based on the 2 grammar points, future tense + and (sequential action, with the first being a necessary condition for the second).

  1. For the example sentence with the movie, I translated it such that it technically has a different subject (I and we) but that's just more of a translation thing. In the original sentence the subject isn't stated but it's implied to be "I" from context, so it might be more of "Yesterday, I met my friend and (I) watched a movie (with him/her)". โ†ฉ

Lesson 39 (Beginner 2B Lesson 7): Time

We spent the first 10 minutes or so of the class going through the common mistakes. Then we started on Chapter 10.

The teacher only sent us the test report at the end of the lesson, and like before, only the writing component (sentences and essay) were graded. The rest are in the report.

I lost marks in speaking and writing, so in the end it was still pretty high. I managed to end up with full marks for listening despite the apprehension I was feeling last week.

My friend didn't come for class today. The teacher seems to be at home today from her background and the set up with 1 computer. I noticed she's been alternating for the past few weeks. Like last week, it was in the school, but the previous week, it was not, and the week before, which I think was the first week they opened the physical school again, she was there.

Chapter 10 is about time, which I've learnt before somewhat with the First Step Korean course offered by Yonsei University on Coursera.


Korean English Notes
์˜ค์ „ AM From 12am to 12pm (midnight to noon), but also used to refer to the time of the morning after breakfast from 8am to 12pm (where there is no more specific word for that period in the morning).
์˜คํ›„ PM From 12pm to 12am (noon to midnight), not just the afternoon period, though from 12pm to 6pm you don't have a more specific word for it than this.
์ƒˆ๋ฒฝ dawn 12am to 6am
์•„์นจ morning Approximately from 6am to 8am, it refers generally to the time before (and in a sense, during) breakfast. 9am might be still considered ์•„์นจ.
์ •์˜ค noon The ์˜ค is where you get the ์˜ค for ์˜ค์ „ and ์˜คํ›„. Sino-Korean word from ๆญฃๅˆ.
๋‚ฎ daytime
์ €๋… evening 6pm to 9pm
๋ฐค night 9pm to 12am (midnight)
์˜ค๋Š˜๋ฐค tonight
์–ด์ ฏ๋ฐค last night ์–ด์ œ + ๋ฐค, but because there is no ๋ฐ›์นจ, you add the ใ…… to stick them together. (I guess this is why it's ์ฐป์ง‘ for "teahouse".)
์•„์  brunch The full name is ์•„์นจ ๊ฒธ ์ ์‹ฌ, but it's such a mouthful that most people just call it ์•„์ . ๊ฒธ means "as well as".
๋ฐ์ดํŠธํ•˜๋‹ค to have a date
๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ฆฌ๋‹ค to wait for a bus
๋ฒ„์Šค๋ฅผ ํƒ€๋‹ค to take a bus
๋นจ๋ž˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to do the laundry
์š”๋ฆฌํ•˜๋‹ค to cook I have no idea why the textbook decided to add words that I though we learnt long ago... but ok. This isn't the only one but it's the one that I think we learnt the earliest.
์ƒค์›Œํ•˜๋‹ค to take a shower
์„ธ์ˆ˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to wash one's face
์šด์ „ํ•˜๋‹ค to drive
์ „ํ™”ํ•˜๋‹ค to call
์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋‹ค to get up
์ฒญ์†Œํ•˜๋‹ค to clean
์ปดํ“จํ„ฐ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค to use a computer
ํšŒ์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค to hold a (formal) meeting
์ˆ˜์—…์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค to take a class More general
์ˆ˜์—…์„ ๋“ค๋‹ค to take a class Lecture-style class, where you listening to the teacher. Not for sports classes where you have to move and do things. For that you should use ํ•˜๋‹ค
์‹œํ—˜์„ ๋ณด๋‹ค to take a test ๋ณด๋‹ค is also used for attending an interview.
์ฃผ๋ง ์ž˜ ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค to have a good weekend
์ด๋ฒˆ this time
์ฏค about About $10: ์‹ญ ๋‹ฌ๋Ÿฌ์ฏค; Around 5 (apples): ๋‹ค์„ฏ ๊ฐœ์ฏค
๋ฐ˜ half


1. ์‹œ๊ฐ„ (Time)

You use the native Korean numbers for the hour, and the Sino-Korean numbers for the minutes.

์‹œ is for the hour, ๋ถ„ is for the minutes.


  1. ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜คํ›„ ๋„ค ์‹œ์˜ˆ์š”. (It is 4:00pm now.)
  2. ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜ค์ „ ํ•œ ์‹œ ์‚ผ์‹ญ ๋ถ„์ด์—์š”. = ์ง€๊ธˆ ์˜ค์ „ ํ•œ ์‹œ ๋ฐ˜์ด์—์š”. (It is 1:30am now.)
  3. ์—ด๋‘ ์‹œ์— ์ ์‹ฌ์„ ๋จน์—ˆ์–ด์š”. (I ate lunch at 12pm.)
  4. ๋‚˜๋‚˜ ์”จ๋Š” ์—ดํ•œ ์‹œ์ฏค(์—) ์ž์š”. (Nana goes to sleep around 11pm.)

The use of the time particle ์— is required when you are indicating the time that an action is being performed.

When ์ฏค is used to indicate approximate time, the time particle ์— is optional.

2. N ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ N ๊นŒ์ง€

This is used to indicate a period of time. N ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ indicates the point where something began; N ๊นŒ์ง€ indicates when something ended.

They can be used separately as well and it is not necessary to use both.

They can be used not only with hours and minutes, but also days of the week, dates, and even years.

They can also be used "to express a specific range on a scale" according to the notes, but I'm not exactly sure what this refers to. Perhaps just that you can use it to refer to a range of pages in a book for example.

For translations:

  • ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ might be translated from, since (e.g. from 12pm, since 1999)
  • ๊นŒ์ง€ might be translated until, to, by (e.g. until 5pm, to Friday, by 15 Jan)


  1. ์˜ค์ „ ์•„ํ™‰ ์‹œ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์˜คํ›„ ๋‹ค์„ฏ ์‹œ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ผํ•ด์š”. (I work from 9am to 5pm.)
  2. ์‹œํ—˜์ด ์›”์š”์ผ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์ˆ˜์š”์ผ๊นŒ์ง€์˜ˆ์š”. (The exam period is from Monday to Wednesday.)
  3. 5์ชฝ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 10์ชฝ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ฝ์œผ์„ธ์š”. (Please read from page 5 to page 10.)
  4. ๋ฐฉํ•™์ด 7์›” 18์ผ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ 26์ผ๊นŒ์ง€์˜ˆ์š”. (The school holidays is from 18 to 26 July.)

The content is pretty straightforward in theory. The tricky part again is with the numbers, being able to say what you need to.

One thing I noticed during class was that many students said [์‹œ๋ ˆ] when it should be [์‹œ์—] as in 8์‹œ์— ์•„์นจ์„ ๋จน์–ด์š”. I believe this is because of the "muscle memory" where we had the dates and days of week, such as ์ผ์š”์ผ์—, 8์›” 1์ผ์—, etc. that all have the ใ„น batchim. The association for Time + ์— making a [๋ ˆ] sound becomes very automatic.

The other thing I noticed was that I tended to write ๋ถ€ํ…Œ instead of ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ, I corrected myself many times when doing the homework earlier, and even when typing it out in this post.

Lesson 38 (Beginner 2B Lesson 6): Beginner 2 Test

I figured I should write this before I forget the details. I'd like to think I won't forget but of course my memory will just fade.

There was one student (the person who typically sits in a dark room) who wasn't present for the test.

The test was conducted online, so around 10 minutes before the lesson, the teacher sent via KakaoTalk the test paper to everyone individually. For some reason I thought it was going to be sent via email, so I had also prepared to log in.

It's quite fortunate I could Airdrop the file to my Mac for printing, otherwise I would have wasted extra time trying to get it to print. But I didn't look at any of the questions before joining the Zoom call for the class... and so I found myself in the same situation for listening again as the previous test.



The listening was pretty similar to the last one, with a variety of questions. We started with listening, and so there was again no time to read the questions like for the first test. The difference was that there were only 2 of the really text-heavy questions. This is where there are 4 options and you had to choose the correct one based on the conversation. The last test had 5 or so, and that was the one that you really had to read.

The other sections were pretty similar to the first test, and yes, everything was multiple choice:

  1. Listen and select the correct word that is missing
  2. Listen to a question and select what constitutes an appropriate response (the type of question that threw me off in the very first test)
  3. Listen to a dialogue and select what they are talking about
  4. Listen to a dialogue and select where it possibly took place
  5. Listen to a dialogue and select the appropriate image based on the question (that is read out at the end)
  6. Listen to a dialogue and select the correct sentence that describes what happened


After the listening, we did oral one by one. I was the fortunate one to go first. In a way it was good to go first, so you don't get distrubed halfway while doing the rest of the paper.

There were a few components, there's actually a reference piece of paper with instructions/text/images that are required. The teacher screen shared this with us.

  1. Read out 5 sentences.
  2. Construct a sentence to describe the weather shown in the picture, using ๊ณ  to join (2 pictures - so it was something like cold and rainy, hot and sunny.)
  3. Construct a sentence to describe the action shown in the picture, using formal speech (3 pictures - one was skiing, the other sightseeing, and with 2 people at a cafe with one eating cake and the other drinking tea/coffee)
  4. There is a large picture shown with people and multiple objects in it. It was a scene of a living room. You had to pick 4 objects that you see in the picture and then say what they are and how many there are with the counting numbers. I recall saying: 5 people, 4 bottles of cola, 2 cups of wine (they were glasses but I used ์ž” which is for cup), 1 apple. There were also stalks of flowers, among other things like chairs, tables, etc.

The last part, there's no more screen sharing, and it's a converation about your family. This part the teacher will ask you how many people are in your family, and then you answer. Then she will ask you their occupations and what they like to do.

Initially when she asked I kind of froze and she repeated the question at least once or twice.


All MCQ, nothing too different from the last one.


There was the first page where you had to join some sentences with either ๊ณ  or ์ง€๋งŒ as appropriate.

Then there was the essay. The assignment was to introduce your family, using honorific speech where appropriate. There were some questions that you had to answer:

  1. How many people there are in your family
  2. Who are they
  3. What are their occupations
  4. What do they like to do

The recommended length was 150-300 words.

The test sheet that the teacher sent for us to print only had one sheet of the square paper, and I didn't have enough space, so I ended up using an extra sheet that was sent in the mail with the textbook. This was part of an answer sheet that was sent together with the textbook along with the other handouts. The teacher said we can have a choice as to whether to fill out the answer sheet or to simply mark it on the paper.


We had to take a picture and send it to the teacher (via KakaoTalk) within 15 minutes after the lesson ended. The teacher was very nice about it too, she said that she noticed people tended to take more time when the test is conducted online.

Thoughts & Reflection

  1. I was surprised that the listening had no numbers again, just like the first test. We did learn the larger numbers for prices in Chapter 6 (I discovered to my horror the day before the test). I had also thought the first test would test the dates, but in the end we were spared from that.
  2. The teacher sent a reminder to us the day before (actually the same day - it was past midnight) which included a reminder that we aren't to refer to anything because it would harm our learning in the long term. I really appreciated that, as that really set the tone. That was why in the end I only looked at the paper when the test startedโ€”after we joined the Zoom callโ€”and once the call ended I didn't take extra time to check through. This was despite there being actually extra timeโ€”you don't need 15 minutes to take pictures of all the sheets. I had managed to check the reading part, but didn't have time to check my essay before submission.
  3. I felt really relieved when it was over; I'm not really sure why I was so stressed.
  4. I am certain that I missed 1-2 questions for listening. If I got them right, it would be because it was a smart guess more than anything. I did eliminate options, but I didn't fully understand the dialogue in some places.
  5. For oral, independent of how I actually do (in terms of the score), I know that I hesitated a lot and was not confident. I really need to improve on speaking. In terms of correctness I know it's mostly correct (I suddenly got a scare this morning, whether I actually said ์Šคํ‚ค๋ฅผ ํƒ‘๋‹ˆ๋‹ค when ์Šคํ‚ค came up in my Anki review since it felt so unfamiliar, or whether I said ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค) but I hesitated a lot and acted very uncertain. If I was grading myself I'd grade myself lower because of that.
  6. On the day of the test, but before the test, I spent time on Quizlet doing focused review (for just Korean, but still interleaving all the chapters' sentences). This was helpful, and doubly so when I started to test myself on how to say a sentence in various forms: casual/formal/present/past/honorific.
  7. I almost skipped lunch because I was studying, but I'm glad I did not because I definitely needed a break. The brain has to go into diffuse mode too and not only focused mode for effective learning.

Next Week

There was no homework for this week. Next week we'd get the test report (I think like for the first test, but now the advantage is that we get to keep the question paper since it's still with us), and will go through the common mistakes. The teacher said we'd do some revision before moving on to Chapter 10.

Beginner 3A

Later in the same day I got the invoice for the next term. I'd not realised this was the 6th lesson. I went to check if I could claim the course under the training budget of my company (I could) so I had to go to the school's website to get the required syllabus information and whatnot to apply for the claim. I went to check their teachers list and now the previous teacher that I had is no longer listed on their site. So I guess she really left. :(

I guess next week would already be considered as 3A, but, eh, I don't know. I also don't know how we will get our certificates. I know the school gives them out after each level (2 terms, generally, with the exception of the Foundation class which was 1 term).

TIL: A Collection from the Past Week

TIL for Korean.

The Grammar Extension at the back of the textbook is a treasure trove of information.

I was supposed to post this yesterday but I forgot, so I added in even more last minute stuff from my morning revision. I'll do a separate post later for the test.

19 July

  1. Looking at the conjuation tables on Wiktionary, I realised that for contrast, ์ง€๋งŒ is formal non-polite.
  2. I have no idea what I was thinking about the casual vs informal distinction. There shouldn't be one (though I mused about it and in Lesson 36 actually decided that there must be a distinction). The textbook calls it informal, such as when it discusses -์•„์š”/์–ด์š”. I realised that while looking at the Grammar Extension at the back of the textbook). Then, I also realised tht the conjugation tables on Wiktionary calls ํ•ด์š”์ฒด informal polite... I was evidently blind to the Wiktionary table headers.

24 July

(You can tell how much I studied during the week lol - the answer is almost nothing. I only did additional Quizlet reviews and found that they have a combined sets feature.)

1. Informal polite past for ์ด๋‹ค

Informal polite past for ์ด๋‹ค (์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”) is ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”/์˜€์–ด์š” from reading the Grammar Extension at the back of the book.

This is from Chapter 5 (!) but I was reading everything from the start.

So far we've seen:

  • Informal polite present: ์ด์—์š”/์˜ˆ์š”
  • Informal polite past: ์ด์—ˆ์–ด์š”/์˜€์–ด์š”
  • Formal polite present (indicative): ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • Formal polite present (interrogative): ์ž…๋‹ˆ๊นŒ
  • Formal polite past (indicative): ์ด์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค/์˜€์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค
  • Formal polite past (interrogative): ์ด์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ/์˜€์Šต๋‹ˆ๊นŒ
  • Informal polite present (honorific): ์ด์„ธ์š”/์„ธ์š”
  • Informal polite past (honorific): ์ด์…จ์–ด์š”/์…จ์–ด์š”

2. Specific/General Rules

There's quite a few grammar rules that are taught first specifically, and then a more general rule is given later, without explicitly tying them together.

For example:

  1. N ์ฃผ์„ธ์š” (Chapter 2, #3) is actually a more specific one of the making request Vโ€“(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (Chapter 6, #1). The first rule covers only the verb ์ฃผ๋‹ค. I only made this connection because the Grammar Extension mentions in their respective sections that you can add ์ข€ to make the request more polite. Adding ์ข€ was not re-emphasised in Chapter 6.
  2. N(์ด)์„ธ์š” (Chapter 9, #3) is a very specific one just for casual/informal honorific conjugation of the verb "to be" of the very next rule A/Vโ€“(์œผ)์‹œโ€“ (Chapter 9, #4). In fact this 4th grammar rule is so general that it technically covers the formal (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) form too, but we have not actually covered that.

The rules concerning ์ด๋‹ค in Chapter 1 can be said to be very specific conjugations for that verb alone. But I think a case can be made that ์ด๋‹ค ("to be") is special in that sense. It really depends on how you want to look at it.

In most languages the verb "to be" is highly irregular; ์ด๋‹ค for the conjugations we've seen is pretty much regular (except that it has 2 forms in some cases depending on whether the noun preceding it has batchim or not).

The other thing special about it is that "to be" is a verb that joins 2 "subjects" - more accurately, two "things" in the nominative. (It was first brought to my attention because of this thing known as Gleichsetzungsnominativ in German - basically, both of the things are in nominative.)

It's very different from other verbs where there is a subject and an object (that is being acted on). With "to be" the two things are "equal".

3. Why is it (์œผ)์„ธ์š” for A/Vโ€“(์œผ)์‹œโ€“?

Remember in Lesson 36 I said I wasn't sure why it congjuated such that ์‹œ becomes ์„ธ and not ์…”? I had noticed that on Wiktionary they do list the ์…” form there in the conjugation tables.

The textbook actually mentions this (again in the Grammar Extension): Basically, โ€“(์œผ)์„ธ์š” is more commonly used than โ€“(์œผ)์…”์š”.

4. There is a formal way to reply to (์œผ)ใ„น๊นŒ์š”? suggestions

It's โ€“(์œผ)ใ…‚์‹œ๋‹ค.

This is the hortative form for the formal polite (ํ•˜์‹ญ์‹œ์˜ค์ฒด) form.

With batchim:

  • ๋ญ˜ ๋จน์„๊นŒ์š”?
  • ๋น„๋น”๋ฐฅ์„ ๋จน์์‹œ๋‹ค.

Without batchim:

  • ์–ด๋””์— ๊ฐˆ๊นŒ์š”?
  • ๋…ธ๋ž˜๋ฐฉ์— ๊ฐ‘์‹œ๋‹ค.

It just so happens that for the informal polite (ํ•ด์š”์ฒด) form, the indicative form is identical to the hortative form, which is why you simply reply the same way.

You make the distinction in speech with the intonation.

But you should never use this to superiors. The textbook doesn't explain why, but I'd guess it's because there is probably a more polite way to suggest things to your elders.

25 July

The Wongoji rule that I missed that earned that remark from the teacher was that I wrote the full stop on the next line. If it's the end of a sentence at the end of a line, the period should stay on the same line, basically sharing a box with the last character.

This page covers it.

In the case that a sentence mark should be stamped at the end of a line, it shouldnโ€™t be carried down to the next line, but rather placed inside the last box on that line. Starting a line with โ€˜.โ€™ or โ€˜,โ€™ should be carefully avoided.

The handout that I have doesn't mention that rule. In fact, it's pretty much what this other page on the same site says.

Interestingly, I cannot seem to find these rules mentioned on any other site apart from the one I've linked above.

Lesson 37 (Beginner 2B Lesson 5): Test Incoming

There is a test next week. I think everyone in class was kind of shocked when the teacher made the announcement.

I knew it was coming; it had to be the case. When the new textbook arrived, there were handouts for Chapter 9, but there was also the revision sheet for Chapters 6-9. When I saw it, I knew that there had to be a test because there was a similar one for Chapters 1-5.

I had also remarked this to my friend just the week before (on Zoom, of course, I don't really meet him otherwise)... it was a call just with him and the husband of the other friend who had stopped taking the class with us but was taking classes with another school for financial reasons. She was finishing up her Korean class at the time, so she joined the conversation later, if I recall.

I think it was a bit unexpected since the teacher didn't mention this the previous week, not about this lesson being a revision lesson, and also not about the test in advance. (By contrast for the first test, the other teacher told us something like more than a month in advance, and also we knew which lesson was a revision lesson.)

So in this lesson we finished up the last of Chapter 9, and it was a revision lesson. I won't be posting the grammar and whatnot from those lessons since that's quite repetitive and not very helpful for myself. I would use the time better to prepare in other ways for the test.

What is interesting about this lesson is that since we aren't in class and there's no paper flashcards to use, we used Quizlet. This is probably where the fact that the school uses Quizlet before all this started came in really, really handy.

So for Chapter 9, actually the only thing left that we covered is one more listening exercise, and then the pronunciation topic (and of course the self-check). We did not cover the culture note, but I did cover one last week that's not from the textbook.


This is about the pronunciation of ์˜, tying in with the grammar that we learnt in this chapter, where ์˜ is used to indicate possession.

There are 3 ways that ์˜ can be pronounced:

  1. [์˜] - /ษฐi/- This is when it's the first letter of the word, e.g. ์˜์‚ฌ [์˜์‚ฌ]. You hear the /ษฐ/ sound very distinctly.
  2. [์ด] - /i/ - This is when it's the second or subsequent letter in a word, e.g. ํšŒ์˜ [ํšŒ์ด].You don't hear the /ษฐ/ sound, only the /i/.
  3. [์—] - /e/ - This is the one that we just learnt together with the grammar this chapter, e.g. ์œ ์ง„ ์”จ์˜[์—] ์ฑ…


Korean English Notes
๊ฐ•์˜ lecture In one of the sample words for the pronunciation topic.

Test Prep Checklist

I wonder if I'd make this a priority, since I did not for the last test, but eh, why not actually list things out. The last time I kept it in my head and see how well that turned out (I didn't do any extra prep for the test...)

  1. [ ] Revise Basic Grammar
    • [ ] Chapter 6
    • [ ] Chapter 7
    • [ ] Chapter 8
    • [ ] Chapter 9
  2. [ ] Revise Basic Vocab (Quizlet)
    • [ ] Chapter 6
    • [ ] Chapter 7
    • [ ] Chapter 8
    • [ ] Chapter 9
  3. Conjugation for the following
    • [ ] Formal
    • [ ] Formal past tense
    • [ ] Honorific speech (casual)
    • [ ] Honorific speech (casual) past tense
  4. Be able to write about (both casual/formal, and use honorific speech as appropriate)
    • [ ] Family members (using honorific speech) - ages, likes, and dislikes
    • [ ] What you/family members are good at
    • [ ] Weather
    • [ ] Making plans (ใ„น๊นŒ์š”?) - This is a possible oral topic
    • [ ] Weave in the surprise sentences (๋„ค์š”)
  5. Listening
    • [ ] Practise listening to the old dialogues
  6. Pronunciation
    • [ ] Go through the Speaking and Pronunciation dialogue audios (Speak and listen)
      • [ ] Chapter 6
      • [ ] Chapter 7
      • [ ] Chapter 8
      • [ ] Chapter 9
  7. Oral
    • [ ] Buying something at a shop (one customer one shopkeeper)
    • [ ] Friends ordering something at a restaurant (include prices, counting units)
    • [ ] Making plans with a friend to go out
  8. Korea General Knowledge
    • [ ] Know about some famous places (3) and
    • [ ] What you can do there

Lesson 36 (Beginner 2B Lesson 4): Making Polite Sentences

We continued with the handout for the third grammar point. There were many speaking exercises done in pairs. Since we had 5 students (the person whom I said had the same Korean name as the previous teacher wasn't here today), for some of the activities, one lucky student had to do it with the teacher. (I did it only the first time, the rest I was paired with the youngest girl in class, also someone from my previous group.)

We finished the Chapter 9 handout and most of the things in the textbook. We have a writing assignment as part of the homework this week, which I've yet to do...


4. A/V-(์œผ)-์‹œ-

This is used to indicate respect when the subject of the sentences holds higher social status than the speaker.

The third grammar point for Chapter 9 (covered in Lesson 35) was for nouns: N(์ด)์„ธ์š”.

This one is for verbs and adjectives.

The teacher said that usually you will see it in these forms:

  • A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (present tense)
  • A/V-(์œผ)์…จ์–ด์š” (past tense)

(1) Present Tense: A/V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š”

The present tense form looks like this:

  1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์œผ์„ธ์š”
  2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์„ธ์š”


  1. ์ฝ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์ฝ์œผ์„ธ์š”
  2. ๊ฐ€๋‹ค + ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š”
  3. ์žˆ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”1

Why does ์‹œ become ์„ธ? I do not know. In the textbook, there is a yellow sticky note that says: -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์–ด์š” โ†’ -์œผ์„ธ์š”/์„ธ์š”.

์–ด์š” is just the present tense for the casual-polite2 form.

Why is it that it is ์„ธ and not ์…” as per the "add one stroke" thing which I thought I finally understood? I have no idea.

(The teacher didn't go through this, I only saw it when flipping through the textbook as I was doing the homework. However on Wiktionary, there are 2 forms listed under the Sentence-final forms with honorific table, for polite, indicative, non-past, for example with ๊ฐ€๋‹ค: ๊ฐ€์„ธ์š” and ๊ฐ€์…”์š”. So it seems that the expected ์…”์š” form actually exists, but might not be the one used most frequently for certain reasons.)

But notice these -(์œผ)์„ธ์š” verbs are the same conjugation as the "please..." sentences. We studied this back in Chapter 6, the first grammar point which was V-(์œผ)์„ธ์š” (see Lesson 23).

Naturally, I have questions:

  • How does that relate to this rule?
  • Is this a more general one?
  • But aren't they expressing different meanings, with one being a statement and the other being a suggestion?

I don't have a certain answer, but my understanding from what we've been taught so far is this: Just like how the regular casual/polite sentences can be a suggestion, so can this honorific form that indicates respect.

How did I come to this conclusion? I was reminded of the pronunciation topic for Chapter 8 (see Lesson 34) where I mentioned propositive sentences.

Basically, there is a different intonation (specifically, the length of the ์š”) to indicate whether it's a sentence or a suggestion (in addition to the contextual clues when the statement is uttered).

I think it is the same situation here. The initial rule we learnt back in Chapter 6 introduced the form of the verb, and we just learnt it in the context of using it to make polite requests.

Here it is more "general" in that sense, since we don't apply it just to verbs, but to adjectives. And we also look at the past tense form.

(2) Past Tense: A/V-(์œผ)์…จ์–ด์š”

The past tense form looks like this:

  1. ๋ฐ›์นจ O + ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”
  2. ๋ฐ›์นจ X + ์…จ์–ด์š”


  1. ์ฝ๋‹ค + ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ์ฝ์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”
  2. ๊ฐ€๋‹ค + ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ๊ฐ€์…จ์–ด์š”
  3. ๋จน๋‹ค + ์…จ์–ด์š” โ†’ ๋“œ์…จ์–ด์š”3

This time, the rule makes a bit more sense, sticking to the ใ…ฃ + ใ…“ โ†’ ใ…• and with ์—ˆ์–ด์š” as the past tense for the casual-polite form: -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์—ˆ์–ด์š” โ†’ -์œผ์…จ์–ด์š”/์…จ์–ด์š”.4

The Curious Case of ์žˆ๋‹ค

Above, I said that ์žˆ๋‹ค + ์œผ์„ธ์š” โ†’ ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”.

However, back in Lesson 34, we learnt that ์žˆ๋‹ค is special (along with ๋จน๋‹ค/๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค and ์ž๋‹ค), and the special form is ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”.

What gives?

์žˆ๋‹ค actually has 2 meanings:

  1. to be located (somewhere): ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๊ต์‹ค์— ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The teacher is in the classroom.)
  2. to have (something): ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ์šฐ์‚ฐ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์š”. (The teacher has an umbrella.)

When the subject is someone you respect and they are located at a particular place, that's when you use ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”: ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ๊ต์‹ค์— ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”.

In the case of the other meaning (to have), you would use ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”: ์„ ์ƒ๋‹˜์€ ์šฐ์‚ฐ์ด ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š”.

According to the teacher, to use ๊ณ„์„ธ์š” for this second sentence sounds like you are respecting the umbrella, which isn't correct.


For ์žˆ์–ด์š” (์žˆ๋‹ค), use:

  • ์žˆ์œผ์„ธ์š” when it means "to have"
  • ๊ณ„์„ธ์š” when it means "to be located"

Culture Note

This is an informal culture note, not in the textbook.

"์นœ๊ตฌ" refers to a friend of the same age.

This came up because the youngest student in our class said for one of our speaking exercises where we were saying what we are going to do tomorrow that she was going to a friend's wedding.

She used ์นœ๊ตฌ, and the teacher was a bit shocked since she was so young. The student clarified that her friend was 9 years older.

Then the teacher said that the word ์นœ๊ตฌ is actually used only for friends of the same age as you.

Otherwise, you would use the family terms... which explains why you hear all the uses of ์˜ค๋น  (oppa) and such in the K-dramas.

So usually you would prefix it with from where you know the person, so for example:

  • ํ•™๊ต์˜ค๋น  (older guy friend I know from school)
  • ๊ตํšŒ์˜ค๋น  (older guy friend I know from church)

Otherwise, if you don't know where you know the person from (or if it's perhaps too hard to say), then you can say ์•„๋Š”์˜ค๋น , which simply means "this older guy friend I know". (์•„๋Š” comes from ์•Œ๋‹ค, to know.)


Korean English Notes
ํˆฌํ‘œํ•˜๋‹ค to vote because the election was on 10 July
์€ํ‡ดํ•˜๋‹ค to retire ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€๋Š” ์€ํ‡ดํ•˜์…จ์–ด์š”.= My father is retired.
๊ตํšŒ church (Protestant) We learnt this before with the previous teacher back in Chapter 5, but somehow I'd never actually included it in my Anki deck... So it turns out there are 3 of us in the class who are Christians (Protestant) and our answers to what are you doing on Sunday will be going to church. Sino-Korean word from ๆ•Žๆœƒ (ๆ•™ไผš)
์„ฑ๋‹น church (Catholic) One of the students is Catholic. Sino-Korean word from ่–ๅ ‚ (ๅœฃๅ ‚).

Fragment URLs

Starting from this post, I'm adding fragment URLs for links to sections within posts since it seems like it's possible to type HTML into this Markdown file.

I'm adding these anchors to old posts as needed, basically when I have a need to link to that section within an old post. What this means is that the any new links from this post on will point to the correct section that it refers to.

I'm not going back to old posts to update the links in them right now, but maybe in future if I think it's worth the effort... but it's quite low on my priority list right now.

  1. We will take another look at ์žˆ๋‹ค after looking at the past tense. It can also be the irregular ๊ณ„์„ธ์š”. โ†ฉ

  2. This led me to realise I'd called it "informal-polite" in my Anki cards, and I changed all of them today to "casual-polite". I mused about the differences between "informal" and "casual" ~~and since I've not been disproven, currently believe that the terms are not interchangeable in this context (when talking about Korean).~~ I'm pretty sure now that there isn't a difference; the textbook actually calls it "informal", though the Quizlet cards and the way it's referred to in class is "casual". โ†ฉ

  3. Recall this is an exception, see Lesson 34 โ†ฉ

  4. When this post was first published, I had not seen the yellow sticky note in the textbook that shows the combination of -์œผ์‹œ/์‹œ- + -์—ˆ์–ด์š”. I saw it later that same night, while doing the homework. So this was what I said originally based on what was in the handout (I had correctly guessed it was a combination with ์–ด, though more precisely it was ์—ˆ): Again, how does ์‹œ become ์…”? I am inclined to say it's through the addition of ์–ด, because of how ๋งˆ์‹œ๋‹ค becomes ๋งˆ์…”์š” and all that, but I don't really know if that's the case (where does the ์–ด come from though?). It's presented this way, so I'm taking this as-is for now, with no idea how it's actually constructed. Maybe in future we will learn a more general rule, maybe not. โ†ฉ